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Q9LQT8

- GAI_ARATH

UniProt

Q9LQT8 - GAI_ARATH

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Protein

DELLA protein GAI

Gene
GAI, RGA2, At1g14920, F10B6.34
Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5 - Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Probable transcriptional regulator that acts as a repressor of the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. No effect of the BOI proteins on its stability. Probably acts by participating in large multiprotein complexes that repress transcription of GA-inducible genes. In contrast to RGA, it is less sensitive to GA. Its activity is probably regulated by other phytohormones such as auxin and ethylene.7 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. protein binding Source: UniProtKB
  2. sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  1. gibberellic acid mediated signaling pathway Source: TAIR
  2. hyperosmotic salinity response Source: TAIR
  3. jasmonic acid mediated signaling pathway Source: TAIR
  4. multicellular organismal development Source: UniProtKB-KW
  5. negative regulation of gibberellic acid mediated signaling pathway Source: TAIR
  6. negative regulation of seed germination Source: TAIR
  7. phloem transport Source: TAIR
  8. regulation of nitrogen utilization Source: TAIR
  9. regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process Source: TAIR
  10. regulation of seed dormancy process Source: TAIR
  11. regulation of seed germination Source: TAIR
  12. response to abscisic acid Source: TAIR
  13. response to ethylene Source: TAIR
  14. response to far red light Source: TAIR
  15. response to gibberellin Source: TAIR
  16. response to salt stress Source: TAIR
  17. salicylic acid mediated signaling pathway Source: TAIR
  18. transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Developmental protein, Repressor

Keywords - Biological processi

Gibberellin signaling pathway, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
DELLA protein GAI
Alternative name(s):
GRAS family protein 3
Short name:
AtGRAS-3
Gibberellic acid-insensitive mutant protein
Restoration of growth on ammonia protein 2
Gene namesi
Name:GAI
Synonyms:RGA2
Ordered Locus Names:At1g14920
ORF Names:F10B6.34
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
ProteomesiUP000006548: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G14920.

Subcellular locationi

Nucleus 1 Publication

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. nucleus Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Rga, gai, rgl1, rgl2 and rgl3 pentuple mutant displays constitutive GA responses even in the absence of GA treatment.1 Publication

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi28 – 4417Missing in gai; causes a dwarf phenotype. 1 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Mutagenesisi135 – 1384Missing: Does not affect nuclear localization. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi219 – 2235Missing: Does not affect nuclear localization. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 533533DELLA protein GAIPRO_0000132235Add
BLAST

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated By similarity.
May be ubiquitinated, as suggested by its interaction with GID2. Ubiquitination is however unsure since in contrast to other DELLA proteins, it is not ubiquitinated and degraded upon GA application. Nevertheless, ubiquitination may be triggered by other processes.

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiQ9LQT8.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Ubiquitously expressed. Expressed in rosette leaves, roots, stems and inflorescences of greenhouse grown.3 Publications

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriQ9LQT8.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts directly with the GID2/SLY1 component of the SCF(GID2) complex. Interacts (via N-terminus) with GID1A, GID1B and GID1B (via N-terminus). Interacts with the BOI proteins BOI, BRG1, BRG2 and BRG3.5 Publications

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
GID1AQ9MAA76EBI-963606,EBI-963597
GID1BQ9LYC14EBI-963606,EBI-963686
GID1CQ940G64EBI-963606,EBI-963794
GID2Q9STX34EBI-963606,EBI-619033

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi23297. 31 interactions.
DIPiDIP-32985N.
IntActiQ9LQT8. 19 interactions.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
533
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Helixi29 – 324
Turni33 – 353
Helixi40 – 423
Helixi43 – 5715
Helixi69 – 724
Helixi80 – 8910

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBe
RCSB PDB
PDBj
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2ZSHX-ray1.80B11-113[»]
2ZSIX-ray1.80B11-113[»]
DisProtiDP00724.
ProteinModelPortaliQ9LQT8.
SMRiQ9LQT8. Positions 26-92.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ9LQT8.

Family & Domainsi

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi28 – 325DELLA motif
Motifi50 – 545LEXLE motif
Motifi73 – 775VHYNP motif
Motifi271 – 2755VHIID
Motifi371 – 3755LXXLL motif

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the GRAS family. DELLA subfamily.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG243696.
HOGENOMiHOG000238577.
InParanoidiQ9LQT8.
KOiK14494.
OMAiRVEESDG.
PhylomeDBiQ9LQT8.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR021914. TF_DELLA_N.
IPR005202. TF_GRAS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF12041. DELLA. 1 hit.
PF03514. GRAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS50985. GRAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q9LQT8-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

