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Protein

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GAPC2, cytosolic

Gene

GAPC2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Key enzyme in glycolysis that catalyzes the first step of the pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. Essential for the maintenance of cellular ATP levels and carbohydrate metabolism (By similarity). Binds DNA in vitro.By similarity1 Publication

Miscellaneous

Plants contain three types of GAPDH: NAD-dependent cytosolic forms which participate in glycolysis, NAD-dependent chloroplastic forms which participate in plastidic glycolysis and NADP-dependent chloroplastic forms which participate in the photosynthetic reductive pentose phosphate pathway (Calvin-Benson cycle). All the forms are encoded by distinct genes.

Catalytic activityi

D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + phosphate + NAD+ = 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate + NADH.PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication

Enzyme regulationi

Inhibition by oxidized glutathione (GSSG), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and hydrogen peroxide.2 Publications

Pathwayi: glycolysis

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.
Proteins known to be involved in the 5 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GAPC2, cytosolic (GAPC2), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GAPC1, cytosolic (GAPC1)
  2. Phosphoglycerate kinase 3, cytosolic (PGK3)
  3. Probable 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase 2 (At3g08590), 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGM1)
  4. Enolase 1, chloroplastic (ENO1), Cytosolic enolase 3 (ENO3), Bifunctional enolase 2/transcriptional activator (ENO2)
  5. Pyruvate kinase (AXX17_At3g24740), Pyruvate kinase (AXX17_At5g51800), Pyruvate kinase (At5g63680), Pyruvate kinase (AXX17_At3g50280), Pyruvate kinase (AXX17_ATUG04870), Pyruvate kinase (MAH20.13), Pyruvate kinase (MCD7.8), Pyruvate kinase (At3g25960), Pyruvate kinase (MBK5.16), Pyruvate kinase (F1I16_60), Pyruvate kinase (AXX17_At3g50440), Plastidial pyruvate kinase 3, chloroplastic (PKP3), Pyruvate kinase (At5g08570), Pyruvate kinase (At3g52990), Pyruvate kinase (At5g56350), Pyruvate kinase (AXX17_At3g28070), Pyruvate kinase (AXX17_At3g47400), Pyruvate kinase (At2g36580), Pyruvate kinase, Probable pyruvate kinase, cytosolic isozyme (At4g26390), Pyruvate kinase (F8J2_160), Pyruvate kinase (At3g52990), Pyruvate kinase (AXX17_At3g03460), Plastidial pyruvate kinase 2 (PKP2), Pyruvate kinase (At2g36580), Pyruvate kinase (At3g04050), Pyruvate kinase (AXX17_At4g30430), Pyruvate kinase (F1I16_220), Plastidial pyruvate kinase 1, chloroplastic (PKP1), Pyruvate kinase (AXX17_At1g33230), Pyruvate kinase (At5g63680), Pyruvate kinase, Plastidial pyruvate kinase 4, chloroplastic (PKP4)
This subpathway is part of the pathway glycolysis, which is itself part of Carbohydrate degradation.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, the pathway glycolysis and in Carbohydrate degradation.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Binding sitei37NADBy similarity1
Binding sitei84NAD; via carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Active sitei156NucleophilePROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Sitei183Activates thiol group during catalysisBy similarity1
Binding sitei186Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphateBy similarity1
Binding sitei238Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphateBy similarity1
Binding sitei320NADBy similarity1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Nucleotide bindingi15 – 16NADBy similarity2

GO - Molecular functioni

  • copper ion binding Source: TAIR
  • DNA binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (phosphorylating) activity Source: UniProtKB
  • NAD binding Source: InterPro
  • NADP binding Source: InterPro
  • zinc ion binding Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  • defense response to bacterium Source: TAIR
  • gluconeogenesis Source: TAIR
  • glycolytic process Source: TAIR
  • response to cadmium ion Source: TAIR
  • response to oxidative stress Source: TAIR

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDNA-binding, Oxidoreductase
Biological processGlycolysis
LigandNAD

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-ATH-70171. Glycolysis.
R-ATH-70263. Gluconeogenesis.
UniPathwayiUPA00109; UER00184.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GAPC2, cytosolic (EC:1.2.1.12)
Alternative name(s):
NAD-dependent glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase C subunit 2
Gene namesi
Name:GAPC2
Synonyms:GAPDH
Ordered Locus Names:At1g13440
ORF Names:T6J4.17
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT1G13440.
TAIRilocus:2010007. AT1G13440.

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Chloroplast Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertion Graphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00004207301 – 338Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GAPC2, cytosolicAdd BLAST338

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei156S-glutathionyl cysteine; transient; alternate1 Publication1
Modified residuei156S-nitrosocysteine; transient; alternate1 Publication1
Modified residuei160S-nitrosocysteine; transient1 Publication1

Post-translational modificationi

S-glutathionylation at Cys-156 in the presence of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). S-nitrosylation at Cys-156 and Cys-160 in the presence of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP). These reactions may be both a protective mechanism against irreversible oxidation and a mean to store inhibited enzyme in a recoverable form.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9FX54.
PRIDEiQ9FX54.

2D gel databases

World-2DPAGEi0003:Q9FX54.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ9FX54.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ9FX54. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ9FX54. AT.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homotetramer (By similarity). Interacts with PLDDELTA.By similarity1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi23144. 16 interactors.
IntActiQ9FX54. 2 interactors.
STRINGi3702.AT1G13440.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9FX54.
SMRiQ9FX54.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni155 – 157Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate bindingBy similarity3
Regioni215 – 216Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate bindingBy similarity2

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0657. Eukaryota.
COG0057. LUCA.
InParanoidiQ9FX54.
KOiK00134.
OMAiVNHETYN.
OrthoDBiEOG09360F5Y.
PhylomeDBiQ9FX54.

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR020831. GlycerAld/Erythrose_P_DH.
IPR020830. GlycerAld_3-P_DH_AS.
IPR020829. GlycerAld_3-P_DH_cat.
IPR020828. GlycerAld_3-P_DH_NAD(P)-bd.
IPR006424. Glyceraldehyde-3-P_DH_1.
IPR036291. NAD(P)-bd_dom_sf.
PANTHERiPTHR10836. PTHR10836. 1 hit.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF02800. Gp_dh_C. 1 hit.
PF00044. Gp_dh_N. 1 hit.
PIRSFiPIRSF000149. GAP_DH. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00078. G3PDHDRGNASE.
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00846. Gp_dh_N. 1 hit.
SUPFAMiSSF51735. SSF51735. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01534. GAPDH-I. 1 hit.
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00071. GAPDH. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 1 isoform i produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Note: A number of isoforms are produced. According to EST sequences.
Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9FX54-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MADKKIRIGI NGFGRIGRLV ARVVLQRDDV ELVAVNDPFI TTEYMTYMFK
60 70 80 90 100
YDSVHGQWKH HELKVKDDKT LLFGEKPVTV FGIRNPEDIP WGEAGADFVV
110 120 130 140 150
ESTGVFTDKD KAAAHLKGGA KKVVISAPSK DAPMFVVGVN EHEYKSDLDI
160 170 180 190 200
VSNASCTTNC LAPLAKVIND RFGIVEGLMT TVHSITATQK TVDGPSMKDW
210 220 230 240 250
RGGRAASFNI IPSSTGAAKA VGKVLPSLNG KLTGMSFRVP TVDVSVVDLT
260 270 280 290 300
VRLEKAATYD EIKKAIKEES EGKMKGILGY TEDDVVSTDF VGDNRSSIFD
310 320 330
AKAGIALSDK FVKLVSWYDN EWGYSSRVVD LIVHMSKA
Length:338
Mass (Da):36,913
Last modified:March 1, 2001 - v1
Checksum:i6EED7A21EBD51D64
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti22R → K in BAH20011 (PubMed:19423640).Curated1
Sequence conflicti262I → V in BAH20011 (PubMed:19423640).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AC011810 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG09543.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE29016.1.
AF410271 mRNA. Translation: AAK95257.1.
AY049259 mRNA. Translation: AAK83601.1.
AY090275 mRNA. Translation: AAL90936.1.
AK317337 mRNA. Translation: BAH20011.1.
RefSeqiNP_172801.1. NM_101214.4. [Q9FX54-1]
UniGeneiAt.23790.
At.24406.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G13440.1; AT1G13440.1; AT1G13440. [Q9FX54-1]
GeneIDi837904.
GrameneiAT1G13440.1; AT1G13440.1; AT1G13440.
KEGGiath:AT1G13440.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiG3PC2_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9FX54
Secondary accession number(s): B9DGZ4
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 9, 2013
Last sequence update: March 1, 2001
Last modified: October 25, 2017
This is version 130 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families