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Q9H772 (GREM2_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified March 19, 2014. Version 88. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (5) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Gremlin-2
Alternative name(s):
Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 2
DAN domain family member 3
Protein related to DAN and cerberus
Gene names
Name:GREM2
Synonyms:CKTSF1B2, DAND3, PRDC
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length168 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Cytokine that inhibits the activity of BMP2 and BMP4 in a dose-dependent manner, and thereby modulates signaling by BMP family members. Contributes to the regulation of embryonic morphogenesis via BMP family members. Antagonizes BMP4-induced suppression of progesterone production in granulosa cells By similarity.

Subunit structure

Homodimer. Interacts with BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7, but has lower affinity for BMP7 than for BMP2 and BMP4. Binds heparin; this impairs the interaction with BMP2 By similarity.

Subcellular location

Secreted Probable.

Post-translational modification

N-glycosylated By similarity.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the DAN family.

Contains 1 CTCK (C-terminal cystine knot-like) domain.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Signal peptide1 – 2121 Potential
Chain22 – 168147Gremlin-2
PRO_0000006720

Regions

Domain73 – 16391CTCK

Amino acid modifications

Glycosylation401N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential
Glycosylation1611N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential
Disulfide bond73 ↔ 123 By similarity
Disulfide bond87 ↔ 137 By similarity
Disulfide bond97 ↔ 155 By similarity
Disulfide bond101 ↔ 157 By similarity

Natural variations

Natural variant1311V → I.
Corresponds to variant rs34188522 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_048876

Experimental info

Sequence conflict111L → M in AAH46632. Ref.3
Sequence conflict311P → H in AAH46632. Ref.3

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Q9H772 [UniParc].

Last modified March 1, 2001. Version 1.
Checksum: D5A4E4E818BF8C0E

FASTA16819,320
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MFWKLSLSLF LVAVLVKVAE ARKNRPAGAI PSPYKDGSSN NSERWQHQIK EVLASSQEAL 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
VVTERKYLKS DWCKTQPLRQ TVSEEGCRSR TILNRFCYGQ CNSFYIPRHV KKEEESFQSC 

       130        140        150        160 
AFCKPQRVTS VLVELECPGL DPPFRLKKIQ KVKQCRCMSV NLSDSDKQ 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S. expand/collapse author list , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Colon.
[2]"The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1."
Gregory S.G., Barlow K.F., McLay K.E., Kaul R., Swarbreck D., Dunham A., Scott C.E., Howe K.L., Woodfine K., Spencer C.C.A., Jones M.C., Gillson C., Searle S., Zhou Y., Kokocinski F., McDonald L., Evans R., Phillips K. expand/collapse author list , Atkinson A., Cooper R., Jones C., Hall R.E., Andrews T.D., Lloyd C., Ainscough R., Almeida J.P., Ambrose K.D., Anderson F., Andrew R.W., Ashwell R.I.S., Aubin K., Babbage A.K., Bagguley C.L., Bailey J., Beasley H., Bethel G., Bird C.P., Bray-Allen S., Brown J.Y., Brown A.J., Buckley D., Burton J., Bye J., Carder C., Chapman J.C., Clark S.Y., Clarke G., Clee C., Cobley V., Collier R.E., Corby N., Coville G.J., Davies J., Deadman R., Dunn M., Earthrowl M., Ellington A.G., Errington H., Frankish A., Frankland J., French L., Garner P., Garnett J., Gay L., Ghori M.R.J., Gibson R., Gilby L.M., Gillett W., Glithero R.J., Grafham D.V., Griffiths C., Griffiths-Jones S., Grocock R., Hammond S., Harrison E.S.I., Hart E., Haugen E., Heath P.D., Holmes S., Holt K., Howden P.J., Hunt A.R., Hunt S.E., Hunter G., Isherwood J., James R., Johnson C., Johnson D., Joy A., Kay M., Kershaw J.K., Kibukawa M., Kimberley A.M., King A., Knights A.J., Lad H., Laird G., Lawlor S., Leongamornlert D.A., Lloyd D.M., Loveland J., Lovell J., Lush M.J., Lyne R., Martin S., Mashreghi-Mohammadi M., Matthews L., Matthews N.S.W., McLaren S., Milne S., Mistry S., Moore M.J.F., Nickerson T., O'Dell C.N., Oliver K., Palmeiri A., Palmer S.A., Parker A., Patel D., Pearce A.V., Peck A.I., Pelan S., Phelps K., Phillimore B.J., Plumb R., Rajan J., Raymond C., Rouse G., Saenphimmachak C., Sehra H.K., Sheridan E., Shownkeen R., Sims S., Skuce C.D., Smith M., Steward C., Subramanian S., Sycamore N., Tracey A., Tromans A., Van Helmond Z., Wall M., Wallis J.M., White S., Whitehead S.L., Wilkinson J.E., Willey D.L., Williams H., Wilming L., Wray P.W., Wu Z., Coulson A., Vaudin M., Sulston J.E., Durbin R.M., Hubbard T., Wooster R., Dunham I., Carter N.P., McVean G., Ross M.T., Harrow J., Olson M.V., Beck S., Rogers J., Bentley D.R.
Nature 441:315-321(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[3]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Brain.
[4]"Identification and characterization of human CKTSF1B2 and CKTSF1B3 genes in silico."
Katoh M., Katoh M.
Oncol. Rep. 12:423-427(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: IDENTIFICATION.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
AK024848 mRNA. Translation: BAB15026.1.
AL358176 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAH74074.1.
BC046632 mRNA. Translation: AAH46632.1.
RefSeqNP_071914.3. NM_022469.3.
UniGeneHs.98206.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalQ9H772.
SMRQ9H772. Positions 50-160.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid122150. 1 interaction.
STRING9606.ENSP00000318650.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteQ9H772.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM62510699.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbQ9H772.
PRIDEQ9H772.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000318160; ENSP00000318650; ENSG00000180875.
GeneID64388.
KEGGhsa:64388.
UCSCuc001hys.3. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTD64388.
GeneCardsGC01M240652.
HGNCHGNC:17655. GREM2.
HPACAB009920.
MIM608832. gene.
neXtProtNX_Q9H772.
PharmGKBPA134968998.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG41424.
HOGENOMHOG000237358.
HOVERGENHBG051837.
InParanoidQ9H772.
OMACAFCKPH.
OrthoDBEOG7Q2N7B.
PhylomeDBQ9H772.
TreeFamTF106445.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeREACT_111102. Signal Transduction.
SignaLinkQ9H772.

Gene expression databases

BgeeQ9H772.
CleanExHS_GREM2.
GenevestigatorQ9H772.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR006207. Cys_knot_C.
IPR004133. DAN.
IPR017159. Gremlin_precursor.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF03045. DAN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFPIRSF037254. Gremlin_precursor. 1 hit.
SMARTSM00041. CT. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEPS01225. CTCK_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

GenomeRNAi64388.
NextBio66317.
PROQ9H772.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameGREM2_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9H772
Secondary accession number(s): Q86UD9
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 12, 2005
Last sequence update: March 1, 2001
Last modified: March 19, 2014
This is version 88 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

Human chromosome 1

Human chromosome 1: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM