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Q9NRW3 (ABC3C_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified April 16, 2014. Version 108. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (4) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3C

Short name=A3C
EC=3.5.4.-
Alternative name(s):
APOBEC1-like
Phorbolin I
Gene names
Name:APOBEC3C
Synonyms:APOBEC1L, PBI
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length190 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

DNA deaminase (cytidine deaminase) which acts as an inhibitor of retrovirus replication and retrotransposon mobility via deaminase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. After the penetration of retroviral nucleocapsids into target cells of infection and the initiation of reverse transcription, it can induce the conversion of cytosine to uracil in the minus-sense single-strand viral DNA, leading to G-to-A hypermutations in the subsequent plus-strand viral DNA. The resultant detrimental levels of mutations in the proviral genome, along with a deamination-independent mechanism that works prior to the proviral integration, together exert efficient antiretroviral effects in infected target cells. Selectively targets single-stranded DNA and does not deaminate double-stranded DNA or single-or double-stranded RNA. Exhibits antiviral activity against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HHV-1) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and may inhibit the mobility of LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons. May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression through the process of active DNA demethylation. Ref.8 Ref.9 Ref.10 Ref.14 Ref.16 Ref.17

Catalytic activity

Cytidine + H2O = uridine + NH3.

Cofactor

Zinc By similarity.

Subunit structure

Homodimer. Interacts with human foamy virus protein Bet; this interaction does not induce APOBEC3C degradation, but prevents dimerization and incorporation into virion of the latter. Interacts with TRIB3 and AGO2. Ref.13 Ref.21 Ref.22

Subcellular location

Nucleus. Cytoplasm Ref.18 Ref.21.

Tissue specificity

Expressed in spleen, testes, peripherical blood lymphocytes, heart, thymus, prostate and ovary. Ref.7 Ref.15

Induction

Up-regulated by IFN-alpha.

Miscellaneous

It is one of seven related genes or pseudogenes found in a cluster, thought to result from gene duplication, on chromosome 22.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the cytidine and deoxycytidylate deaminase family.

Contains 1 CMP/dCMP deaminase zinc-binding domain.

Sequence caution

The sequence AAF86650.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Frameshift at position 172.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 190190DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3C
PRO_0000171755

Regions

Domain66 – 10035CMP/dCMP deaminase zinc-binding

Sites

Active site681Proton donor By similarity
Metal binding661Zinc; catalytic By similarity
Metal binding971Zinc; catalytic By similarity
Metal binding1001Zinc; catalytic By similarity

Experimental info

Sequence conflict311N → D in AAH11739. Ref.6

Secondary structure

............................. 190
Helix Strand Turn

Details...

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Q9NRW3 [UniParc].

Last modified March 29, 2004. Version 2.
Checksum: BE49E80F95C71214

FASTA19022,826
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MNPQIRNPMK AMYPGTFYFQ FKNLWEANDR NETWLCFTVE GIKRRSVVSW KTGVFRNQVD 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
SETHCHAERC FLSWFCDDIL SPNTKYQVTW YTSWSPCPDC AGEVAEFLAR HSNVNLTIFT 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
ARLYYFQYPC YQEGLRSLSQ EGVAVEIMDY EDFKYCWENF VYNDNEPFKP WKGLKTNFRL 

       190 
LKRRLRESLQ 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Novel genes expressed in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from myelodysplastic syndrome patients."
Gu J., Huang Q., Yu Y., Xu S., Wang Y., Han Z., Chen Z., Zhou J., Tu Y., Gu W., Fu G., Huang C.
Submitted (JUL-1999) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Hematopoietic stem cell.
[2]"A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome."
Collins J.E., Wright C.L., Edwards C.A., Davis M.P., Grinham J.A., Cole C.G., Goward M.E., Aguado B., Mallya M., Mokrab Y., Huckle E.J., Beare D.M., Dunham I.
Genome Biol. 5:R84.1-R84.11(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
[3]"Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S. expand/collapse author list , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
[4]"The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22."
Dunham I., Hunt A.R., Collins J.E., Bruskiewich R., Beare D.M., Clamp M., Smink L.J., Ainscough R., Almeida J.P., Babbage A.K., Bagguley C., Bailey J., Barlow K.F., Bates K.N., Beasley O.P., Bird C.P., Blakey S.E., Bridgeman A.M. expand/collapse author list , Buck D., Burgess J., Burrill W.D., Burton J., Carder C., Carter N.P., Chen Y., Clark G., Clegg S.M., Cobley V.E., Cole C.G., Collier R.E., Connor R., Conroy D., Corby N.R., Coville G.J., Cox A.V., Davis J., Dawson E., Dhami P.D., Dockree C., Dodsworth S.J., Durbin R.M., Ellington A.G., Evans K.L., Fey J.M., Fleming K., French L., Garner A.A., Gilbert J.G.R., Goward M.E., Grafham D.V., Griffiths M.N.D., Hall C., Hall R.E., Hall-Tamlyn G., Heathcott R.W., Ho S., Holmes S., Hunt S.E., Jones M.C., Kershaw J., Kimberley A.M., King A., Laird G.K., Langford C.F., Leversha M.A., Lloyd C., Lloyd D.M., Martyn I.D., Mashreghi-Mohammadi M., Matthews L.H., Mccann O.T., Mcclay J., Mclaren S., McMurray A.A., Milne S.A., Mortimore B.J., Odell C.N., Pavitt R., Pearce A.V., Pearson D., Phillimore B.J.C.T., Phillips S.H., Plumb R.W., Ramsay H., Ramsey Y., Rogers L., Ross M.T., Scott C.E., Sehra H.K., Skuce C.D., Smalley S., Smith M.L., Soderlund C., Spragon L., Steward C.A., Sulston J.E., Swann R.M., Vaudin M., Wall M., Wallis J.M., Whiteley M.N., Willey D.L., Williams L., Williams S.A., Williamson H., Wilmer T.E., Wilming L., Wright C.L., Hubbard T., Bentley D.R., Beck S., Rogers J., Shimizu N., Minoshima S., Kawasaki K., Sasaki T., Asakawa S., Kudoh J., Shintani A., Shibuya K., Yoshizaki Y., Aoki N., Mitsuyama S., Roe B.A., Chen F., Chu L., Crabtree J., Deschamps S., Do A., Do T., Dorman A., Fang F., Fu Y., Hu P., Hua A., Kenton S., Lai H., Lao H.I., Lewis J., Lewis S., Lin S.-P., Loh P., Malaj E., Nguyen T., Pan H., Phan S., Qi S., Qian Y., Ray L., Ren Q., Shaull S., Sloan D., Song L., Wang Q., Wang Y., Wang Z., White J., Willingham D., Wu H., Yao Z., Zhan M., Zhang G., Chissoe S., Murray J., Miller N., Minx P., Fulton R., Johnson D., Bemis G., Bentley D., Bradshaw H., Bourne S., Cordes M., Du Z., Fulton L., Goela D., Graves T., Hawkins J., Hinds K., Kemp K., Latreille P., Layman D., Ozersky P., Rohlfing T., Scheet P., Walker C., Wamsley A., Wohldmann P., Pepin K., Nelson J., Korf I., Bedell J.A., Hillier L.W., Mardis E., Waterston R., Wilson R., Emanuel B.S., Shaikh T., Kurahashi H., Saitta S., Budarf M.L., McDermid H.E., Johnson A., Wong A.C.C., Morrow B.E., Edelmann L., Kim U.J., Shizuya H., Simon M.I., Dumanski J.P., Peyrard M., Kedra D., Seroussi E., Fransson I., Tapia I., Bruder C.E., O'Brien K.P., Wilkinson P., Bodenteich A., Hartman K., Hu X., Khan A.S., Lane L., Tilahun Y., Wright H.
Nature 402:489-495(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[5]Mural R.J., Istrail S., Sutton G.G., Florea L., Halpern A.L., Mobarry C.M., Lippert R., Walenz B., Shatkay H., Dew I., Miller J.R., Flanigan M.J., Edwards N.J., Bolanos R., Fasulo D., Halldorsson B.V., Hannenhalli S., Turner R. expand/collapse author list , Yooseph S., Lu F., Nusskern D.R., Shue B.C., Zheng X.H., Zhong F., Delcher A.L., Huson D.H., Kravitz S.A., Mouchard L., Reinert K., Remington K.A., Clark A.G., Waterman M.S., Eichler E.E., Adams M.D., Hunkapiller M.W., Myers E.W., Venter J.C.
Submitted (JUL-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[6]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
[7]"An anthropoid-specific locus of orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes on chromosome 22."
Jarmuz A., Chester A., Bayliss J., Gisbourne J., Dunham I., Scott J., Navaratnam N.
Genomics 79:285-296(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: GENE FAMILY ORGANIZATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[8]"Species-specific exclusion of APOBEC3G from HIV-1 virions by Vif."
Mariani R., Chen D., Schroefelbauer B., Navarro F., Koenig R., Bollman B., Muenk C., Nymark-McMahon H., Landau N.R.
Cell 114:21-31(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION IN HIV-1 INFECTIVITY.
