Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.

Transforming protein RhoA



Mus musculus (Mouse)
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli


Regulates a signal transduction pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. Involved in a microtubule-dependent signal that is required for the myosin contractile ring formation during cell cycle cytokinesis. Plays an essential role in cleavage furrow formation. May be an activator of PLCE1. Activated by ARHGEF2, which promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. The MEMO1-RHOA-DIAPH1 signaling pathway plays an important role in ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex. It controls the localization of APC and CLASP2 to the cell membrane, via the regulation of GSK3B activity. In turn, membrane-bound APC allows the localization of the MACF1 to the cell membrane, which is required for microtubule capture and stabilization (By similarity). Required for the apical junction formation of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion. Regulates KCNA2 potassium channel activity by reducing its location at the cell surface in response to CHRM1 activation; promotes KCNA2 endocytosis (PubMed:9635436).By similarity3 Publications

Enzyme regulationi

GTP hydrolysis is stimulated by ARHGAP30.By similarity


Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Nucleotide bindingi12 – 19GTPBy similarity8
Nucleotide bindingi59 – 63GTPBy similarity5
Nucleotide bindingi117 – 120GTPBy similarity4

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • actin cytoskeleton organization Source: MGI
  • actin cytoskeleton reorganization Source: UniProtKB
  • alpha-beta T cell lineage commitment Source: CACAO
  • androgen receptor signaling pathway Source: MGI
  • angiotensin-mediated vasoconstriction involved in regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure Source: MGI
  • apical junction assembly Source: UniProtKB
  • apolipoprotein A-I-mediated signaling pathway Source: MGI
  • beta selection Source: CACAO
  • cell adhesion Source: MGI
  • cell differentiation Source: MGI
  • cell junction assembly Source: MGI
  • cell-matrix adhesion Source: MGI
  • cell migration Source: UniProtKB
  • cell morphogenesis Source: MGI
  • cellular response to chemokine Source: UniProtKB
  • cellular response to lipopolysaccharide Source: MGI
  • cerebral cortex cell migration Source: MGI
  • cleavage furrow formation Source: UniProtKB
  • cytoskeleton organization Source: MGI
  • endothelial cell migration Source: MGI
  • endothelial tube lumen extension Source: MGI
  • establishment of epithelial cell apical/basal polarity Source: UniProtKB
  • forebrain radial glial cell differentiation Source: MGI
  • GTP metabolic process Source: Ensembl
  • integrin-mediated signaling pathway Source: MGI
  • mitotic cleavage furrow formation Source: UniProtKB
  • mitotic spindle assembly Source: MGI
  • negative chemotaxis Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of cell size Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of cell-substrate adhesion Source: ARUK-UCL
  • negative regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling Source: Ensembl
  • negative regulation of intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of neuron projection development Source: Ensembl
  • negative regulation of oxidative phosphorylation Source: CACAO
  • negative regulation of reactive oxygen species biosynthetic process Source: CACAO
  • neuron projection morphogenesis Source: Ensembl
  • odontogenesis Source: UniProtKB
  • ossification involved in bone maturation Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of actin filament polymerization Source: Ensembl
  • positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell differentiation Source: CACAO
  • positive regulation of cell growth Source: Ensembl
  • positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process Source: Ensembl
  • positive regulation of cytokinesis Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of lipase activity Source: MGI
  • positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process Source: Ensembl
  • positive regulation of neuron differentiation Source: MGI
  • positive regulation of podosome assembly Source: MGI
  • positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of stress fiber assembly Source: MGI
  • positive regulation of T cell migration Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of translation Source: Ensembl
  • positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction Source: MGI
  • regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization Source: CACAO
  • regulation of calcium ion transport Source: Ensembl
  • regulation of cell migration Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of dendrite development Source: Ensembl
  • regulation of microtubule cytoskeleton organization Source: CACAO
  • regulation of modification of synaptic structure Source: Ensembl
  • regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation Source: MGI
  • regulation of neuron projection development Source: MGI
  • regulation of osteoblast proliferation Source: BHF-UCL
  • regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by endothelin Source: MGI
  • regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II Source: MGI
  • response to amino acid Source: Ensembl
  • response to ethanol Source: Ensembl
  • response to glucocorticoid Source: Ensembl
  • response to glucose Source: Ensembl
  • response to hypoxia Source: Ensembl
  • response to mechanical stimulus Source: Ensembl
  • Rho protein signal transduction Source: UniProtKB
  • Roundabout signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB
  • skeletal muscle satellite cell migration Source: AgBase
  • skeletal muscle tissue development Source: MGI
  • stress-activated protein kinase signaling cascade Source: Ensembl
  • stress fiber assembly Source: MGI
  • trabecula morphogenesis Source: BHF-UCL
  • wound healing, spreading of cells Source: AgBase


