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Q9NYV7 (T2R16_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified April 16, 2014. Version 104. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (6) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Taste receptor type 2 member 16

Short name=T2R16
Gene names
Name:TAS2R16
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length291 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Gustducin-coupled receptor implicated in the perception of bitter compounds in the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal tract. Signals through PLCB2 and the calcium-regulated cation channel TRPM5. Ref.7 Ref.8

Subcellular location

Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Tissue specificity

Expressed in a subset of gustducin-positive taste receptor cells of the tongue.

Polymorphism

The Lys-172 polymorphism in TAS2R16 is associated with genetic susceptibility to alcoholism [MIM:103780].

Miscellaneous

Several bitter taste receptors are expressed in a single taste receptor cell.

Confers bitter perception of salicin to non-taster mice.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 291291Taste receptor type 2 member 16
PRO_0000082262

Regions

Topological domain11Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane2 – 2221Helical; Name=1; Potential
Topological domain23 – 4119Cytoplasmic Potential
Transmembrane42 – 6221Helical; Name=2; Potential
Topological domain63 – 8422Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane85 – 10521Helical; Name=3; Potential
Topological domain106 – 12520Cytoplasmic Potential
Transmembrane126 – 14621Helical; Name=4; Potential
Topological domain147 – 18236Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane183 – 20321Helical; Name=5; Potential
Topological domain204 – 22825Cytoplasmic Potential
Transmembrane229 – 24921Helical; Name=6; Potential
Topological domain250 – 2578Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane258 – 27821Helical; Name=7; Potential
Topological domain279 – 29113Cytoplasmic Potential

Amino acid modifications

Glycosylation801N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential
Glycosylation1631N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential

Natural variations

Natural variant1721N → K Associated with susceptibility to alcoholism. Ref.12
Corresponds to variant rs846664 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_034539
Natural variant2221R → H. Ref.2 Ref.4 Ref.5
Corresponds to variant rs860170 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_020205

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Q9NYV7 [UniParc].

Last modified October 1, 2000. Version 1.
Checksum: 0693085F23D57D73

FASTA29133,986
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MIPIQLTVFF MIIYVLESLT IIVQSSLIVA VLGREWLQVR RLMPVDMILI SLGISRFCLQ 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
WASMLNNFCS YFNLNYVLCN LTITWEFFNI LTFWLNSLLT VFYCIKVSSF THHIFLWLRW 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
RILRLFPWIL LGSLMITCVT IIPSAIGNYI QIQLLTMEHL PRNSTVTDKL ENFHQYQFQA 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
HTVALVIPFI LFLASTIFLM ASLTKQIQHH STGHCNPSMK ARFTALRSLA VLFIVFTSYF 

