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Protein

Chymosin

Gene

CYM

Organism
Camelus dromedarius (Dromedary) (Arabian camel)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Chymosin is synthesized in the mucosa of the abomasum (fourth stomach) of young (unweaned) ruminants (PubMed:16488399). The enzyme hydrolyzes casein to paracasein (PubMed:16488399, PubMed:23633601, PubMed:25726113, PubMed:25837439).4 Publications

Catalytic activityi

Broad specificity similar to that of pepsin A. Clots milk by cleavage of a single 104-Ser-Phe-|-Met-Ala-107 bond in kappa-chain of casein.4 Publications

Kineticsi

kcat is 5.1 s(-1) for undecapeptide analog to chymosin sensitive region of camel kappa-chain of casein and kcat is 11.7 s(-1) for undecapeptide analog to chymosin sensitive region of bovine kappa-chain of casein (PubMed:16488399). Activity is 462 International Milk-Clotting Units (IMCU) per mg enzyme. kcat is 11 s(-1) for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (unglycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.7), kcat is 53 s(-1) for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (unglycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.0), kcat is 47 s(-1) for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (unglycosylated form of chymosin at pH 5.5), kcat is 14 s(-1) for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (double-glycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.7), kcat is 65 s(-1) for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (double-glycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.0) and kcat is 59 s(-1) for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (double-glycosylated form of chymosin at pH 5.5) (PubMed:25726113). Activity is 400 IMCU per ml enzyme. Supplemental CaCl2 at concentration between 20-40 mM is optimal for stable enzyme activity (PubMed:25837439).3 Publications

Manual assertion based on experiment ini

  1. KM=56 µM for undecapeptide analog to chymosin sensitive region of camel kappa-chain of casein1 Publication
  2. KM=77 µM for undecapeptide analog to chymosin sensitive region of bovine kappa-chain of casein1 Publication
  3. KM=18 µM for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (unglycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.7)1 Publication
  4. KM=11 µM for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (unglycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.0)1 Publication
  5. KM=7 µM for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (unglycosylated form of chymosin at pH 5.5)1 Publication
  6. KM=20 µM for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (double-glycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.7)1 Publication
  7. KM=11 µM for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (double-glycosylated form of chymosin at pH 6.0)1 Publication
  8. KM=8 µM for a labeled peptide substrate of 98-112 of bovine kappa-chain of casein (double-glycosylated form of chymosin at pH 5.5)1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is about 5.1 (PubMed:16488399). Activity decreases with increasing pH values (PubMed:25837439).2 Publications

    Temperature dependencei

    Optimum temperature is between 45-55 degrees Celsius (PubMed:16488399, PubMed:25837439). 50% activity at 35 and 60 degrees Celsius. No activity below 20 or above 70 degrees Celsius (PubMed:25837439).2 Publications

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Active sitei92PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1
    Active sitei274PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication1

    GO - Molecular functioni

    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Aspartyl protease, Hydrolase, Protease

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Digestion

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BRENDAi3.4.23.4. 1085.

    Protein family/group databases

    MEROPSiA01.006.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Chymosin1 PublicationImported (EC:3.4.23.44 Publications)
    Gene namesi
    Name:CYMCurated
    OrganismiCamelus dromedarius (Dromedary) (Arabian camel)Imported
    Taxonomic identifieri9838 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaTylopodaCamelidaeCamelus

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Biotechnological usei

    The extraordinary high clotting activity, combined with its very low non-specific activity may be useful in the production of cheese types, for which a bitter taste is unfavorable, for example Mascarpone type cheese (PubMed:16488399). Large-scale expression of camel chymosin gene in P.pastoris could represent an excellent system for producing active chymosin for potential use in the commercial production of cheese (PubMed:25837439).2 Publications

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Signal peptidei1 – 16By similarityAdd BLAST16
    PropeptideiPRO_000043846217 – 58Activation peptide1 PublicationAdd BLAST42
    ChainiPRO_500432643859 – 381ChymosinAdd BLAST323

