Skip Header

You are using a version of Internet Explorer that may not display all features of this website. Please upgrade to a modern browser.
Contribute Send feedback
Read comments (?) or add your own

Q9LQT8 (GAI_ARATH) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified April 16, 2014. Version 89. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (3) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Interactions·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
DELLA protein GAI
Alternative name(s):
GRAS family protein 3
Short name=AtGRAS-3
Gibberellic acid-insensitive mutant protein
Restoration of growth on ammonia protein 2
Gene names
Name:GAI
Synonyms:RGA2
Ordered Locus Names:At1g14920
ORF Names:F10B6.34
OrganismArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis

Protein attributes

Sequence length533 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Probable transcriptional regulator that acts as a repressor of the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. No effect of the BOI proteins on its stability. Probably acts by participating in large multiprotein complexes that repress transcription of GA-inducible genes. In contrast to RGA, it is less sensitive to GA. Its activity is probably regulated by other phytohormones such as auxin and ethylene. Ref.2 Ref.7 Ref.8 Ref.9 Ref.12 Ref.16 Ref.17

Subunit structure

Interacts directly with the GID2/SLY1 component of the SCF(GID2) complex. Interacts (via N-terminus) with GID1A, GID1B and GID1B (via N-terminus). Interacts with the BOI proteins BOI, BRG1, BRG2 and BRG3. Ref.13 Ref.14 Ref.15 Ref.18 Ref.19

Subcellular location

Nucleus Ref.11.

Tissue specificity

Ubiquitously expressed. Expressed in rosette leaves, roots, stems and inflorescences of greenhouse grown. Ref.1 Ref.6 Ref.10

Post-translational modification

Phosphorylated By similarity.

May be ubiquitinated, as suggested by its interaction with GID2. Ubiquitination is however unsure since in contrast to other DELLA proteins, it is not ubiquitinated and degraded upon GA application. Nevertheless, ubiquitination may be triggered by other processes.

Disruption phenotype

Rga, gai, rgl1, rgl2 and rgl3 pentuple mutant displays constitutive GA responses even in the absence of GA treatment. Ref.19

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the GRAS family. DELLA subfamily.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Biological processGibberellin signaling pathway
Transcription
Transcription regulation
   Cellular componentNucleus
   Molecular functionDevelopmental protein
Repressor
   PTMPhosphoprotein
Ubl conjugation
   Technical term3D-structure
Complete proteome
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processgibberellic acid mediated signaling pathway

Traceable author statement PubMed 10421366. Source: TAIR

hyperosmotic salinity response

Inferred from genetic interaction PubMed 16400150. Source: TAIR

jasmonic acid mediated signaling pathway

Inferred from genetic interaction PubMed 18450451. Source: TAIR

multicellular organismal development

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

negative regulation of gibberellic acid mediated signaling pathway

Inferred from mutant phenotype PubMed 17416730. Source: TAIR

negative regulation of seed germination

Inferred from genetic interaction PubMed 17449805. Source: TAIR

phloem transport

Inferred from mutant phenotype PubMed 15773853. Source: TAIR

regulation of nitrogen utilization

Inferred from mutant phenotype Ref.1. Source: TAIR

regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process

Inferred from genetic interaction PubMed 18450450. Source: TAIR

regulation of seed dormancy process

Inferred from genetic interaction PubMed 17141619. Source: TAIR

regulation of seed germination

Inferred from genetic interaction PubMed 17141619. Source: TAIR

response to abscisic acid

Inferred from genetic interaction PubMed 16400150. Source: TAIR

response to ethylene

Inferred from genetic interaction PubMed 16400150. Source: TAIR

response to far red light

Inferred from expression pattern PubMed 17449805. Source: TAIR

response to gibberellin

Inferred from expression pattern PubMed 17333251. Source: TAIR

response to salt stress

Inferred from genetic interaction PubMed 16400150. Source: TAIR

salicylic acid mediated signaling pathway

Inferred from genetic interaction PubMed 18450451. Source: TAIR

transcription, DNA-templated

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

   Cellular_componentnucleus

Inferred from direct assay Ref.11. Source: TAIR

   Molecular_functionsequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity

Inferred from sequence or structural similarity PubMed 11118137Ref.9Ref.1. Source: TAIR

Complete GO annotation...

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 533533DELLA protein GAI
PRO_0000132235

Regions

Motif28 – 325DELLA motif
Motif50 – 545LEXLE motif
Motif73 – 775VHYNP motif
Motif271 – 2755VHIID
Motif371 – 3755LXXLL motif

Experimental info

Mutagenesis28 – 4417Missing in gai; causes a dwarf phenotype. Ref.2
Mutagenesis135 – 1384Missing: Does not affect nuclear localization. Ref.11
Mutagenesis219 – 2235Missing: Does not affect nuclear localization. Ref.11
Sequence conflict101Missing in CAA72178. Ref.1
Sequence conflict101Missing in CAA75492. Ref.2
Sequence conflict2081K → Q in CAA72178. Ref.1

Secondary structure

........... 533
Helix Strand Turn

Details...

