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Q9H2H9 (S38A1_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified April 16, 2014. Version 95. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (3) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1
Alternative name(s):
Amino acid transporter A1
N-system amino acid transporter 2
Solute carrier family 38 member 1
System A amino acid transporter 1
System N amino acid transporter 1
Gene names
Name:SLC38A1
Synonyms:ATA1, NAT2, SAT1, SNAT1
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length487 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Functions as a sodium-dependent amino acid transporter. Mediates the saturable, pH-sensitive and electrogenic cotransport of glutamine and sodium ions with a stoichiometry of 1:1. May also transport small zwitterionic and aliphatic amino acids with a lower affinity. May supply glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons with glutamine which is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA. Ref.1

Enzyme regulation

Inhibited by potassium, choline ions and 2-methylamino-isobutyric acid (MeAIB) By similarity. Inhibited by lithium and N-methyl-D-glucamine. Ref.1

Subcellular location

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note: Restricted to the somatodendritic compartment of neurons. Found in the cellular processes of neurons in the developing brain By similarity. Ref.8

Tissue specificity

Expressed in the cerebral cortex by pyramidal and GABAergic neurons, astrocytes and other non-neuronal cells (at protein level). Expressed in placenta, heart, lung, skeletal muscle, spleen, stomach and testis. Ref.1 Ref.7 Ref.8 Ref.9

Induction

Down-regulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in glial cells. Down-regulated upon hypoxia. Ref.1 Ref.7 Ref.11

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the amino acid/polyamine transporter 2 family.

Biophysicochemical properties

Kinetic parameters:

KM=890 µM for 2-methylamino-isobutyric acid (MeAIB) (at pH 8.5) Ref.1

Sequence caution

The sequence AAG44546.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Frameshift at position 443.

The sequence BAC11186.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 487487Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1
PRO_0000310475

Regions

Topological domain1 – 7474Cytoplasmic Potential
Transmembrane75 – 9723Helical; Potential
Topological domain98 – 11215Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane113 – 13321Helical; Potential
Topological domain134 – 14714Cytoplasmic Potential
Transmembrane148 – 16821Helical; Potential
Topological domain169 – 18820Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane189 – 21123Helical; Potential
Topological domain212 – 2165Cytoplasmic Potential
Transmembrane217 – 23721Helical; Potential
Topological domain238 – 27538Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane276 – 29621Helical; Potential
Topological domain297 – 31216Cytoplasmic Potential
Transmembrane313 – 33321Helical; Potential
Topological domain334 – 35017Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane351 – 37121Helical; Potential
Topological domain372 – 39322Cytoplasmic Potential
Transmembrane394 – 41421Helical; Potential
Topological domain415 – 4162Extracellular Potential
Transmembrane417 – 43721Helical; Potential
Topological domain438 – 45215Cytoplasmic Potential
Transmembrane453 – 47321Helical; Potential
Topological domain474 – 48714Extracellular Potential

Amino acid modifications

Modified residue251Phosphoserine Ref.13
Modified residue281Phosphoserine Ref.13
Modified residue521Phosphoserine Ref.13 Ref.14 Ref.15
Modified residue541Phosphothreonine Ref.13 Ref.14 Ref.15
Modified residue561Phosphoserine Ref.13 Ref.14
Glycosylation2511N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential
Glycosylation2571N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential

Experimental info

Sequence conflict1071L → P in BAB55394. Ref.3
Sequence conflict2031F → V in BAC11310. Ref.4
Sequence conflict3751V → D in AAG44546. Ref.2
Sequence conflict483 – 4842SD → NG in AAG44546. Ref.2

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Q9H2H9 [UniParc].

Last modified March 1, 2001. Version 1.
Checksum: 5CBC96880D7BDE03

FASTA48754,048
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MMHFKSGLEL TELQNMTVPE DDNISNDSND FTEVENGQIN SKFISDRESR RSLTNSHLEK 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
KKCDEYIPGT TSLGMSVFNL SNAIMGSGIL GLAFALANTG ILLFLVLLTS VTLLSIYSIN 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
LLLICSKETG CMVYEKLGEQ VFGTTGKFVI FGATSLQNTG AMLSYLFIVK NELPSAIKFL 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
MGKEETFSAW YVDGRVLVVI VTFGIILPLC LLKNLGYLGY TSGFSLSCMV FFLIVVIYKK 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
FQIPCIVPEL NSTISANSTN ADTCTPKYVT FNSKTVYALP TIAFAFVCHP SVLPIYSELK 

       310        320        330        340        350        360 
DRSQKKMQMV SNISFFAMFV MYFLTAIFGY LTFYDNVQSD LLHKYQSKDD ILILTVRLAV 

       370        380        390        400        410        420 
IVAVILTVPV LFFTVRSSLF ELAKKTKFNL CRHTVVTCIL LVVINLLVIF IPSMKDIFGV 

       430        440        450        460        470        480 
VGVTSANMLI FILPSSLYLK ITDQDGDKGT QRIWAALFLG LGVLFSLVSI PLVIYDWACS 


SSSDEGH 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Cloning and functional expression of ATA1, a subtype of amino acid transporter A, from human placenta."
Wang H., Huang W., Sugawara M., Devoe L.D., Leibach F.H., Prasad P.D., Ganapathy V.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 273:1175-1179(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION, ENZYME REGULATION, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
Tissue: Placenta.
[2]Xu X., Yang Y., Gao G., Xiao H., Chen Z., Han Z.
Submitted (MAR-2000) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
Tissue: Hypothalamus.
[3]"Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S. expand/collapse author list , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Placenta and Teratocarcinoma.
[4]"Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries."
Otsuki T., Ota T., Nishikawa T., Hayashi K., Suzuki Y., Yamamoto J., Wakamatsu A., Kimura K., Sakamoto K., Hatano N., Kawai Y., Ishii S., Saito K., Kojima S., Sugiyama T., Ono T., Okano K., Yoshikawa Y. expand/collapse author list , Aotsuka S., Sasaki N., Hattori A., Okumura K., Nagai K., Sugano S., Isogai T.
DNA Res. 12:117-126(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Teratocarcinoma.
[5]Mural R.J., Istrail S., Sutton G.G., Florea L., Halpern A.L., Mobarry C.M., Lippert R., Walenz B., Shatkay H., Dew I., Miller J.R., Flanigan M.J., Edwards N.J., Bolanos R., Fasulo D., Halldorsson B.V., Hannenhalli S., Turner R. expand/collapse author list , Yooseph S., Lu F., Nusskern D.R., Shue B.C., Zheng X.H., Zhong F., Delcher A.L., Huson D.H., Kravitz S.A., Mouchard L., Reinert K., Remington K.A., Clark A.G., Waterman M.S., Eichler E.E., Adams M.D., Hunkapiller M.W., Myers E.W., Venter J.C.
Submitted (JUL-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[6]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Eye.
[7]"Hypoxia reduces expression and function of system A amino acid transporters in cultured term human trophoblasts."
Nelson D.M., Smith S.D., Furesz T.C., Sadovsky Y., Ganapathy V., Parvin C.A., Smith C.H.
Am. J. Physiol. 284:C310-C315(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION.
[8]"Localization of the glutamine transporter SNAT1 in rat cerebral cortex and neighboring structures, with a note on its localization in human cortex."
Melone M., Quagliano F., Barbaresi P., Varoqui H., Erickson J.D., Conti F.
Cereb. Cortex 14:562-574(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[9]"SNAT4 isoform of system A amino acid transporter is expressed in human placenta."
Desforges M., Lacey H.A., Glazier J.D., Greenwood S.L., Mynett K.J., Speake P.F., Sibley C.P.
Am. J. Physiol. 290:C305-C312(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[10]"Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks."
Olsen J.V., Blagoev B., Gnad F., Macek B., Kumar C., Mortensen P., Mann M.
Cell 127:635-648(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
Tissue: Cervix carcinoma.
[11]"Functional expression of a glutamine transporter responsive to down-regulation by lipopolysaccharide through reduced promoter activity in cultured rat neocortical astrocytes."
Ogura M., Nakamichi N., Takano K., Oikawa H., Kambe Y., Ohno Y., Taniura H., Yoneda Y.
J. Neurosci. Res. 83:1447-1460(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INDUCTION BY LPS.
[12]"Kinase-selective enrichment enables quantitative phosphoproteomics of the kinome across the cell cycle."
Daub H., Olsen J.V., Bairlein M., Gnad F., Oppermann F.S., Korner R., Greff Z., Keri G., Stemmann O., Mann M.
Mol. Cell 31:438-448(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
Tissue: Cervix carcinoma.
[13]"A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation."
Dephoure N., Zhou C., Villen J., Beausoleil S.A., Bakalarski C.E., Elledge S.J., Gygi S.P.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105:10762-10767(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-25; SER-28; SER-52; THR-54 AND SER-56, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
Tissue: Cervix carcinoma.
[14]"Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis."
Olsen J.V., Vermeulen M., Santamaria A., Kumar C., Miller M.L., Jensen L.J., Gnad F., Cox J., Jensen T.S., Nigg E.A., Brunak S., Mann M.
Sci. Signal. 3:RA3-RA3(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-52; THR-54 AND SER-56, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
Tissue: Cervix carcinoma.
[15]"System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation."
Rigbolt K.T., Prokhorova T.A., Akimov V., Henningsen J., Johansen P.T., Kratchmarova I., Kassem M., Mann M., Olsen J.V., Blagoev B.
Sci. Signal. 4:RS3-RS3(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-52 AND THR-54, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
AF271070 mRNA. Translation: AAG39354.1.
AF247166 mRNA. Translation: AAG44546.1. Frameshift.
AK027825 mRNA. Translation: BAB55394.1.
AK074758 mRNA. Translation: BAC11186.1. Different initiation.
AK074949 mRNA. Translation: BAC11310.1.
CH471111 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW57895.1.
BC010620 mRNA. Translation: AAH10620.1.
PIRJC7328.
RefSeqNP_001070952.1. NM_001077484.1.
NP_001265316.1. NM_001278387.1.
NP_001265317.1. NM_001278388.1.
NP_001265318.1. NM_001278389.1.
NP_109599.3. NM_030674.3.
UniGeneHs.533770.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalQ9H2H9.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid123509. 1 interaction.
STRING9606.ENSP00000381634.

