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Protein

Twist-related protein 2

Gene

Twist2

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Binds to the E-box consensus sequence 5'-CANNTG-3' as a heterodimer and inhibits transcriptional activation by MYOD1, MYOG, MEF2A and MEF2C. Also represses expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFA and IL1B. Involved in postnatal glycogen storage and energy metabolism. Inhibits the premature or ectopic differentiation of preosteoblast cells during osteogenesis, possibly by changing the internal signal transduction response of osteoblasts to external growth factors (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  • chromatin binding Source: MGI
  • DNA binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • protein domain specific binding Source: MGI
  • RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding transcription factor activity Source: MGI
  • sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity Source: MGI

GO - Biological processi

  • cornea development in camera-type eye Source: MGI
  • embryonic cranial skeleton morphogenesis Source: MGI
  • face morphogenesis Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of cell proliferation Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of DNA binding Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of molecular function Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of myeloid cell differentiation Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation Source: UniProtKB
  • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB
  • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production Source: MGI
  • osteoblast differentiation Source: MGI
  • positive regulation of keratinocyte proliferation Source: MGI
  • regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: MGI
  • transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Developmental protein, Repressor

Keywords - Biological processi

Differentiation, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Keywords - Ligandi

DNA-binding

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Twist-related protein 2
Alternative name(s):
Dermis-expressed protein 1
Short name:
Dermo-1
Gene namesi
Name:Twist2
Synonyms:Dermo1
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)Imported
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
ProteomesiUP000000589 Componenti: Unplaced

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:104685. Twist2.

Subcellular locationi

  • Nucleus PROSITE-ProRule annotation1 Publication
  • Cytoplasm 1 Publication

  • Note: Mainly nuclear during embryonic development. Cytoplasmic in adult tissues.

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytoplasm Source: MGI
  • nucleus Source: MGI
  • transcription factor complex Source: MGI
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi86 – 861F → P: Abrogates transcriptional repression of MYOD1. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 160160Twist-related protein 2PRO_0000127490Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiQ9D030.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ9D030.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed at low levels in sclerotome and dermatome of somites, and in limb buds at 10.5 dpc. Accumulates predominantly in dermatome, prevertebrae and derivatives of branchial arches by 13 dpc. Also expressed near surface of embryo and in chondrogenic cells. In adult, expressed at low levels in skin, bladder, uterus, aorta and heart.1 Publication

Developmental stagei

In the embryo, expression is detected at 10.5 dpc, increases continuously through to 17.5 dpc and is also high in neonates. Down-regulated in adults.1 Publication

Inductioni

By TNF-alpha.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

CleanExiMM_TWIST2.
GenevisibleiQ9D030. MM.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein. Forms a heterodimer with TCF3/E12. Also interacts with MEF2C.1 Publication

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
Runx2Q087752EBI-2903190,EBI-903354

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi199209. 1 interaction.
IntActiQ9D030. 1 interaction.
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000007949.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9D030.
SMRiQ9D030. Positions 67-125.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini66 – 11752bHLHPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Domaini

The C-terminal and HLH domains are essential for transcriptional repression.1 Publication

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 1 bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG258515.
HOGENOMiHOG000261629.
HOVERGENiHBG019071.
InParanoidiQ9D030.
KOiK09069.
PhylomeDBiQ9D030.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.280.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR011598. bHLH_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00010. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00353. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF47459. SSF47459. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50888. BHLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q9D030-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MEEGSSSPVS PVDSLGTSEE ELERQPKRFG RKRRYSKKSS EDGSPTPGKR
60 70 80 90 100
GKKGSPSAQS FEELQSQRIL ANVRERQRTQ SLNEAFAALR KIIPTLPSDK
110 120 130 140 150
LSKIQTLKLA ARYIDFLYQV LQSDEMDNKM TSCSYVAHER LSYAYSVWRM
160
EGAWSMSASH
Length:160
Mass (Da):18,140
Last modified:June 1, 2001 - v1
Checksum:i6394750916940C12
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti145 – 1451Y → F in BAB27885 (PubMed:16141072).Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U36384 mRNA. Translation: AAC52319.1.
AK011861 mRNA. Translation: BAB27885.1.
AK011180 mRNA. Translation: BAB27450.1.
RefSeqiNP_031881.1. NM_007855.2.
UniGeneiMm.9474.