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Q9LQT8 [UniParc].

Last modified October 1, 2000. Version 1.
Checksum: 6464B8C129D79528

FASTA53358,927
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MKRDHHHHHH QDKKTMMMNE EDDGNGMDEL LAVLGYKVRS SEMADVAQKL EQLEVMMSNV 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
QEDDLSQLAT ETVHYNPAEL YTWLDSMLTD LNPPSSNAEY DLKAIPGDAI LNQFAIDSAS 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
SSNQGGGGDT YTTNKRLKCS NGVVETTTAT AESTRHVVLV DSQENGVRLV HALLACAEAV 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
QKENLTVAEA LVKQIGFLAV SQIGAMRKVA TYFAEALARR IYRLSPSQSP IDHSLSDTLQ 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
MHFYETCPYL KFAHFTANQA ILEAFQGKKR VHVIDFSMSQ GLQWPALMQA LALRPGGPPV 

       310        320        330        340        350        360 
FRLTGIGPPA PDNFDYLHEV GCKLAHLAEA IHVEFEYRGF VANTLADLDA SMLELRPSEI 

       370        380        390        400        410        420 
ESVAVNSVFE LHKLLGRPGA IDKVLGVVNQ IKPEIFTVVE QESNHNSPIF LDRFTESLHY 

       430        440        450        460        470        480 
YSTLFDSLEG VPSGQDKVMS EVYLGKQICN VVACDGPDRV ERHETLSQWR NRFGSAGFAA 