Chemistry

GuidetoPHARMACOLOGY1169.

Protein family/group databases

TCDB2.A.18.6.14. the amino acid/auxin permease (aaap) family.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteQ9H2H9.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM74733561.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbQ9H2H9.
PRIDEQ9H2H9.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASU81539.
StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000398637; ENSP00000381634; ENSG00000111371.
ENST00000439706; ENSP00000398142; ENSG00000111371.
ENST00000546893; ENSP00000447853; ENSG00000111371.
ENST00000549049; ENSP00000449607; ENSG00000111371.
GeneID81539.
KEGGhsa:81539.
UCSCuc001rpa.3. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTD81539.
GeneCardsGC12M046576.
HGNCHGNC:13447. SLC38A1.
HPAHPA052272.
MIM608490. gene.
neXtProtNX_Q9H2H9.
PharmGKBPA37772.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGCOG0814.
HOGENOMHOG000013088.
HOVERGENHBG059571.
KOK14990.
PhylomeDBQ9H2H9.
TreeFamTF328787.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeREACT_13685. Neuronal System.
REACT_15518. Transmembrane transport of small molecules.
REACT_19419. Amino acid and oligopeptide SLC transporters.

Gene expression databases

ArrayExpressQ9H2H9.
BgeeQ9H2H9.
CleanExHS_NAT2.
HS_SAT1.
HS_SLC38A1.
GenevestigatorQ9H2H9.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR013057. AA_transpt_TM.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF01490. Aa_trans. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

ChiTaRSSLC38A1. human.
GeneWikiSLC38A1.
GenomeRNAi81539.
NextBio71767.
PROQ9H2H9.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameS38A1_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9H2H9
Secondary accession number(s): Q8NC61 expand/collapse secondary AC list , Q8NCF8, Q96JX2, Q9H2Q2
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 13, 2007
Last sequence update: March 1, 2001
Last modified: April 16, 2014
This is version 95 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human chromosome 12

Human chromosome 12: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM