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Q9LQT8

- GAI_ARATH

UniProt

Q9LQT8 - GAI_ARATH

Protein

DELLA protein GAI

Gene

GAI

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 94 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 1 (01 Oct 2000)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    Probable transcriptional regulator that acts as a repressor of the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. No effect of the BOI proteins on its stability. Probably acts by participating in large multiprotein complexes that repress transcription of GA-inducible genes. Positively regulates XERICO expression. In contrast to RGA, it is less sensitive to GA. Its activity is probably regulated by other phytohormones such as auxin and ethylene.8 Publications

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. protein binding Source: UniProtKB
    2. sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity Source: TAIR

    GO - Biological processi

    1. gibberellic acid mediated signaling pathway Source: TAIR
    2. hyperosmotic salinity response Source: TAIR
    3. jasmonic acid mediated signaling pathway Source: TAIR
    4. multicellular organismal development Source: UniProtKB-KW
    5. negative regulation of gibberellic acid mediated signaling pathway Source: TAIR
    6. negative regulation of seed germination Source: TAIR
    7. phloem transport Source: TAIR
    8. regulation of nitrogen utilization Source: TAIR
    9. regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process Source: TAIR
    10. regulation of seed dormancy process Source: TAIR
    11. regulation of seed germination Source: TAIR
    12. response to abscisic acid Source: TAIR
    13. response to ethylene Source: TAIR
    14. response to far red light Source: TAIR
    15. response to gibberellin Source: TAIR
    16. response to salt stress Source: TAIR
    17. salicylic acid mediated signaling pathway Source: TAIR
    18. transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Developmental protein, Repressor

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Gibberellin signaling pathway, Transcription, Transcription regulation

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    DELLA protein GAI
    Alternative name(s):
    GRAS family protein 3
    Short name:
    AtGRAS-3
    Gibberellic acid-insensitive mutant protein
    Restoration of growth on ammonia protein 2
    Gene namesi
    Name:GAI
    Synonyms:RGA2
    Ordered Locus Names:At1g14920
    ORF Names:F10B6.34
    OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
    Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
    ProteomesiUP000006548: Chromosome 1

    Organism-specific databases

    TAIRiAT1G14920.

    Subcellular locationi

    Nucleus 1 Publication

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. nucleus Source: TAIR

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Nucleus

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Disruption phenotypei

    Rga, gai, rgl1, rgl2 and rgl3 pentuple mutant displays constitutive GA responses even in the absence of GA treatment.1 Publication

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Mutagenesisi28 – 4417Missing in gai; causes a dwarf phenotype. Add
    BLAST
    Mutagenesisi135 – 1384Missing: Does not affect nuclear localization.
    Mutagenesisi219 – 2235Missing: Does not affect nuclear localization.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 533533DELLA protein GAIPRO_0000132235Add
    BLAST

    Post-translational modificationi

    Phosphorylated.By similarity
    May be ubiquitinated, as suggested by its interaction with GID2. Ubiquitination is however unsure since in contrast to other DELLA proteins, it is not ubiquitinated and degraded upon GA application. Nevertheless, ubiquitination may be triggered by other processes.

    Keywords - PTMi

    Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

    Proteomic databases

    PRIDEiQ9LQT8.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Ubiquitously expressed. Expressed in rosette leaves, roots, stems and inflorescences of greenhouse grown.3 Publications

    Gene expression databases

    GenevestigatoriQ9LQT8.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Interacts directly with the GID2/SLY1 component of the SCF(GID2) complex. Interacts (via N-terminus) with GID1A, GID1B and GID1B (via N-terminus). Interacts with the BOI proteins BOI, BRG1, BRG2 and BRG3.6 Publications

    Binary interactionsi

    WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
    GID1AQ9MAA76EBI-963606,EBI-963597
    GID1BQ9LYC14EBI-963606,EBI-963686
    GID1CQ940G64EBI-963606,EBI-963794
    GID2Q9STX34EBI-963606,EBI-619033

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi23297. 31 interactions.
    DIPiDIP-32985N.
    IntActiQ9LQT8. 19 interactions.

