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Protein

Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 3, chloroplastic

Gene

BCAT3

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Converts 2-oxo acids to branched-chain amino acids. Acts on leucine, isoleucine and valine. Also involved in methionine chain elongation cycle of aliphatic glucosinolate formation. Catalyzes the conversion of 5-methylthiopentyl-2-oxo and 6-methylthiohexyl-2-oxo acids to their respective Met derivatives, homomethionine and dihomo-methionine, respectively.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.1 Publication
L-isoleucine + 2-oxoglutarate = (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.1 Publication
L-valine + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + L-glutamate.1 Publication
L-methionine + a 2-oxo acid = 2-oxo-4-methylthiobutanoate + an L-amino acid.1 Publication

Cofactori

Enzyme regulationi

Inhibited by Ser- or Thr-derived imine.1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=0.14 mM for 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate (4MOP)1 Publication
  2. KM=0.14 mM for (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate (3MOP)1 Publication
  3. KM=1.38 mM for 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate (3MOB)1 Publication
  4. KM=1.92 mM for 2-oxo-4-methylthiobutanoate (MTOB)1 Publication
  1. Vmax=27.42 µmol/min/mg enzyme with 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate as substrate1 Publication
  2. Vmax=13.33 µmol/min/mg enzyme with (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate as substrate1 Publication
  3. Vmax=14.79 µmol/min/mg enzyme with 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate as substrate1 Publication
  4. Vmax=21.01 µmol/min/mg enzyme with 2-oxo-4-methylthiobutanoate as substrate1 Publication

Pathwayi: L-isoleucine biosynthesis

This protein is involved in step 4 of the subpathway that synthesizes L-isoleucine from 2-oxobutanoate.
Proteins known to be involved in the 4 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Acetolactate synthase small subunit 1, chloroplastic (VAT1), Acetolactate synthase, chloroplastic (ALS), Acetolactate synthase small subunit 2, chloroplastic (At2g31810), Acetolactate synthase (AXX17_At3g42690)
  2. Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (AXX17_At3g53150), Ketol-acid reductoisomerase, chloroplastic (At3g58610), Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (At3g58610)
  3. Dihydroxy-acid dehydratase, chloroplastic (DHAD)
  4. Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 2, chloroplastic (BCAT2), Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 5, chloroplastic (BCAT5), Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 6 (BCAT6), Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 3, chloroplastic (BCAT3)
This subpathway is part of the pathway L-isoleucine biosynthesis, which is itself part of Amino-acid biosynthesis.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes L-isoleucine from 2-oxobutanoate, the pathway L-isoleucine biosynthesis and in Amino-acid biosynthesis.

Pathwayi: L-leucine biosynthesis

This protein is involved in step 4 of the subpathway that synthesizes L-leucine from 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate.
Proteins known to be involved in the 4 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
  1. 2-isopropylmalate synthase 2, chloroplastic (IPMS2), 2-isopropylmalate synthase 1, chloroplastic (IPMS1)
  2. 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunit 1 (IPMI2), 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunit 2 (IPMI1), 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunit 3 (At2g43090), 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunit, chloroplastic (IIL1)
  3. 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (At1g31180/F28K20_14), 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IMD1), 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase 3, chloroplastic (IMDH3), 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase 2, chloroplastic (IMDH2), 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (At5g14200), 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (AXX17_At1g31810), 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (AXX17_At1g75410), 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (AXX17_At1g75410), 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase 1, chloroplastic (IMDH1)
  4. Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 2, chloroplastic (BCAT2), Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 5, chloroplastic (BCAT5), Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 6 (BCAT6), Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 3, chloroplastic (BCAT3)
This subpathway is part of the pathway L-leucine biosynthesis, which is itself part of Amino-acid biosynthesis.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes L-leucine from 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate, the pathway L-leucine biosynthesis and in Amino-acid biosynthesis.

Pathwayi: L-valine biosynthesis

This protein is involved in step 4 of the subpathway that synthesizes L-valine from pyruvate.
Proteins known to be involved in the 4 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Acetolactate synthase small subunit 1, chloroplastic (VAT1), Acetolactate synthase, chloroplastic (ALS), Acetolactate synthase small subunit 2, chloroplastic (At2g31810), Acetolactate synthase (AXX17_At3g42690)
  2. Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (AXX17_At3g53150), Ketol-acid reductoisomerase, chloroplastic (At3g58610), Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (At3g58610)
  3. Dihydroxy-acid dehydratase, chloroplastic (DHAD)
  4. Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 2, chloroplastic (BCAT2), Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 5, chloroplastic (BCAT5), Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 6 (BCAT6), Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 3, chloroplastic (BCAT3)
This subpathway is part of the pathway L-valine biosynthesis, which is itself part of Amino-acid biosynthesis.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes L-valine from pyruvate, the pathway L-valine biosynthesis and in Amino-acid biosynthesis.

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Aminotransferase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Amino-acid biosynthesis, Branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis

Keywords - Ligandi

Pyridoxal phosphate

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT3G49680-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT3G49680-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-ATH-70895. Branched-chain amino acid catabolism.
UniPathwayiUPA00047; UER00058.
UPA00048; UER00073.
UPA00049; UER00062.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 3, chloroplastic1 Publication (EC:2.6.1.42, EC:2.6.1.88)
Short name:
Atbcat-3
Gene namesi
Name:BCAT31 Publication
Ordered Locus Names:At3g49680Imported
ORF Names:T16K5.301 Publication
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 3

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT3G49680.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • chloroplast Source: TAIR
  • chloroplast stroma Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chloroplast, Plastid

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

No effect on the levels of free amino acids in seeds, but reduced levels of Val, Ser and Thr in leaves. Increased levels of Met-derived glucosinolates in leaves.1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Transit peptidei1 – 60ChloroplastSequence analysisAdd BLAST60
ChainiPRO_000000127761 – 413Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase 3, chloroplasticAdd BLAST353

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei259N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysineBy similarity1

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9M401.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in the phloem cells.1 Publication

Inductioni

Diurnally expressed.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ9M401. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ9M401. AT.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi3702.AT3G49680.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9M401.
SMRiQ9M401.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi19 – 70Ser-richAdd BLAST52

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Transit peptide

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0975. Eukaryota.
COG0115. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000276704.
InParanoidiQ9M401.
KOiK00826.
OMAiFVINGEA.
OrthoDBiEOG09360CSJ.
PhylomeDBiQ9M401.

Family and domain databases

CDDicd01557. BCAT_beta_family. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR001544. Aminotrans_IV.
IPR018300. Aminotrans_IV_CS.
IPR005786. B_amino_transII.
IPR033939. BCAT_family.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11825. PTHR11825. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01063. Aminotran_4. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF006468. BCAT1. 1 hit.
SUPFAMiSSF56752. SSF56752. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01123. ilvE_II. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00770. AA_TRANSFER_CLASS_4. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 1 isoform i produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Note: A number of isoforms are produced. According to EST sequences.
Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9M401-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MERAAILPSV NQNYLLCPSR AFSTRLHSST RNLSPPSFAS IKLQHSSSSV
60 70 80 90 100
SSNGGISLTR CNAVSSNSSS TLVTELADID WDTVGFGLKP ADYMYVMKCN
110 120 130 140 150
IDGEFSKGEL QRFGNIEISP SAGVLNYGQG LFEGLKAYRK KDGNNILLFR
160 170 180 190 200
PEENAKRMRN GAERMCMPAP TVEQFVEAVT ETVLANKRWV PPPGKGSLYV
210 220 230 240 250
RPLLMGTGAV LGLAPAPEYT FIIYVSPVGN YFKEGVAPIN LIVENEFHRA
260 270 280 290 300
TPGGTGGVKT IGNYAAVLKA QSIAKAKGYS DVLYLDCIYK RYLEEVSSCN
310 320 330 340 350
IFIVKDNVIS TPEIKGTILP GITRKSMIDV ARTQGFQVEE RNVTVDELLE
360 370 380 390 400
ADEVFCTGTA VVVSPVGSVT YKGKRVSYGE GTFGTVSKQL YTVLTSLQMG
410
LIEDNMKWTV NLS
Length:413
Mass (Da):44,972
Last modified:October 1, 2000 - v1
Checksum:iC9AF31F56589916B
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence CAB66906 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti74T → P in AAM65160 (Ref. 5) Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AJ276124 mRNA. Translation: CAB93131.1.
AL132965 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB66906.1. Sequence problems.
CP002686 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE78575.1.
AF446355 mRNA. Translation: AAL48229.1.
AY097417 mRNA. Translation: AAM19933.1.
AY087619 mRNA. Translation: AAM65160.1.
PIRiT46034.
RefSeqiNP_566923.1. NM_114828.6. [Q9M401-1]
UniGeneiAt.25154.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT3G49680.1; AT3G49680.1; AT3G49680. [Q9M401-1]
GeneIDi824130.
GrameneiAT3G49680.1; AT3G49680.1; AT3G49680.
KEGGiath:AT3G49680.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AJ276124 mRNA. Translation: CAB93131.1.
AL132965 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB66906.1. Sequence problems.
CP002686 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE78575.1.
AF446355 mRNA. Translation: AAL48229.1.
AY097417 mRNA. Translation: AAM19933.1.
AY087619 mRNA. Translation: AAM65160.1.
PIRiT46034.
RefSeqiNP_566923.1. NM_114828.6. [Q9M401-1]
UniGeneiAt.25154.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9M401.
SMRiQ9M401.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi3702.AT3G49680.1.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9M401.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT3G49680.1; AT3G49680.1; AT3G49680. [Q9M401-1]
GeneIDi824130.
GrameneiAT3G49680.1; AT3G49680.1; AT3G49680.
KEGGiath:AT3G49680.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT3G49680.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0975. Eukaryota.
COG0115. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000276704.
InParanoidiQ9M401.
KOiK00826.
OMAiFVINGEA.
OrthoDBiEOG09360CSJ.
PhylomeDBiQ9M401.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00047; UER00058.
UPA00048; UER00073.
UPA00049; UER00062.
BioCyciARA:AT3G49680-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT3G49680-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-ATH-70895. Branched-chain amino acid catabolism.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiQ9M401.

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ9M401. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ9M401. AT.

Family and domain databases

CDDicd01557. BCAT_beta_family. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR001544. Aminotrans_IV.
IPR018300. Aminotrans_IV_CS.
IPR005786. B_amino_transII.
IPR033939. BCAT_family.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11825. PTHR11825. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01063. Aminotran_4. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF006468. BCAT1. 1 hit.
SUPFAMiSSF56752. SSF56752. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01123. ilvE_II. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00770. AA_TRANSFER_CLASS_4. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiBCAT3_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9M401
Secondary accession number(s): Q8LAT6, Q9M2Z0
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 6, 2002
Last sequence update: October 1, 2000
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 127 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Branched-chain amino acids are synthesized in chloroplasts, whereas the degradation takes place in mitochondria.

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.