[9]"APOBEC3B and APOBEC3C are potent inhibitors of simian immunodeficiency virus replication."
Yu Q., Chen D., Koenig R., Mariani R., Unutmaz D., Landau N.R.
J. Biol. Chem. 279:53379-53386(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION IN SIV RESTRICTION.
[10]"APOBEC3A is a potent inhibitor of adeno-associated virus and retrotransposons."
Chen H., Lilley C.E., Yu Q., Lee D.V., Chou J., Narvaiza I., Landau N.R., Weitzman M.D.
Curr. Biol. 16:480-485(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION IN RETROTRANSPOSITION.
[11]"The APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases: an innate defensive network opposing exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements."
Chiu Y.L., Greene W.C.
Annu. Rev. Immunol. 26:317-353(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
[12]"Hepatitis B: modern concepts in pathogenesis--APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases as effectors in innate immunity against the hepatitis B virus."
Bonvin M., Greeve J.
Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 21:298-303(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW ON FUNCTION IN HBV RESTRICTION.
[13]"Species-specific inhibition of APOBEC3C by the prototype foamy virus protein bet."
Perkovic M., Schmidt S., Marino D., Russell R.A., Stauch B., Hofmann H., Kopietz F., Kloke B.-P., Zielonka J., Stroever H., Hermle J., Lindemann D., Pathak V.K., Schneider G., Loechelt M., Cichutek K., Muenk C.
J. Biol. Chem. 284:5819-5826(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH HUMAN FOAMY VIRUS PROTEIN BET.
[14]"APOBEC3 proteins mediate the clearance of foreign DNA from human cells."
Stenglein M.D., Burns M.B., Li M., Lengyel J., Harris R.S.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 17:222-229(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION IN RETROTRANSPOSITION.
[15]"Quantitative profiling of the full APOBEC3 mRNA repertoire in lymphocytes and tissues: implications for HIV-1 restriction."
Refsland E.W., Stenglein M.D., Shindo K., Albin J.S., Brown W.L., Harris R.S.
Nucleic Acids Res. 38:4274-4284(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[16]"Hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine by TET1 promotes active DNA demethylation in the adult brain."
Guo J.U., Su Y., Zhong C., Ming G.L., Song H.
Cell 145:423-434(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION IN DNA DEMETHYLATION.
[17]"Genetic editing of herpes simplex virus 1 and Epstein-Barr herpesvirus genomes by human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in culture and in vivo."
Suspene R., Aynaud M.M., Koch S., Pasdeloup D., Labetoulle M., Gaertner B., Vartanian J.P., Meyerhans A., Wain-Hobson S.
J. Virol. 85:7594-7602(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION IN EBV AND HHV-1 INHIBITION.
[18]"Human and rhesus APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H demonstrate a conserved capacity to restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1."
Hultquist J.F., Lengyel J.A., Refsland E.W., LaRue R.S., Lackey L., Brown W.L., Harris R.S.
J. Virol. 85:11220-11234(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
[19]"Cytosine deaminases APOBEC3A, APOBEC3C, and APOBEC3H: Current understanding of their functional roles."
Love R.
Student Perspec. Contemp. Virol. 0:0-0(2011)
Cited for: REVIEW.
[20]"Retroelements versus APOBEC3 family members: No great escape from the magnificent seven."
Arias J.F., Koyama T., Kinomoto M., Tokunaga K.
Front. Microbiol. 3:275-275(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
[21]"Human Tribbles 3 protects nuclear DNA from cytidine deamination by APOBEC3A."
Aynaud M.M., Suspene R., Vidalain P.O., Mussil B., Guetard D., Tangy F., Wain-Hobson S., Vartanian J.P.
J. Biol. Chem. 287:39182-39192(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH TRIB3, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, SUBUNIT.
[22]"HIV-1 replication and APOBEC3 antiviral activity are not regulated by P bodies."
Phalora P.K., Sherer N.M., Wolinsky S.M., Swanson C.M., Malim M.H.
J. Virol. 86:11712-11724(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH AGO2.
[23]"Functions and regulation of the APOBEC family of proteins."
Smith H.C., Bennett R.P., Kizilyer A., McDougall W.M., Prohaska K.M.
Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 23:258-268(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
AF165520 mRNA. Translation: AAF86650.1. Frameshift.
CR456394 mRNA. Translation: CAG30280.1.
AK313272 mRNA. Translation: BAG36081.1.
AL022318 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAI17898.1.
CH471095 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW60284.1.
BC011739 mRNA. Translation: AAH11739.1.
BC021080 mRNA. No translation available.
RefSeqNP_055323.2. NM_014508.2.
UniGeneHs.441124.