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1
    533
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Helixi29 – 324
    Turni33 – 353
    Helixi40 – 423
    Helixi43 – 5715
    Helixi69 – 724
    Helixi80 – 8910

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    2ZSHX-ray1.80B11-113[»]
    2ZSIX-ray1.80B11-113[»]
    DisProtiDP00724.
    ProteinModelPortaliQ9LQT8.
    SMRiQ9LQT8. Positions 26-92.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTraceiQ9LQT8.

    Family & Domainsi

    Motif

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Motifi28 – 325DELLA motif
    Motifi50 – 545LEXLE motif
    Motifi73 – 775VHYNP motif
    Motifi271 – 2755VHIID
    Motifi371 – 3755LXXLL motif

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the GRAS family. DELLA subfamily.Curated

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiNOG243696.
    HOGENOMiHOG000238577.
    InParanoidiQ9LQT8.
    KOiK14494.
    OMAiRVEESDG.
    PhylomeDBiQ9LQT8.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiIPR021914. TF_DELLA_N.
    IPR005202. TF_GRAS.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF12041. DELLA. 1 hit.
    PF03514. GRAS. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PROSITEiPS50985. GRAS. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Q9LQT8-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    « Hide

    MKRDHHHHHH QDKKTMMMNE EDDGNGMDEL LAVLGYKVRS SEMADVAQKL    50
    EQLEVMMSNV QEDDLSQLAT ETVHYNPAEL YTWLDSMLTD LNPPSSNAEY 100
    DLKAIPGDAI LNQFAIDSAS SSNQGGGGDT YTTNKRLKCS NGVVETTTAT 150
    AESTRHVVLV DSQENGVRLV HALLACAEAV QKENLTVAEA LVKQIGFLAV 200
    SQIGAMRKVA TYFAEALARR IYRLSPSQSP IDHSLSDTLQ MHFYETCPYL 250
    KFAHFTANQA ILEAFQGKKR VHVIDFSMSQ GLQWPALMQA LALRPGGPPV 300
    FRLTGIGPPA PDNFDYLHEV GCKLAHLAEA IHVEFEYRGF VANTLADLDA 350
    SMLELRPSEI ESVAVNSVFE LHKLLGRPGA IDKVLGVVNQ IKPEIFTVVE 400
    QESNHNSPIF LDRFTESLHY YSTLFDSLEG VPSGQDKVMS EVYLGKQICN 450
    VVACDGPDRV ERHETLSQWR NRFGSAGFAA AHIGSNAFKQ ASMLLALFNG 500
    GEGYRVEESD GCLMLGWHTR PLIATSAWKL STN 533
    Length:533
    Mass (Da):58,927
    Last modified:October 1, 2000 - v1
    Checksum:i6464B8C129D79528
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Sequence conflicti10 – 101Missing in CAA72178. (PubMed:9237632)Curated
    Sequence conflicti10 – 101Missing in CAA75492. (PubMed:9389651)Curated
    Sequence conflicti208 – 2081K → Q in CAA72178. (PubMed:9237632)Curated

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    Y11337 mRNA. Translation: CAA72178.1.
    Y15193 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA75492.1.
    AC006917 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF79228.1.
    CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE29242.1.
    AY058194 mRNA. Translation: AAL25607.1.
    AY142002 mRNA. Translation: AAM98266.1.
    PIRiH86282.
    RefSeqiNP_172945.1. NM_101361.2.
    UniGeneiAt.15032.
    At.75604.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsiAT1G14920.1; AT1G14920.1; AT1G14920.
    GeneIDi838057.
    KEGGiath:AT1G14920.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    Y11337 mRNA. Translation: CAA72178.1 .
    Y15193 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA75492.1 .
    AC006917 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF79228.1 .
    CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE29242.1 .
    AY058194 mRNA. Translation: AAL25607.1 .
    AY142002 mRNA. Translation: AAM98266.1 .
    PIRi H86282.
    RefSeqi NP_172945.1. NM_101361.2.
    UniGenei At.15032.
    At.75604.

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    Entry Method Resolution (Å) Chain Positions PDBsum
    2ZSH X-ray 1.80 B 11-113 [» ]
    2ZSI X-ray 1.80 B 11-113 [» ]
    DisProti DP00724.
    ProteinModelPortali Q9LQT8.
    SMRi Q9LQT8. Positions 26-92.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 23297. 31 interactions.
    DIPi DIP-32985N.
    IntActi Q9LQT8. 19 interactions.

    Proteomic databases

    PRIDEi Q9LQT8.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsi AT1G14920.1 ; AT1G14920.1 ; AT1G14920 .
    GeneIDi 838057.
    KEGGi ath:AT1G14920.

    Organism-specific databases

    GeneFarmi 4235. 427.
    TAIRi AT1G14920.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi NOG243696.
    HOGENOMi HOG000238577.
    InParanoidi Q9LQT8.
    KOi K14494.
    OMAi RVEESDG.
    PhylomeDBi Q9LQT8.

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTracei Q9LQT8.

    Gene expression databases

    Genevestigatori Q9LQT8.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProi IPR021914. TF_DELLA_N.
    IPR005202. TF_GRAS.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF12041. DELLA. 1 hit.
    PF03514. GRAS. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    PROSITEi PS50985. GRAS. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "Sequence and characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs isolated by functional complementation of a yeast gln3 gdh1 mutant."
      Truong H.-N., Caboche M., Daniel-Vedele F.
      FEBS Lett. 410:213-218(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    2. "The Arabidopsis GAI gene defines a signaling pathway that negatively regulates gibberellin responses."
      Peng J., Carol P., Richards D.E., King K.E., Cowling R.J., Murphy G.P., Harberd N.P.
      Genes Dev. 11:3194-3205(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF 28-ASP--ALA-44.
      Strain: cv. Landsberg erecta.
    3. "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 1 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
      Theologis A., Ecker J.R., Palm C.J., Federspiel N.A., Kaul S., White O., Alonso J., Altafi H., Araujo R., Bowman C.L., Brooks S.Y., Buehler E., Chan A., Chao Q., Chen H., Cheuk R.F., Chin C.W., Chung M.K.
      , Conn L., Conway A.B., Conway A.R., Creasy T.H., Dewar K., Dunn P., Etgu P., Feldblyum T.V., Feng J.-D., Fong B., Fujii C.Y., Gill J.E., Goldsmith A.D., Haas B., Hansen N.F., Hughes B., Huizar L., Hunter J.L., Jenkins J., Johnson-Hopson C., Khan S., Khaykin E., Kim C.J., Koo H.L., Kremenetskaia I., Kurtz D.B., Kwan A., Lam B., Langin-Hooper S., Lee A., Lee J.M., Lenz C.A., Li J.H., Li Y.-P., Lin X., Liu S.X., Liu Z.A., Luros J.S., Maiti R., Marziali A., Militscher J., Miranda M., Nguyen M., Nierman W.C., Osborne B.I., Pai G., Peterson J., Pham P.K., Rizzo M., Rooney T., Rowley D., Sakano H., Salzberg S.L., Schwartz J.R., Shinn P., Southwick A.M., Sun H., Tallon L.J., Tambunga G., Toriumi M.J., Town C.D., Utterback T., Van Aken S., Vaysberg M., Vysotskaia V.S., Walker M., Wu D., Yu G., Fraser C.M., Venter J.C., Davis R.W.
      Nature 408:816-820(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    4. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
      Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    5. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
      Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
      , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
      Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    6. "The Arabidopsis RGA gene encodes a transcriptional regulator repressing the gibberellin signal transduction pathway."
      Silverstone A.L., Ciampaglio C.N., Sun T.-P.
      Plant Cell 10:155-169(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    7. "Gibberellins are not required for normal stem growth in Arabidopsis thaliana in the absence of GAI and RGA."
      King K.E., Moritz T., Harberd N.P.
      Genetics 159:767-776(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION.
    8. "Synergistic derepression of gibberellin signaling by removing RGA and GAI function in Arabidopsis thaliana."
      Dill A., Sun T.-P.
      Genetics 159:777-785(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION.
    9. "Expression of Arabidopsis GAI in transgenic rice represses multiple gibberellin responses."
      Fu X., Sudhakar D., Peng J., Richards D.E., Christou P., Harberd N.P.
      Plant Cell 13:1791-1802(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION.
    10. "Gibberellin regulates Arabidopsis seed germination via RGL2, a GAI/RGA-like gene whose expression is up-regulated following imbibition."
      Lee S., Cheng H., King K.E., Wang W., He Y., Hussain A., Lo J., Harberd N.P., Peng J.
      Genes Dev. 16:646-658(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    11. "Evidence that the Arabidopsis nuclear gibberellin signalling protein GAI is not destabilised by gibberellin."
      Fleck B., Harberd N.P.
      Plant J. 32:935-947(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, LACK OF DEGRADATION, MUTAGENESIS OF 135-LYS--LYS-138 AND 219-ARG--ARG-223.
    12. "Gibberellin regulates Arabidopsis floral development via suppression of DELLA protein function."
      Cheng H., Qin L., Lee S., Fu X., Richards D.E., Cao D., Luo D., Harberd N.P., Peng J.
      Development 131:1055-1064(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION.
    13. "The Arabidopsis F-box protein SLEEPY1 targets gibberellin signaling repressors for gibberellin-induced degradation."
      Dill A., Thomas S.G., Hu J., Steber C.M., Sun T.-P.
      Plant Cell 16:1392-1405(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INTERACTION WITH GID2.
    14. "The Arabidopsis mutant sleepy1gar2-1 protein promotes plant growth by increasing the affinity of the SCFSLY1 E3 ubiquitin ligase for DELLA protein substrates."
      Fu X., Richards D.E., Fleck B., Xie D., Burton N., Harberd N.P.
      Plant Cell 16:1406-1418(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INTERACTION WITH GID2.
    15. "Della proteins and gibberellin-regulated seed germination and floral development in Arabidopsis."
      Tyler L., Thomas S.G., Hu J., Dill A., Alonso J.M., Ecker J.R., Sun T.-P.
      Plant Physiol. 135:1008-1019(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INTERACTION WITH GID2.
    16. "Floral homeotic genes are targets of gibberellin signaling in flower development."
      Yu H., Ito T., Zhao Y., Peng J., Kumar P., Meyerowitz E.M.
      Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101:7827-7832(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION.
    17. "Loss of function of four DELLA genes leads to light- and gibberellin-independent seed germination in Arabidopsis."
      Cao D., Hussain A., Cheng H., Peng J.
      Planta 223:105-113(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION.
    18. Cited for: INTERACTION WITH GID1A; GID1B AND GID1C.
    19. "Global analysis of della direct targets in early gibberellin signaling in Arabidopsis."
      Zentella R., Zhang Z.L., Park M., Thomas S.G., Endo A., Murase K., Fleet C.M., Jikumaru Y., Nambara E., Kamiya Y., Sun T.P.
      Plant Cell 19:3037-3057(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION.
    20. "DELLA proteins and their interacting RING Finger proteins repress gibberellin responses by binding to the promoters of a subset of gibberellin-responsive genes in Arabidopsis."
      Park J., Nguyen K.T., Park E., Jeon J.S., Choi G.
      Plant Cell 25:927-943(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INTERACTION WITH BOI; BRG1; BRG2 AND BRG3, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
    21. "Gibberellin-induced DELLA recognition by the gibberellin receptor GID1."
      Murase K., Hirano Y., Sun T.P., Hakoshima T.
      Nature 456:459-463(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (1.80 ANGSTROMS) OF 11-113 IN COMPLEX WITH GID1A AND GIBBERELLIN.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiGAI_ARATH
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9LQT8
    Secondary accession number(s): O23643, O23724
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 22, 2005
    Last sequence update: October 1, 2000
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 94 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Arabidopsis thaliana
      Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
    2. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3