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi13345.
KEGGimmu:13345.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U36384 mRNA. Translation: AAC52319.1.
AK011861 mRNA. Translation: BAB27885.1.
AK011180 mRNA. Translation: BAB27450.1.
RefSeqiNP_031881.1. NM_007855.2.
UniGeneiMm.9474.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9D030.
SMRiQ9D030. Positions 67-125.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi199209. 1 interaction.
IntActiQ9D030. 1 interaction.
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000007949.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ9D030.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiQ9D030.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi13345.
KEGGimmu:13345.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi117581.
MGIiMGI:104685. Twist2.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG258515.
HOGENOMiHOG000261629.
HOVERGENiHBG019071.
InParanoidiQ9D030.
KOiK09069.
PhylomeDBiQ9D030.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi283658.
PROiQ9D030.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

CleanExiMM_TWIST2.
GenevisibleiQ9D030. MM.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.280.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR011598. bHLH_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00010. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00353. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF47459. SSF47459. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50888. BHLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Dermo-1: a novel twist-related bHLH protein expressed in the developing dermis."
    Li L., Cserjesi P., Olson E.N.
    Dev. Biol. 172:280-292(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE, SUBUNIT.
    Strain: Swiss1 Publication.
    Tissue: Brain1 Publication and Embryonic head1 Publication.
  2. "The transcriptional landscape of the mammalian genome."
    Carninci P., Kasukawa T., Katayama S., Gough J., Frith M.C., Maeda N., Oyama R., Ravasi T., Lenhard B., Wells C., Kodzius R., Shimokawa K., Bajic V.B., Brenner S.E., Batalov S., Forrest A.R., Zavolan M., Davis M.J.
    , Wilming L.G., Aidinis V., Allen J.E., Ambesi-Impiombato A., Apweiler R., Aturaliya R.N., Bailey T.L., Bansal M., Baxter L., Beisel K.W., Bersano T., Bono H., Chalk A.M., Chiu K.P., Choudhary V., Christoffels A., Clutterbuck D.R., Crowe M.L., Dalla E., Dalrymple B.P., de Bono B., Della Gatta G., di Bernardo D., Down T., Engstrom P., Fagiolini M., Faulkner G., Fletcher C.F., Fukushima T., Furuno M., Futaki S., Gariboldi M., Georgii-Hemming P., Gingeras T.R., Gojobori T., Green R.E., Gustincich S., Harbers M., Hayashi Y., Hensch T.K., Hirokawa N., Hill D., Huminiecki L., Iacono M., Ikeo K., Iwama A., Ishikawa T., Jakt M., Kanapin A., Katoh M., Kawasawa Y., Kelso J., Kitamura H., Kitano H., Kollias G., Krishnan S.P., Kruger A., Kummerfeld S.K., Kurochkin I.V., Lareau L.F., Lazarevic D., Lipovich L., Liu J., Liuni S., McWilliam S., Madan Babu M., Madera M., Marchionni L., Matsuda H., Matsuzawa S., Miki H., Mignone F., Miyake S., Morris K., Mottagui-Tabar S., Mulder N., Nakano N., Nakauchi H., Ng P., Nilsson R., Nishiguchi S., Nishikawa S., Nori F., Ohara O., Okazaki Y., Orlando V., Pang K.C., Pavan W.J., Pavesi G., Pesole G., Petrovsky N., Piazza S., Reed J., Reid J.F., Ring B.Z., Ringwald M., Rost B., Ruan Y., Salzberg S.L., Sandelin A., Schneider C., Schoenbach C., Sekiguchi K., Semple C.A., Seno S., Sessa L., Sheng Y., Shibata Y., Shimada H., Shimada K., Silva D., Sinclair B., Sperling S., Stupka E., Sugiura K., Sultana R., Takenaka Y., Taki K., Tammoja K., Tan S.L., Tang S., Taylor M.S., Tegner J., Teichmann S.A., Ueda H.R., van Nimwegen E., Verardo R., Wei C.L., Yagi K., Yamanishi H., Zabarovsky E., Zhu S., Zimmer A., Hide W., Bult C., Grimmond S.M., Teasdale R.D., Liu E.T., Brusic V., Quackenbush J., Wahlestedt C., Mattick J.S., Hume D.A., Kai C., Sasaki D., Tomaru Y., Fukuda S., Kanamori-Katayama M., Suzuki M., Aoki J., Arakawa T., Iida J., Imamura K., Itoh M., Kato T., Kawaji H., Kawagashira N., Kawashima T., Kojima M., Kondo S., Konno H., Nakano K., Ninomiya N., Nishio T., Okada M., Plessy C., Shibata K., Shiraki T., Suzuki S., Tagami M., Waki K., Watahiki A., Okamura-Oho Y., Suzuki H., Kawai J., Hayashizaki Y.
    Science 309:1559-1563(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: C57BL/6J.
    Tissue: Embryo.
  3. "Dermo-1, a multifunctional basic helix-loop-helix protein, represses MyoD transactivation via the HLH domain, MEF2 interaction, and chromatin deacetylation."
    Gong X.Q., Li L.
    J. Biol. Chem. 277:12310-12317(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, MUTAGENESIS OF PHE-86.
  4. "Twist regulates cytokine gene expression through a negative feedback loop that represses NF-kappaB activity."
    Sosic D., Richardson J.A., Yu K., Ornitz D.M., Olson E.N.
    Cell 112:169-180(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, INDUCTION.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTWST2_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9D030
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 11, 2003
Last sequence update: June 1, 2001
Last modified: July 22, 2015
This is version 109 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.