3D structure databases

PDBe
RCSB PDB
PDBj
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
3VM8X-ray3.00A/B1-190[»]
3VOWX-ray2.15A/B1-190[»]
ProteinModelPortalQ9NRW3.
SMRQ9NRW3. Positions 5-190.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid118162. 9 interactions.
DIPDIP-48919N.
IntActQ9NRW3. 4 interactions.
MINTMINT-6631470.
STRING9606.ENSP00000355340.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteQ9NRW3.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM48474983.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbQ9NRW3.
PRIDEQ9NRW3.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASU27350.
StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000361441; ENSP00000355340; ENSG00000244509.
GeneID27350.
KEGGhsa:27350.
UCSCuc003awr.3. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTD27350.
GeneCardsGC22P039410.
HGNCHGNC:17353. APOBEC3C.
HPACAB033048.
MIM607750. gene.
neXtProtNX_Q9NRW3.
PharmGKBPA24893.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG289247.
HOGENOMHOG000033754.
HOVERGENHBG050434.
InParanoidQ9NRW3.
KOK01500.
OMASETHCHA.
PhylomeDBQ9NRW3.
TreeFamTF331356.

Gene expression databases

ArrayExpressQ9NRW3.
BgeeQ9NRW3.
CleanExHS_APOBEC3C.
GenevestigatorQ9NRW3.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR016192. APOBEC/CMP_deaminase_Zn-bd.
IPR007904. APOBEC_C.
IPR016193. Cytidine_deaminase-like.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF05240. APOBEC_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMSSF53927. SSF53927. 1 hit.
PROSITEPS00903. CYT_DCMP_DEAMINASES. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

ChiTaRSAPOBEC3C. human.
GeneWikiAPOBEC3C.
GenomeRNAi27350.
NextBio50452.
PROQ9NRW3.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameABC3C_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9NRW3
Secondary accession number(s): B2R884 expand/collapse secondary AC list , Q5JZ92, Q7Z2N7, Q96F12
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 29, 2004
Last sequence update: March 29, 2004
Last modified: April 16, 2014
This is version 108 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

PDB cross-references

Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human chromosome 22

Human chromosome 22: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM