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Protein

Zeaxanthin epoxidase, chloroplastic

Gene

ZEP

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Zeaxanthin epoxidase that plays an important role in the xanthophyll cycle and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Converts zeaxanthin into antheraxanthin and subsequently violaxanthin. Required for resistance to osmotic and drought stresses, ABA-dependent stomatal closure, seed development and dormancy, modulation of defense gene expression and disease resistance and non-photochemical quencing (NPQ). Through its role in ABA biosynthesis, regulates the expression of stress-responsive genes such as RD29A during osmotic stress and is required for normal plant growth during vegetative development. Is required for late skotomorphogenic growth through its role in the xanthophyll carotenoids neoxanthin, violaxanthin and antheraxanthin biosynthesis. Required for beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA)-induced priming in disease resistance, tolerance to salt and drought stresses and sterility. Participates in NPQ by regulating the level of zeaxanthin in photosynthetic energy conversion. NPQ is a process that maintains the balance between dissipation and utilization of light energy to minimize the generation of oxidizing molecules and the molecular damages they can generate.13 Publications

Catalytic activityi

Zeaxanthin + 2 NAD(P)H + 2 O2 = violaxanthin + 2 NAD(P)+ + 2 H2O.

Cofactori

FADCurated

Pathwayi: abscisate biosynthesis

This protein is involved in the pathway abscisate biosynthesis, which is part of Plant hormone biosynthesis.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway abscisate biosynthesis and in Plant hormone biosynthesis.

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Nucleotide bindingi82 – 110FADSequence analysisAdd BLAST29
Nucleotide bindingi360 – 373FADSequence analysisAdd BLAST14

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • abscisic acid biosynthetic process Source: TAIR
  • response to heat Source: TAIR
  • response to red light Source: TAIR
  • response to water deprivation Source: TAIR
  • secondary metabolite biosynthetic process Source: GO_Central
  • sugar mediated signaling pathway Source: TAIR
  • xanthophyll biosynthetic process Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Oxidoreductase

Keywords - Biological processi

Abscisic acid biosynthesis, Stress response

Keywords - Ligandi

FAD, Flavoprotein, NAD, NADP

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:AT5G67030-MONOMER.
BRENDAi1.14.13.90. 399.
UniPathwayiUPA00090.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Zeaxanthin epoxidase, chloroplastic (EC:1.14.13.90)
Short name:
AtZEP
Alternative name(s):
Protein ABA DEFICIENT 1
Short name:
AtABA1
Protein IMPAIRED IN BABA-INDUCED STERILITY 3
Protein LOW EXPRESSION OF OSMOTIC STRESS-RESPONSIVE GENES 6
Protein NON-PHOTOCHEMICAL QUENCHING 2
Gene namesi
Name:ZEP
Synonyms:ABA1, IBS3, LOS6, NPQ2
Ordered Locus Names:At5g67030
ORF Names:K8A10.10
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G67030.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • chloroplast Source: TAIR
  • chloroplast envelope Source: TAIR
  • chloroplast membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  • chloroplast thylakoid membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chloroplast, Membrane, Plastid, Thylakoid

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Increased endogenous level of zeaxanthin and reduced level of ABA. Reduced size of leaves, inflorescences and flowers, early flowering, increased number of wilted plants, premature seed germination and reduced osmotic water permeability and ability to close stomata. Reduced susceptibility to virulent isolates of P.parasitica and sensitivity to BABA-induced priming.8 Publications

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi125P → A in aba1-3; ABA-deficient phenotype. 1
Mutagenesisi160G → S in aba1-6; ABA-deficient phenotype. 1
Mutagenesisi386G → E in los6; reduces plant size, accelerates flowering and increases transpirational water loss. 1 Publication1

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Transit peptidei1 – 59ChloroplastSequence analysisAdd BLAST59
ChainiPRO_000041207260 – 667Zeaxanthin epoxidase, chloroplasticAdd BLAST608

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9FGC7.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in leaves, stems and flowers, and at lower levels in roots and siliques.1 Publication

Inductioni

By ABA and drought, salt and osmotic stresses.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiQ9FGC7. AT.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi3702.AT5G67030.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9FGC7.
SMRiQ9FGC7.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini558 – 612FHAPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST55

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 1 FHA domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Transit peptide

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG2614. Eukaryota.
COG0654. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000240835.
InParanoidiQ9FGC7.
KOiK09838.
OMAiYAFYNEP.
OrthoDBiEOG09360CN9.
PhylomeDBiQ9FGC7.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.60.200.20. 1 hit.
3.50.50.60. 3 hits.
InterProiIPR002938. FAD-bd.
IPR023753. FAD/NAD-binding_dom.
IPR000253. FHA_dom.
IPR008984. SMAD_FHA_domain.
IPR017079. Zeaxanthin_epoxidase.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01494. FAD_binding_3. 2 hits.
PF00498. FHA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF036989. Zeaxanthin_epoxidase. 1 hit.
SMARTiSM00240. FHA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF49879. SSF49879. 1 hit.
SSF51905. SSF51905. 2 hits.
PROSITEiPS50006. FHA_DOMAIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9FGC7-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MGSTPFCYSI NPSPSKLDFT RTHVFSPVSK QFYLDLSSFS GKPGGVSGFR
60 70 80 90 100
SRRALLGVKA ATALVEKEEK REAVTEKKKK SRVLVAGGGI GGLVFALAAK
110 120 130 140 150
KKGFDVLVFE KDLSAIRGEG KYRGPIQIQS NALAALEAID IEVAEQVMEA
160 170 180 190 200
GCITGDRING LVDGISGTWY VKFDTFTPAA SRGLPVTRVI SRMTLQQILA
210 220 230 240 250
RAVGEDVIRN ESNVVDFEDS GDKVTVVLEN GQRYEGDLLV GADGIWSKVR
260 270 280 290 300
NNLFGRSEAT YSGYTCYTGI ADFIPADIES VGYRVFLGHK QYFVSSDVGG
310 320 330 340 350
GKMQWYAFHE EPAGGADAPN GMKKRLFEIF DGWCDNVLDL LHATEEEAIL
360 370 380 390 400
RRDIYDRSPG FTWGKGRVTL LGDSIHAMQP NMGQGGCMAI EDSFQLALEL
410 420 430 440 450
DEAWKQSVET TTPVDVVSSL KRYEESRRLR VAIIHAMARM AAIMASTYKA
460 470 480 490 500
YLGVGLGPLS FLTKFRVPHP GRVGGRFFVD IAMPSMLDWV LGGNSEKLQG
510 520 530 540 550
RPPSCRLTDK ADDRLREWFE DDDALERTIK GEWYLIPHGD DCCVSETLCL
560 570 580 590 600
TKDEDQPCIV GSEPDQDFPG MRIVIPSSQV SKMHARVIYK DGAFFLMDLR
610 620 630 640 650
SEHGTYVTDN EGRRYRATPN FPARFRSSDI IEFGSDKKAA FRVKVIRKTP
660
KSTRKNESNN DKLLQTA
Length:667
Mass (Da):73,842
Last modified:March 1, 2001 - v1
Checksum:i89A0A6E6B8A26D5D
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q9FGC7-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     581-610: SKMHARVIYKDGAFFLMDLRSEHGTYVTDN → YKLYACSCDLQRRSFLLDGSSKRTRNLCDR
     611-667: Missing.

Show »
Length:610
Mass (Da):67,328
Checksum:i53A5C3BE6078F2E1
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAL91193 differs from that shown. Intron retention.Curated
The sequence AAO00920 differs from that shown. Intron retention.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti29S → A in AAG17703 (Ref. 3) Curated1
Sequence conflicti29S → A in AAG38877 (Ref. 3) Curated1
Sequence conflicti42 – 54KPGGV…RSRRA → RSGGGLSVFRSRKT in AAG17703 (Ref. 3) CuratedAdd BLAST13
Sequence conflicti42 – 54KPGGV…RSRRA → RSGGGLSVFRSRKT in AAG38877 (Ref. 3) CuratedAdd BLAST13
Sequence conflicti76E → D in AAF82390 (Ref. 2) Curated1
Sequence conflicti76E → D in AAF82391 (Ref. 2) Curated1
Sequence conflicti77Missing in AAG17703 (Ref. 3) Curated1
Sequence conflicti77Missing in AAG38877 (Ref. 3) Curated1
Sequence conflicti116I → M in AAF82390 (Ref. 2) Curated1
Sequence conflicti116I → M in AAF82391 (Ref. 2) Curated1
Sequence conflicti180 – 182ASR → GVT in AAF82390 (Ref. 2) Curated3
Sequence conflicti180 – 182ASR → GVT in AAF82391 (Ref. 2) Curated3
Sequence conflicti194T → I in BAB11935 (PubMed:10859185).Curated1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_041638581 – 610SKMHA…YVTDN → YKLYACSCDLQRRSFLLDGS SKRTRNLCDR in isoform 2. CuratedAdd BLAST30
Alternative sequenceiVSP_041639611 – 667Missing in isoform 2. CuratedAdd BLAST57

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB030296 mRNA. Translation: BAB11935.1.
AF134577 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF82390.1.
AF134578 mRNA. Translation: AAF82391.1.
AF281655 mRNA. Translation: AAG17703.1.
AF283761 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG38877.1.
AB026640 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB08942.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED98292.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED98293.1.
AY081304 mRNA. Translation: AAL91193.1. Sequence problems.
AY093145 mRNA. Translation: AAM13144.1.
BT002560 mRNA. Translation: AAO00920.1. Sequence problems.
RefSeqiNP_201504.2. NM_126103.2. [Q9FGC7-2]
NP_851285.1. NM_180954.3. [Q9FGC7-1]
UniGeneiAt.23748.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G67030.1; AT5G67030.1; AT5G67030. [Q9FGC7-1]
GeneIDi836838.
GrameneiAT5G67030.1; AT5G67030.1; AT5G67030.
KEGGiath:AT5G67030.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB030296 mRNA. Translation: BAB11935.1.
AF134577 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF82390.1.
AF134578 mRNA. Translation: AAF82391.1.
AF281655 mRNA. Translation: AAG17703.1.
AF283761 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG38877.1.
AB026640 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB08942.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED98292.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED98293.1.
AY081304 mRNA. Translation: AAL91193.1. Sequence problems.
AY093145 mRNA. Translation: AAM13144.1.
BT002560 mRNA. Translation: AAO00920.1. Sequence problems.
RefSeqiNP_201504.2. NM_126103.2. [Q9FGC7-2]
NP_851285.1. NM_180954.3. [Q9FGC7-1]
UniGeneiAt.23748.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9FGC7.
SMRiQ9FGC7.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi3702.AT5G67030.1.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9FGC7.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G67030.1; AT5G67030.1; AT5G67030. [Q9FGC7-1]
GeneIDi836838.
GrameneiAT5G67030.1; AT5G67030.1; AT5G67030.
KEGGiath:AT5G67030.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G67030.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG2614. Eukaryota.
COG0654. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000240835.
InParanoidiQ9FGC7.
KOiK09838.
OMAiYAFYNEP.
OrthoDBiEOG09360CN9.
PhylomeDBiQ9FGC7.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00090.
BioCyciMetaCyc:AT5G67030-MONOMER.
BRENDAi1.14.13.90. 399.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiQ9FGC7.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiQ9FGC7. AT.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.60.200.20. 1 hit.
3.50.50.60. 3 hits.
InterProiIPR002938. FAD-bd.
IPR023753. FAD/NAD-binding_dom.
IPR000253. FHA_dom.
IPR008984. SMAD_FHA_domain.
IPR017079. Zeaxanthin_epoxidase.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01494. FAD_binding_3. 2 hits.
PF00498. FHA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF036989. Zeaxanthin_epoxidase. 1 hit.
SMARTiSM00240. FHA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF49879. SSF49879. 1 hit.
SSF51905. SSF51905. 2 hits.
PROSITEiPS50006. FHA_DOMAIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiZEP_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9FGC7
Secondary accession number(s): F4K278
, Q8RXE6, Q9FDX0, Q9FS21, Q9LDB9
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 27, 2011
Last sequence update: March 1, 2001
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 107 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Plants overexpressing ZEP show increased levels of violaxanthin and ABA and increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses.

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.