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Protein

Transcription activator GLK2

Gene

GLK2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Transcriptional activator that functions with GLK1 to promote chloroplast development. Acts as an activator of nuclear photosynthetic genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, light harvesting, and electron transport. Acts in a cell-autonomous manner to coordinate and maintain the photosynthetic apparatus within individual cells. May function in photosynthetic capacity optimization by integrating responses to variable environmental and endogenous cues (PubMed:11828027, PubMed:12220263, PubMed:18643989, PubMed:19376934, PubMed:19383092, PubMed:19726569). Prevents premature senescence (PubMed:23459204).7 Publications

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
DNA bindingi144 – 20360Myb-like GARPPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

GO - Molecular functioni

  • DNA binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  • chloroplast organization Source: TAIR
  • negative regulation of flower development Source: TAIR
  • negative regulation of leaf senescence Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: TAIR
  • regulation of chlorophyll biosynthetic process Source: TAIR
  • transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Transcription, Transcription regulation

Keywords - Ligandi

DNA-binding

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Transcription activator GLK2
Alternative name(s):
GBF'S PRO-RICH REGION-INTERACTING factor 2
Golden2-like protein 2
Short name:
AtGLK2
Gene namesi
Name:GLK2
Synonyms:GPRI2
Ordered Locus Names:At5g44190
ORF Names:MLN1.11
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G44190.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • nucleus Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Pale green siliques (PubMed:12220263). Pale-green seedlings in double mutants glk1/glk2 (PubMed:23459204).2 Publications

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 386386Transcription activator GLK2PRO_0000408386Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9FFH0.
PRIDEiQ9FFH0.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in cotyledons and rosette and cauline leaves. Expressed at low levels in roots, shoots, flowers and siliques.1 Publication

Inductioni

By light. Repressed by BZR2.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiQ9FFH0. AT.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with NAC92.1 Publication

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
NAC92Q9FKA06EBI-6862475,EBI-6862413

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi19692. 2 interactions.
IntActiQ9FFH0. 1 interaction.
STRINGi3702.AT5G44190.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9FFH0.
SMRiQ9FFH0. Positions 145-199.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 1 Myb-like GARP DNA-binding domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IH7K. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111SK7. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000237698.
InParanoidiQ9FFH0.
OMAiKPKVDWT.
PhylomeDBiQ9FFH0.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.10.60. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR009057. Homeodomain-like.
IPR017930. Myb_dom.
IPR006447. Myb_dom_plants.
IPR001005. SANT/Myb.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00249. Myb_DNA-binding. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF46689. SSF46689. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01557. myb_SHAQKYF. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51294. HTH_MYB. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q9FFH0-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MLTVSPAPVL IGNNSKDTYM AADFADFTTE DLPDFTTVGD FSDDLLDGID
60 70 80 90 100
YYDDLFIGFD GDDVLPDLEI DSEILGEYSG SGRDEEQEME GNTSTASETS
110 120 130 140 150
ERDVGVCKQE GGGGGDGGFR DKTVRRGKRK GKKSKDCLSD ENDIKKKPKV
160 170 180 190 200
DWTPELHRKF VQAVEQLGVD KAVPSRILEI MNVKSLTRHN VASHLQKYRS
210 220 230 240 250
HRKHLLAREA EAASWNLRRH ATVAVPGVGG GGKKPWTAPA LGYPPHVAPM
260 270 280 290 300
HHGHFRPLHV WGHPTWPKHK PNTPASAHRT YPMPAIAAAP ASWPGHPPYW
310 320 330 340 350
HQQPLYPQGY GMASSNHSSI GVPTRQLGPT NPPIDIHPSN ESIDAAIGDV
360 370 380
ISKPWLPLPL GLKPPSVDGV MTELQRQGVS NVPPLP
Length:386
Mass (Da):42,167
Last modified:March 1, 2001 - v1
Checksum:iA61AFE189A98C606
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAK91403.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous termination at position 315. Translated as Ser.Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB062490 mRNA. Translation: BAB78467.1.
AY026773 mRNA. Translation: AAK16744.1.
AY028368 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAK20121.1.
AB005239 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB10986.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED95072.1.
AY050386 mRNA. Translation: AAK91403.1. Sequence problems.
AY124819 mRNA. Translation: AAM70528.1.
RefSeqiNP_199232.1. NM_123786.3.
UniGeneiAt.19638.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G44190.1; AT5G44190.1; AT5G44190.
GeneIDi834442.
GrameneiAT5G44190.1; AT5G44190.1; AT5G44190.
KEGGiath:AT5G44190.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB062490 mRNA. Translation: BAB78467.1.
AY026773 mRNA. Translation: AAK16744.1.
AY028368 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAK20121.1.
AB005239 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB10986.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED95072.1.
AY050386 mRNA. Translation: AAK91403.1. Sequence problems.
AY124819 mRNA. Translation: AAM70528.1.
RefSeqiNP_199232.1. NM_123786.3.
UniGeneiAt.19638.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9FFH0.
SMRiQ9FFH0. Positions 145-199.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi19692. 2 interactions.
IntActiQ9FFH0. 1 interaction.
STRINGi3702.AT5G44190.1.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9FFH0.
PRIDEiQ9FFH0.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G44190.1; AT5G44190.1; AT5G44190.
GeneIDi834442.
GrameneiAT5G44190.1; AT5G44190.1; AT5G44190.
KEGGiath:AT5G44190.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G44190.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IH7K. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111SK7. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000237698.
InParanoidiQ9FFH0.
OMAiKPKVDWT.
PhylomeDBiQ9FFH0.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiQ9FFH0.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiQ9FFH0. AT.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.10.60. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR009057. Homeodomain-like.
IPR017930. Myb_dom.
IPR006447. Myb_dom_plants.
IPR001005. SANT/Myb.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00249. Myb_DNA-binding. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF46689. SSF46689. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01557. myb_SHAQKYF. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51294. HTH_MYB. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Arabidopsis GARP transcriptional activators interact with the Pro-rich activation domain shared by G-box-binding bZIP factors."
    Tamai H., Iwabuchi M., Meshi T.
    Plant Cell Physiol. 43:99-107(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION.
  2. "GLK gene pairs regulate chloroplast development in diverse plant species."
    Fitter D.W., Martin D.J., Copley M.J., Scotland R.W., Langdale J.A.
    Plant J. 31:713-727(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA / MRNA], FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
  3. "Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. I. Sequence features of the 1.6 Mb regions covered by twenty physically assigned P1 clones."
    Sato S., Kotani H., Nakamura Y., Kaneko T., Asamizu E., Fukami M., Miyajima N., Tabata S.
    DNA Res. 4:215-230(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  6. "GLK transcription factors regulate chloroplast development in a cell-autonomous manner."
    Waters M.T., Moylan E.C., Langdale J.A.
    Plant J. 56:432-444(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  7. "Specialization of the Golden2-like regulatory pathway during land plant evolution."
    Bravo-Garcia A., Yasumura Y., Langdale J.A.
    New Phytol. 183:133-141(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  8. "GLK transcription factors coordinate expression of the photosynthetic apparatus in Arabidopsis."
    Waters M.T., Wang P., Korkaric M., Capper R.G., Saunders N.J., Langdale J.A.
    Plant Cell 21:1109-1128(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  9. "Coordination of plastid protein import and nuclear gene expression by plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling."
    Kakizaki T., Matsumura H., Nakayama K., Che F.S., Terauchi R., Inaba T.
    Plant Physiol. 151:1339-1353(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  10. "A brassinosteroid transcriptional network revealed by genome-wide identification of BESI target genes in Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Yu X., Li L., Zola J., Aluru M., Ye H., Foudree A., Guo H., Anderson S., Aluru S., Liu P., Rodermel S., Yin Y.
    Plant J. 65:634-646(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INDUCTION.
  11. "ORE1 balances leaf senescence against maintenance by antagonizing G2-like-mediated transcription."
    Rauf M., Arif M., Dortay H., Matallana-Ramirez L.P., Waters M.T., Gil Nam H., Lim P.-O., Mueller-Roeber B., Balazadeh S.
    EMBO Rep. 14:382-388(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE, INTERACTION WITH NAC92, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGLK2_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9FFH0
Secondary accession number(s): Q94A45
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 3, 2011
Last sequence update: March 1, 2001
Last modified: February 17, 2016
This is version 113 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Plants overexpressing GLK2 have a delay in flowering under long days.

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.