       490        500        510        520        530 
AHIGSNAFKQ ASMLLALFNG GEGYRVEESD GCLMLGWHTR PLIATSAWKL STN 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Sequence and characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs isolated by functional complementation of a yeast gln3 gdh1 mutant."
Truong H.-N., Caboche M., Daniel-Vedele F.
FEBS Lett. 410:213-218(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[2]"The Arabidopsis GAI gene defines a signaling pathway that negatively regulates gibberellin responses."
Peng J., Carol P., Richards D.E., King K.E., Cowling R.J., Murphy G.P., Harberd N.P.
Genes Dev. 11:3194-3205(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF 28-ASP--ALA-44.
Strain: cv. Landsberg erecta.
[3]"Sequence and analysis of chromosome 1 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
Theologis A., Ecker J.R., Palm C.J., Federspiel N.A., Kaul S., White O., Alonso J., Altafi H., Araujo R., Bowman C.L., Brooks S.Y., Buehler E., Chan A., Chao Q., Chen H., Cheuk R.F., Chin C.W., Chung M.K. expand/collapse author list , Conn L., Conway A.B., Conway A.R., Creasy T.H., Dewar K., Dunn P., Etgu P., Feldblyum T.V., Feng J.-D., Fong B., Fujii C.Y., Gill J.E., Goldsmith A.D., Haas B., Hansen N.F., Hughes B., Huizar L., Hunter J.L., Jenkins J., Johnson-Hopson C., Khan S., Khaykin E., Kim C.J., Koo H.L., Kremenetskaia I., Kurtz D.B., Kwan A., Lam B., Langin-Hooper S., Lee A., Lee J.M., Lenz C.A., Li J.H., Li Y.-P., Lin X., Liu S.X., Liu Z.A., Luros J.S., Maiti R., Marziali A., Militscher J., Miranda M., Nguyen M., Nierman W.C., Osborne B.I., Pai G., Peterson J., Pham P.K., Rizzo M., Rooney T., Rowley D., Sakano H., Salzberg S.L., Schwartz J.R., Shinn P., Southwick A.M., Sun H., Tallon L.J., Tambunga G., Toriumi M.J., Town C.D., Utterback T., Van Aken S., Vaysberg M., Vysotskaia V.S., Walker M., Wu D., Yu G., Fraser C.M., Venter J.C., Davis R.W.
Nature 408:816-820(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[4]The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[5]"Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G. expand/collapse author list , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[6]"The Arabidopsis RGA gene encodes a transcriptional regulator repressing the gibberellin signal transduction pathway."
Silverstone A.L., Ciampaglio C.N., Sun T.-P.
Plant Cell 10:155-169(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[7]"Gibberellins are not required for normal stem growth in Arabidopsis thaliana in the absence of GAI and RGA."
King K.E., Moritz T., Harberd N.P.
Genetics 159:767-776(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[8]"Synergistic derepression of gibberellin signaling by removing RGA and GAI function in Arabidopsis thaliana."
Dill A., Sun T.-P.
Genetics 159:777-785(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[9]"Expression of Arabidopsis GAI in transgenic rice represses multiple gibberellin responses."
Fu X., Sudhakar D., Peng J., Richards D.E., Christou P., Harberd N.P.
Plant Cell 13:1791-1802(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[10]"Gibberellin regulates Arabidopsis seed germination via RGL2, a GAI/RGA-like gene whose expression is up-regulated following imbibition."
Lee S., Cheng H., King K.E., Wang W., He Y., Hussain A., Lo J., Harberd N.P., Peng J.
Genes Dev. 16:646-658(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[11]"Evidence that the Arabidopsis nuclear gibberellin signalling protein GAI is not destabilised by gibberellin."
Fleck B., Harberd N.P.
Plant J. 32:935-947(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, LACK OF DEGRADATION, MUTAGENESIS OF 135-LYS--LYS-138 AND 219-ARG--ARG-223.
[12]"Gibberellin regulates Arabidopsis floral development via suppression of DELLA protein function."
Cheng H., Qin L., Lee S., Fu X., Richards D.E., Cao D., Luo D., Harberd N.P., Peng J.
Development 131:1055-1064(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[13]"The Arabidopsis F-box protein SLEEPY1 targets gibberellin signaling repressors for gibberellin-induced degradation."
Dill A., Thomas S.G., Hu J., Steber C.M., Sun T.-P.
Plant Cell 16:1392-1405(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH GID2.
[14]"The Arabidopsis mutant sleepy1gar2-1 protein promotes plant growth by increasing the affinity of the SCFSLY1 E3 ubiquitin ligase for DELLA protein substrates."
Fu X., Richards D.E., Fleck B., Xie D., Burton N., Harberd N.P.
Plant Cell 16:1406-1418(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH GID2.
[15]"Della proteins and gibberellin-regulated seed germination and floral development in Arabidopsis."
Tyler L., Thomas S.G., Hu J., Dill A., Alonso J.M., Ecker J.R., Sun T.-P.
Plant Physiol. 135:1008-1019(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH GID2.
[16]"Floral homeotic genes are targets of gibberellin signaling in flower development."
Yu H., Ito T., Zhao Y., Peng J., Kumar P., Meyerowitz E.M.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101:7827-7832(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[17]"Loss of function of four DELLA genes leads to light- and gibberellin-independent seed germination in Arabidopsis."
Cao D., Hussain A., Cheng H., Peng J.
Planta 223:105-113(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[18]"Identification and characterization of Arabidopsis gibberellin receptors."
Nakajima M., Shimada A., Takashi Y., Kim Y.C., Park S.H., Ueguchi-Tanaka M., Suzuki H., Katoh E., Iuchi S., Kobayashi M., Maeda T., Matsuoka M., Yamaguchi I.
Plant J. 46:880-889(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH GID1A; GID1B AND GID1C.
[19]"DELLA proteins and their interacting RING Finger proteins repress gibberellin responses by binding to the promoters of a subset of gibberellin-responsive genes in Arabidopsis."
Park J., Nguyen K.T., Park E., Jeon J.S., Choi G.
Plant Cell 25:927-943(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH BOI; BRG1; BRG2 AND BRG3, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
[20]"Gibberellin-induced DELLA recognition by the gibberellin receptor GID1."
Murase K., Hirano Y., Sun T.P., Hakoshima T.
Nature 456:459-463(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (1.80 ANGSTROMS) OF 11-113 IN COMPLEX WITH GID1A AND GIBBERELLIN.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Y11337 mRNA. Translation: CAA72178.1.
Y15193 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA75492.1.
AC006917 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF79228.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE29242.1.
AY058194 mRNA. Translation: AAL25607.1.
AY142002 mRNA. Translation: AAM98266.1.
PIRH86282.
RefSeqNP_172945.1. NM_101361.2.
UniGeneAt.15032.
At.75604.

3D structure databases

PDBe
RCSB PDB
PDBj
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2ZSHX-ray1.80B11-113[»]
2ZSIX-ray1.80B11-113[»]
DisProtDP00724.
ProteinModelPortalQ9LQT8.
SMRQ9LQT8. Positions 26-92.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid23297. 28 interactions.
DIPDIP-32985N.
IntActQ9LQT8. 19 interactions.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEQ9LQT8.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsAT1G14920.1; AT1G14920.1; AT1G14920.
GeneID838057.
KEGGath:AT1G14920.

Organism-specific databases

GeneFarm4235. 427.
TAIRAT1G14920.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG243696.
HOGENOMHOG000238577.
InParanoidQ9LQT8.
KOK14494.
OMARRVYRFR.
PhylomeDBQ9LQT8.
ProtClustDBCLSN2682993.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatorQ9LQT8.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR021914. TF_DELLA_N.
IPR005202. TF_GRAS.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF12041. DELLA. 1 hit.
PF03514. GRAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEPS50985. GRAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

EvolutionaryTraceQ9LQT8.

Entry information

Entry nameGAI_ARATH
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9LQT8
Secondary accession number(s): O23643, O23724
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 22, 2005
Last sequence update: October 1, 2000
Last modified: April 16, 2014
This is version 89 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

PDB cross-references

Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references

Arabidopsis thaliana

Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names