       250        260        270        280        290 
LTILITIIGT LFDKRCWLWV WEAFVYAFIL MHSTSLMLSS PTLKRILKGK C 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"A novel family of mammalian taste receptors."
Adler E., Hoon M.A., Mueller K.L., Chandrashekar J., Ryba N.J.P., Zuker C.S.
Cell 100:693-702(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], TOPOLOGY.
[2]"Evolution of bitter taste receptors in humans and apes."
Fischer A., Gilad Y., Man O., Paeaebo S.
Mol. Biol. Evol. 22:432-436(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT HIS-222.
[3]"The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7."
Hillier L.W., Fulton R.S., Fulton L.A., Graves T.A., Pepin K.H., Wagner-McPherson C., Layman D., Maas J., Jaeger S., Walker R., Wylie K., Sekhon M., Becker M.C., O'Laughlin M.D., Schaller M.E., Fewell G.A., Delehaunty K.D., Miner T.L. expand/collapse author list , Nash W.E., Cordes M., Du H., Sun H., Edwards J., Bradshaw-Cordum H., Ali J., Andrews S., Isak A., Vanbrunt A., Nguyen C., Du F., Lamar B., Courtney L., Kalicki J., Ozersky P., Bielicki L., Scott K., Holmes A., Harkins R., Harris A., Strong C.M., Hou S., Tomlinson C., Dauphin-Kohlberg S., Kozlowicz-Reilly A., Leonard S., Rohlfing T., Rock S.M., Tin-Wollam A.-M., Abbott A., Minx P., Maupin R., Strowmatt C., Latreille P., Miller N., Johnson D., Murray J., Woessner J.P., Wendl M.C., Yang S.-P., Schultz B.R., Wallis J.W., Spieth J., Bieri T.A., Nelson J.O., Berkowicz N., Wohldmann P.E., Cook L.L., Hickenbotham M.T., Eldred J., Williams D., Bedell J.A., Mardis E.R., Clifton S.W., Chissoe S.L., Marra M.A., Raymond C., Haugen E., Gillett W., Zhou Y., James R., Phelps K., Iadanoto S., Bubb K., Simms E., Levy R., Clendenning J., Kaul R., Kent W.J., Furey T.S., Baertsch R.A., Brent M.R., Keibler E., Flicek P., Bork P., Suyama M., Bailey J.A., Portnoy M.E., Torrents D., Chinwalla A.T., Gish W.R., Eddy S.R., McPherson J.D., Olson M.V., Eichler E.E., Green E.D., Waterston R.H., Wilson R.K.
Nature 424:157-164(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[4]"Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology."
Scherer S.W., Cheung J., MacDonald J.R., Osborne L.R., Nakabayashi K., Herbrick J.-A., Carson A.R., Parker-Katiraee L., Skaug J., Khaja R., Zhang J., Hudek A.K., Li M., Haddad M., Duggan G.E., Fernandez B.A., Kanematsu E., Gentles S. expand/collapse author list , Christopoulos C.C., Choufani S., Kwasnicka D., Zheng X.H., Lai Z., Nusskern D.R., Zhang Q., Gu Z., Lu F., Zeesman S., Nowaczyk M.J., Teshima I., Chitayat D., Shuman C., Weksberg R., Zackai E.H., Grebe T.A., Cox S.R., Kirkpatrick S.J., Rahman N., Friedman J.M., Heng H.H.Q., Pelicci P.G., Lo-Coco F., Belloni E., Shaffer L.G., Pober B., Morton C.C., Gusella J.F., Bruns G.A.P., Korf B.R., Quade B.J., Ligon A.H., Ferguson H., Higgins A.W., Leach N.T., Herrick S.R., Lemyre E., Farra C.G., Kim H.-G., Summers A.M., Gripp K.W., Roberts W., Szatmari P., Winsor E.J.T., Grzeschik K.-H., Teebi A., Minassian B.A., Kere J., Armengol L., Pujana M.A., Estivill X., Wilson M.D., Koop B.F., Tosi S., Moore G.E., Boright A.P., Zlotorynski E., Kerem B., Kroisel P.M., Petek E., Oscier D.G., Mould S.J., Doehner H., Doehner K., Rommens J.M., Vincent J.B., Venter J.C., Li P.W., Mural R.J., Adams M.D., Tsui L.-C.
Science 300:767-772(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT HIS-222.
[5]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA], VARIANT HIS-222.
[6]"T2Rs function as bitter taste receptors."
Chandrashekar J., Mueller K.L., Hoon M.A., Adler E., Feng L., Guo W., Zuker C.S., Ryba N.J.P.
Cell 100:703-711(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: CHARACTERIZATION.
[7]"The human TAS2R16 receptor mediates bitter taste in response to beta-glucopyranosides."
Bufe B., Hofmann T., Krautwurst D., Raguse J.-D., Meyerhof W.
Nat. Genet. 32:397-401(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[8]"The receptors and coding logic for bitter taste."
Mueller K.L., Hoon M.A., Erlenbach I., Chandrashekar J., Zuker C.S., Ryba N.J.
Nature 434:225-229(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[9]"Receptors for bitter and sweet taste."
Montmayeur J.-P., Matsunami H.
Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 12:366-371(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
[10]"Molecular mechanisms of bitter and sweet taste transduction."
Margolskee R.F.
J. Biol. Chem. 277:1-4(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
[11]"Coding of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes: different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways."
Zhang Y., Hoon M.A., Chandrashekar J., Mueller K.L., Cook B., Wu D., Zuker C.S., Ryba N.J.
Cell 112:293-301(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
[12]"Functional variant in a bitter-taste receptor (hTAS2R16) influences risk of alcohol dependence."
Hinrichs A.L., Wang J.C., Bufe B., Kwon J.M., Budde J., Allen R., Bertelsen S., Evans W., Dick D., Rice J., Foroud T., Nurnberger J., Tischfield J.A., Kuperman S., Crowe R., Hesselbrock V., Schuckit M., Almasy L. expand/collapse author list , Porjesz B., Edenberg H.J., Begleiter H., Meyerhof W., Bierut L.J., Goate A.M.
Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78:103-111(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: VARIANT LYS-172, ASSOCIATION WITH SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ALCOHOLISM.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
AF227139 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF43912.1.
AY724962 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAU21158.1.
AC004838 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAP21892.1.
CH236947 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL24338.1.
BC095524 mRNA. Translation: AAH95524.1.
RefSeqNP_058641.1. NM_016945.2.
UniGeneHs.272395.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalQ9NYV7.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING9606.ENSP00000249284.

Protein family/group databases

GPCRDBSearch...

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteQ9NYV7.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM29839657.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEQ9NYV7.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000249284; ENSP00000249284; ENSG00000128519.
GeneID50833.
KEGGhsa:50833.
UCSCuc003vkl.1. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTD50833.
GeneCardsGC07M122634.
HGNCHGNC:14921. TAS2R16.
MIM103780. phenotype.
604867. gene.
neXtProtNX_Q9NYV7.
PharmGKBPA37931.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG39234.
HOGENOMHOG000234595.
HOVERGENHBG098568.
InParanoidQ9NYV7.
KOK08474.
OMAMITCVTI.
OrthoDBEOG7JDQZC.
PhylomeDBQ9NYV7.
TreeFamTF335891.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeREACT_111102. Signal Transduction.

Gene expression databases

ArrayExpressQ9NYV7.
BgeeQ9NYV7.
CleanExHS_TAS2R16.
GenevestigatorQ9NYV7.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR007960. TAS2_rcpt.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF05296. TAS2R. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

GeneWikiTAS2R16.
GenomeRNAi50833.
NextBio53281.
PROQ9NYV7.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameT2R16_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9NYV7
Secondary accession number(s): A4D0X2 expand/collapse secondary AC list , Q502V3, Q549U8, Q645W1
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 11, 2003
Last sequence update: October 1, 2000
Last modified: April 16, 2014
This is version 104 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

Human chromosome 7

Human chromosome 7: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM

7-transmembrane G-linked receptors

List of 7-transmembrane G-linked receptor entries