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Disulfide bondi105 ↔ 110Combined sources1 Publication
    GlycosylationiCAR_5005390115158N-linked (GlcNAc...)Combined sources1 Publication1
    Disulfide bondi265 ↔ 269Combined sources1 Publication
    Disulfide bondi308 ↔ 341PROSITE-ProRule annotationCombined sources1 Publication
    Glycosylationi349N-linked (GlcNAc...)1 Publication1

    Keywords - PTMi

    Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Zymogen

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    4AA9X-ray1.60A62-381[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliQ9GK11.
    SMRiQ9GK11.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Domaini74 – 378Peptidase A1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST305

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the peptidase A1 family.PROSITE-ProRule annotationCurated
    Contains 1 peptidase A1 domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

    Keywords - Domaini

    Signal

    Phylogenomic databases

    HOVERGENiHBG000482.
    OrthoDBiEOG091G0JP7.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di2.40.70.10. 2 hits.
    InterProiIPR001461. Aspartic_peptidase_A1.
    IPR001969. Aspartic_peptidase_AS.
    IPR012848. Aspartic_peptidase_N.
    IPR033121. PEPTIDASE_A1.
    IPR021109. Peptidase_aspartic_dom.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF07966. A1_Propeptide. 1 hit.
    PF00026. Asp. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PRINTSiPR00792. PEPSIN.
    SUPFAMiSSF50630. SSF50630. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00141. ASP_PROTEASE. 2 hits.
    PS51767. PEPTIDASE_A1. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    Q9GK11-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MRCLVVLLAA LALSQASGIT RIPLHKGKTL RKALKERGLL EDFLQRQQYA
    60 70 80 90 100
    VSSKYSSLGK VAREPLTSYL DSQYFGKIYI GTPPQEFTVV FDTGSSDLWV
    110 120 130 140 150
    PSIYCKSNVC KNHHRFDPRK SSTFRNLGKP LSIHYGTGSM EGFLGYDTVT
    160 170 180 190 200
    VSNIVDPNQT VGLSTEQPGE VFTYSEFDGI LGLAYPSLAS EYSVPVFDNM
    210 220 230 240 250
    MDRHLVARDL FSVYMDRNGQ GSMLTLGAID PSYYTGSLHW VPVTLQQYWQ
    260 270 280 290 300
    FTVDSVTING VAVACVGGCQ AILDTGTSVL FGPSSDILKI QMAIGATENR
    310 320 330 340 350
    YGEFDVNCGN LRSMPTVVFE INGRDYPLSP SAYTSKDQGF CTSGFQGDNN
    360 370 380
    SELWILGDVF IREYYSVFDR ANNRVGLAKA I
    Length:381
    Mass (Da):42,083
    Last modified:March 1, 2001 - v1
    Checksum:i24BADB57B2E7FDD7
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AJ131677 mRNA. Translation: CAC19554.1.
    RefSeqiNP_001290503.1. NM_001303574.1.

    Genome annotation databases

    GeneIDi105085668.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AJ131677 mRNA. Translation: CAC19554.1.
    RefSeqiNP_001290503.1. NM_001303574.1.

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    4AA9X-ray1.60A62-381[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliQ9GK11.
    SMRiQ9GK11.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein family/group databases

    MEROPSiA01.006.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    GeneIDi105085668.

    Phylogenomic databases

    HOVERGENiHBG000482.
    OrthoDBiEOG091G0JP7.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BRENDAi3.4.23.4. 1085.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di2.40.70.10. 2 hits.
    InterProiIPR001461. Aspartic_peptidase_A1.
    IPR001969. Aspartic_peptidase_AS.
    IPR012848. Aspartic_peptidase_N.
    IPR033121. PEPTIDASE_A1.
    IPR021109. Peptidase_aspartic_dom.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF07966. A1_Propeptide. 1 hit.
    PF00026. Asp. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PRINTSiPR00792. PEPSIN.
    SUPFAMiSSF50630. SSF50630. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00141. ASP_PROTEASE. 2 hits.
    PS51767. PEPTIDASE_A1. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    ProtoNetiSearch...

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiCHYM_CAMDR
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9GK11
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 30, 2016
    Last sequence update: March 1, 2001
    Last modified: November 30, 2016
    This is version 81 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Direct protein sequencing

    Documents

    1. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    2. Peptidase families
      Classification of peptidase families and list of entries
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.