« Hide

MKRDHHHHHH QDKKTMMMNE EDDGNGMDEL LAVLGYKVRS SEMADVAQKL    50
EQLEVMMSNV QEDDLSQLAT ETVHYNPAEL YTWLDSMLTD LNPPSSNAEY 100
DLKAIPGDAI LNQFAIDSAS SSNQGGGGDT YTTNKRLKCS NGVVETTTAT 150
AESTRHVVLV DSQENGVRLV HALLACAEAV QKENLTVAEA LVKQIGFLAV 200
SQIGAMRKVA TYFAEALARR IYRLSPSQSP IDHSLSDTLQ MHFYETCPYL 250
KFAHFTANQA ILEAFQGKKR VHVIDFSMSQ GLQWPALMQA LALRPGGPPV 300
FRLTGIGPPA PDNFDYLHEV GCKLAHLAEA IHVEFEYRGF VANTLADLDA 350
SMLELRPSEI ESVAVNSVFE LHKLLGRPGA IDKVLGVVNQ IKPEIFTVVE 400
QESNHNSPIF LDRFTESLHY YSTLFDSLEG VPSGQDKVMS EVYLGKQICN 450
VVACDGPDRV ERHETLSQWR NRFGSAGFAA AHIGSNAFKQ ASMLLALFNG 500
GEGYRVEESD GCLMLGWHTR PLIATSAWKL STN 533
Length:533
Mass (Da):58,927
Last modified:October 1, 2000 - v1
Checksum:i6464B8C129D79528
GO

Sequence conflict

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti10 – 101Missing in CAA72178. 1 Publication
Sequence conflicti10 – 101Missing in CAA75492. 1 Publication
Sequence conflicti208 – 2081K → Q in CAA72178. 1 Publication

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
Y11337 mRNA. Translation: CAA72178.1.
Y15193 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA75492.1.
AC006917 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF79228.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE29242.1.
AY058194 mRNA. Translation: AAL25607.1.
AY142002 mRNA. Translation: AAM98266.1.
PIRiH86282.
RefSeqiNP_172945.1. NM_101361.2.
UniGeneiAt.15032.
At.75604.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G14920.1; AT1G14920.1; AT1G14920.
GeneIDi838057.
KEGGiath:AT1G14920.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
Y11337 mRNA. Translation: CAA72178.1 .
Y15193 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA75492.1 .
AC006917 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF79228.1 .
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE29242.1 .
AY058194 mRNA. Translation: AAL25607.1 .
AY142002 mRNA. Translation: AAM98266.1 .
PIRi H86282.
RefSeqi NP_172945.1. NM_101361.2.
UniGenei At.15032.
At.75604.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBe
RCSB PDB
PDBj
Links Updated
Entry Method Resolution (Å) Chain Positions PDBsum
2ZSH X-ray 1.80 B 11-113 [» ]
2ZSI X-ray 1.80 B 11-113 [» ]
DisProti DP00724.
ProteinModelPortali Q9LQT8.
SMRi Q9LQT8. Positions 26-92.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi 23297. 31 interactions.
DIPi DIP-32985N.
IntActi Q9LQT8. 19 interactions.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEi Q9LQT8.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsi AT1G14920.1 ; AT1G14920.1 ; AT1G14920 .
GeneIDi 838057.
KEGGi ath:AT1G14920.

Organism-specific databases

GeneFarmi 4235. 427.
TAIRi AT1G14920.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGi NOG243696.
HOGENOMi HOG000238577.
InParanoidi Q9LQT8.
KOi K14494.
OMAi RVEESDG.
PhylomeDBi Q9LQT8.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTracei Q9LQT8.

Gene expression databases

Genevestigatori Q9LQT8.

Family and domain databases

InterProi IPR021914. TF_DELLA_N.
IPR005202. TF_GRAS.
[Graphical view ]
Pfami PF12041. DELLA. 1 hit.
PF03514. GRAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
PROSITEi PS50985. GRAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Sequence and characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs isolated by functional complementation of a yeast gln3 gdh1 mutant."
    Truong H.-N., Caboche M., Daniel-Vedele F.
    FEBS Lett. 410:213-218(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  2. "The Arabidopsis GAI gene defines a signaling pathway that negatively regulates gibberellin responses."
    Peng J., Carol P., Richards D.E., King K.E., Cowling R.J., Murphy G.P., Harberd N.P.
    Genes Dev. 11:3194-3205(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF 28-ASP--ALA-44.
    Strain: cv. Landsberg erecta.
  3. "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 1 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Theologis A., Ecker J.R., Palm C.J., Federspiel N.A., Kaul S., White O., Alonso J., Altafi H., Araujo R., Bowman C.L., Brooks S.Y., Buehler E., Chan A., Chao Q., Chen H., Cheuk R.F., Chin C.W., Chung M.K.
    , Conn L., Conway A.B., Conway A.R., Creasy T.H., Dewar K., Dunn P., Etgu P., Feldblyum T.V., Feng J.-D., Fong B., Fujii C.Y., Gill J.E., Goldsmith A.D., Haas B., Hansen N.F., Hughes B., Huizar L., Hunter J.L., Jenkins J., Johnson-Hopson C., Khan S., Khaykin E., Kim C.J., Koo H.L., Kremenetskaia I., Kurtz D.B., Kwan A., Lam B., Langin-Hooper S., Lee A., Lee J.M., Lenz C.A., Li J.H., Li Y.-P., Lin X., Liu S.X., Liu Z.A., Luros J.S., Maiti R., Marziali A., Militscher J., Miranda M., Nguyen M., Nierman W.C., Osborne B.I., Pai G., Peterson J., Pham P.K., Rizzo M., Rooney T., Rowley D., Sakano H., Salzberg S.L., Schwartz J.R., Shinn P., Southwick A.M., Sun H., Tallon L.J., Tambunga G., Toriumi M.J., Town C.D., Utterback T., Van Aken S., Vaysberg M., Vysotskaia V.S., Walker M., Wu D., Yu G., Fraser C.M., Venter J.C., Davis R.W.
    Nature 408:816-820(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  6. "The Arabidopsis RGA gene encodes a transcriptional regulator repressing the gibberellin signal transduction pathway."
    Silverstone A.L., Ciampaglio C.N., Sun T.-P.
    Plant Cell 10:155-169(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  7. "Gibberellins are not required for normal stem growth in Arabidopsis thaliana in the absence of GAI and RGA."
    King K.E., Moritz T., Harberd N.P.
    Genetics 159:767-776(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  8. "Synergistic derepression of gibberellin signaling by removing RGA and GAI function in Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Dill A., Sun T.-P.
    Genetics 159:777-785(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  9. "Expression of Arabidopsis GAI in transgenic rice represses multiple gibberellin responses."
    Fu X., Sudhakar D., Peng J., Richards D.E., Christou P., Harberd N.P.
    Plant Cell 13:1791-1802(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  10. "Gibberellin regulates Arabidopsis seed germination via RGL2, a GAI/RGA-like gene whose expression is up-regulated following imbibition."
    Lee S., Cheng H., King K.E., Wang W., He Y., Hussain A., Lo J., Harberd N.P., Peng J.
    Genes Dev. 16:646-658(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  11. "Evidence that the Arabidopsis nuclear gibberellin signalling protein GAI is not destabilised by gibberellin."
    Fleck B., Harberd N.P.
    Plant J. 32:935-947(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, LACK OF DEGRADATION, MUTAGENESIS OF 135-LYS--LYS-138 AND 219-ARG--ARG-223.
  12. "Gibberellin regulates Arabidopsis floral development via suppression of DELLA protein function."
    Cheng H., Qin L., Lee S., Fu X., Richards D.E., Cao D., Luo D., Harberd N.P., Peng J.
    Development 131:1055-1064(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  13. "The Arabidopsis F-box protein SLEEPY1 targets gibberellin signaling repressors for gibberellin-induced degradation."
    Dill A., Thomas S.G., Hu J., Steber C.M., Sun T.-P.
    Plant Cell 16:1392-1405(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH GID2.
  14. "The Arabidopsis mutant sleepy1gar2-1 protein promotes plant growth by increasing the affinity of the SCFSLY1 E3 ubiquitin ligase for DELLA protein substrates."
    Fu X., Richards D.E., Fleck B., Xie D., Burton N., Harberd N.P.
    Plant Cell 16:1406-1418(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH GID2.
  15. "Della proteins and gibberellin-regulated seed germination and floral development in Arabidopsis."
    Tyler L., Thomas S.G., Hu J., Dill A., Alonso J.M., Ecker J.R., Sun T.-P.
    Plant Physiol. 135:1008-1019(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH GID2.
  16. "Floral homeotic genes are targets of gibberellin signaling in flower development."
    Yu H., Ito T., Zhao Y., Peng J., Kumar P., Meyerowitz E.M.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101:7827-7832(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  17. "Loss of function of four DELLA genes leads to light- and gibberellin-independent seed germination in Arabidopsis."
    Cao D., Hussain A., Cheng H., Peng J.
    Planta 223:105-113(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  18. Cited for: INTERACTION WITH GID1A; GID1B AND GID1C.
  19. "DELLA proteins and their interacting RING Finger proteins repress gibberellin responses by binding to the promoters of a subset of gibberellin-responsive genes in Arabidopsis."
    Park J., Nguyen K.T., Park E., Jeon J.S., Choi G.
    Plant Cell 25:927-943(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH BOI; BRG1; BRG2 AND BRG3, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
  20. "Gibberellin-induced DELLA recognition by the gibberellin receptor GID1."
    Murase K., Hirano Y., Sun T.P., Hakoshima T.
    Nature 456:459-463(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (1.80 ANGSTROMS) OF 11-113 IN COMPLEX WITH GID1A AND GIBBERELLIN.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGAI_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9LQT8
Secondary accession number(s): O23643, O23724
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 22, 2005
Last sequence update: October 1, 2000
Last modified: September 3, 2014
This is version 93 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

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