Biological processCell cycle, Cell division
LigandGTP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-MMU-114604. GPVI-mediated activation cascade.
R-MMU-193634. Axonal growth inhibition (RHOA activation).
R-MMU-194840. Rho GTPase cycle.
R-MMU-198203. PI3K/AKT activation.
R-MMU-209563. Axonal growth stimulation.
R-MMU-2173791. TGF-beta receptor signaling in EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition).
R-MMU-392451. G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma.
R-MMU-3928662. EPHB-mediated forward signaling.
R-MMU-3928663. EPHA-mediated growth cone collapse.
R-MMU-4086400. PCP/CE pathway.
R-MMU-416482. G alpha (12/13) signalling events.
R-MMU-416550. Sema4D mediated inhibition of cell attachment and migration.
R-MMU-416572. Sema4D induced cell migration and growth-cone collapse.
R-MMU-4420097. VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway.
R-MMU-5625740. RHO GTPases activate PKNs.
R-MMU-5625900. RHO GTPases activate CIT.
R-MMU-5625970. RHO GTPases activate KTN1.
R-MMU-5627117. RHO GTPases Activate ROCKs.
R-MMU-5663220. RHO GTPases Activate Formins.
R-MMU-5666185. RHO GTPases Activate Rhotekin and Rhophilins.
R-MMU-5689896. Ovarian tumor domain proteases.
R-MMU-6785631. ERBB2 Regulates Cell Motility.
R-MMU-6798695. Neutrophil degranulation.
R-MMU-8849471. PTK6 Regulates RHO GTPases, RAS GTPase and MAP kinases.
R-MMU-8985586. SLIT2:ROBO1 increases RHOA activity.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Transforming protein RhoA
Gene namesi
Synonyms:Arha, Arha2
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
  • UP000000589 Componenti: Chromosome 9

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:1096342. Rhoa.

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Cell projection, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Keywords - Diseasei


PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000304131 – 190Transforming protein RhoAAdd BLAST190
PropeptideiPRO_0000030414191 – 193Removed in mature formBy similarity3

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei188Phosphoserine; by PKG/PRKG1By similarity1
Modified residuei190Cysteine methyl esterBy similarity1
Lipidationi190S-geranylgeranyl cysteineBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Ubiquitinated by the BCR(KCTD13) and BCR(TNFAIP1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes, leading to its degradation by the proteasome, thereby regulating the actin cytoskeleton and synaptic transmission in neurons.1 Publication
Phosphorylation by PRKG1 at Ser-188 inactivates RHOA signaling (By similarity). Phosphorylation by SLK at Ser-188 in response to AGTR2 activation (By similarity).By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Lipoprotein, Methylation, Phosphoprotein, Prenylation, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases


PTM databases




Up-regulated during keratinocyte differentiation.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ9QUI0. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ9QUI0. MM.


Subunit structurei

Binds PRKCL1, ROCK1 and ROCK2. Interacts with ARHGEF2 and ARHGEF3. Interacts with PLCE1 and AKAP13. Interacts with DIAPH1. Interacts (in the constitutively activated, GTP-bound form) with DGKQ. Interacts with RACK1; enhances RHOA activation. Interacts with PKP4; the interaction is detected at the midbody. Interacts (GTP-bound form preferentially) with PKN2; the interaction stimulates autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of PKN2 (By similarity). Interacts with NET1, ARHGEF28 and RTKN. Interacts with ARHGDIA; this interaction inactivates and stabilizes RHOA. Interacts with ARHGDIB (By similarity). Interacts (GTP-bound form) with KCNA2 (via cytoplasmic N-terminal domain) (PubMed:9635436). Interacts (via GTP-bound form) with RIPOR1 (via N-terminus); this interaction links RHOA to STK24 and STK26 kinases (By similarity). Interacts with RIPOR2 (via active GTP- or inactive GDP-bound forms); this interaction is direct, blocks the loading of GTP to RHOA and decreases upon chemokine CCL19 stimulation in primary T lymphocytes (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication

Binary interactionsi

Show more details

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi198192. 38 interactors.
IntActiQ9QUI0. 35 interactors.


Secondary structure

Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Beta strandi4 – 11Combined sources8
Helixi18 – 26Combined sources9
Beta strandi42 – 47Combined sources6
Beta strandi52 – 58Combined sources7
Helixi64 – 66Combined sources3
Turni67 – 69Combined sources3
Helixi70 – 73Combined sources4
Beta strandi78 – 85Combined sources8
Helixi89 – 93Combined sources5
Turni94 – 98Combined sources5
Helixi99 – 106Combined sources8
Beta strandi112 – 117Combined sources6
Helixi119 – 121Combined sources3
Helixi125 – 133Combined sources9
Helixi141 – 150Combined sources10
Beta strandi154 – 158Combined sources5
Turni161 – 163Combined sources3
Helixi167 – 178Combined sources12

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum

Family & Domainsi


Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Motifi34 – 42Effector regionSequence analysis9

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi182 – 187Arg/Lys-rich (basic)6

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0393. Eukaryota.
COG1100. LUCA.

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR027417. P-loop_NTPase.
IPR005225. Small_GTP-bd_dom.
IPR001806. Small_GTPase.
IPR003578. Small_GTPase_Rho.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00071. Ras. 1 hit.
SUPFAMiSSF52540. SSF52540. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR00231. small_GTP. 1 hit.
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51420. RHO. 1 hit.


Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9QUI0-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
60 70 80 90 100
110 120 130 140 150
160 170 180 190
Mass (Da):21,782
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti68R → C in AAC23710 (PubMed:9598304).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
Links Updated
AF014371 mRNA. Translation: AAC23710.1.
AF178958 mRNA. Translation: AAD52675.1.
AF178959 mRNA. Translation: AAD52676.1.
AF178960 mRNA. Translation: AAD52677.1.
AF178961 mRNA. Translation: AAD52678.1.
AK077606 mRNA. Translation: BAC36896.1.
AK083624 mRNA. Translation: BAC38971.1.
BC068115 mRNA. Translation: AAH68115.1.
RefSeqiNP_001300890.1. NM_001313961.1.
NP_001300891.1. NM_001313962.1.
NP_058082.2. NM_016802.5.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000007959; ENSMUSP00000007959; ENSMUSG00000007815.
UCSCiuc009rpe.2. mouse.

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiRHOA_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9QUI0
Secondary accession number(s): O88336
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 27, 2001
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: March 28, 2018
This is version 180 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program


Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome