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Q9BYV7

- BCDO2_HUMAN

UniProt

Q9BYV7 - BCDO2_HUMAN

Protein

Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase

Gene

BCO2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 113 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 5 (05 Oct 2010)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    Asymmetrically cleaves beta-carotene at the 9',10' double bond resulting in the formation of beta-apo-10'-carotenal and beta-ionone. Besides beta-carotene, lycopene is also oxidatively cleaved. The apocarotenals formed by this enzyme may be the precursors for the biosynthesis of retinoic acid or exert unknown physiological effects.1 Publication

    Catalytic activityi

    All-trans-beta-carotene + O2 = all-trans-10'-apo-beta-carotenal + beta-ionone.

    Cofactori

    Binds 1 Fe2+ ion per subunit.By similarity

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Metal bindingi226 – 2261Iron; catalyticBy similarity
    Metal bindingi286 – 2861Iron; catalyticBy similarity
    Metal bindingi357 – 3571Iron; catalyticBy similarity
    Metal bindingi573 – 5731Iron; catalyticBy similarity

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. metal ion binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
    2. oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    1. carotene catabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
    2. carotene metabolic process Source: UniProtKB
    3. carotenoid metabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
    4. oxidation-reduction process Source: BHF-UCL
    5. regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential Source: BHF-UCL
    6. regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
    7. retinal metabolic process Source: UniProtKB
    8. retinoic acid metabolic process Source: UniProtKB

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Dioxygenase, Oxidoreductase

    Keywords - Ligandi

    Iron, Metal-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciMetaCyc:G66-33846-MONOMER.
    ReactomeiREACT_24968. Retinoid metabolism and transport.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (EC:1.13.11.71)
    Alternative name(s):
    B-diox-II
    Beta-carotene dioxygenase 2
    Gene namesi
    Name:BCO2
    Synonyms:BCDO2
    OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    ProteomesiUP000005640: Chromosome 11

    Organism-specific databases

    HGNCiHGNC:18503. BCO2.

    Subcellular locationi

    Mitochondrion 1 Publication

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. intracellular Source: UniProtKB
    2. mitochondrion Source: BHF-UCL

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Mitochondrion

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Organism-specific databases

    PharmGKBiPA162377424.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 579579Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenasePRO_0000143937Add
    BLAST

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiQ9BYV7.
    PRIDEiQ9BYV7.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSiteiQ9BYV7.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Highly expressed in retinal pigment epithelium. Also expressed in stomach, small intestine, liver, testis, kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas, heart, skeletal muscle and prostate (at protein level).1 Publication

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressiQ9BYV7.
    BgeeiQ9BYV7.
    CleanExiHS_BCO2.
    GenevestigatoriQ9BYV7.

    Organism-specific databases

    HPAiHPA039825.
    HPA040695.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliQ9BYV7.
    SMRiQ9BYV7. Positions 57-576.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the carotenoid oxygenase family.Curated

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG3670.
    HOGENOMiHOG000232156.
    HOVERGENiHBG050679.
    InParanoidiQ9BYV7.
    KOiK10252.
    OMAiGCENRSD.
    OrthoDBiEOG7353WB.
    PhylomeDBiQ9BYV7.
    TreeFamiTF314019.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiIPR004294. Carotenoid_Oase.
    [Graphical view]
    PANTHERiPTHR10543. PTHR10543. 1 hit.
    PfamiPF03055. RPE65. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequences (5)i

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    This entry describes 5 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. Align

    Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9BYV7-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide

    MFFRVFLHFI RSHSATAVDF LPVMVHRLPV FKRYMGNTPQ KKAVFGQCRG    50
    LPCVAPLLTT VEEAPRGISA RVWGHFPKWL NGSLLRIGPG KFEFGKDKYN 100
    HWFDGMALLH QFRMAKGTVT YRSKFLQSDT YKANSAKNRI VISEFGTLAL 150
    PDPCKNVFER FMSRFELPGK AAAMTDNTNV NYVRYKGDYY LCTETNFMNK 200
    VDIETLEKTE KVDWSKFIAV NGATAHPHYD LDGTAYNMGN SFGPYGFSYK 250
    VIRVPPEKVD LGETIHGVQV ICSIASTEKG KPSYYHSFGM TRNYIIFIEQ 300
    PLKMNLWKIA TSKIRGKAFS DGISWEPQCN TRFHVVEKRT GQLLPGRYYS 350
    KPFVTFHQIN AFEDQGCVII DLCCQDNGRT LEVYQLQNLR KAGEGLDQVH 400
    NSAAKSFPRR FVLPLNVSLN APEGDNLSPL SYTSASAVKQ ADGTIWCSHE 450
    NLHQEDLEKE GGIEFPQIYY DRFSGKKYHF FYGCGFRHLV GDSLIKVDVV 500
    NKTLKVWRED GFYPSEPVFV PAPGTNEEDG GVILSVVITP NQNESNFILV 550
    LDAKNFEELG RAEVPVQMPY GFHGTFIPI 579
    Length:579
    Mass (Da):65,674
    Last modified:October 5, 2010 - v5
    Checksum:iB14F54FCEC1092CE
    GO
    Isoform 2 (identifier: Q9BYV7-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         1-34: Missing.

    Note: No experimental confirmation available.

    Show »
    Length:545
    Mass (Da):61,526
    Checksum:iE09F77FEBB534B65
    GO
    Isoform 4 (identifier: Q9BYV7-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         1-34: Missing.
         501-506: Missing.

    Note: No experimental confirmation available.

    Show »
    Length:539
    Mass (Da):60,842
    Checksum:iDD12ACD19DD37669
    GO
    Isoform 5 (identifier: Q9BYV7-5) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         173-245: Missing.

    Note: No experimental confirmation available.

    Show »
    Length:506
    Mass (Da):57,337
    Checksum:i4E62A2574461C1D4
    GO
    Isoform 6 (identifier: Q9BYV7-6) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         1-105: Missing.

    Note: No experimental confirmation available.

    Show »
    Length:474
    Mass (Da):53,630
    Checksum:i3C3EA5F8FFB9CFA0
    GO

    Sequence cautioni

    The sequence CAC27994.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Sequence conflicti26 – 261H → Y in CAC27994. (PubMed:11278918)Curated
    Sequence conflicti177 – 1771N → D in CAC27994. (PubMed:11278918)Curated
    Sequence conflicti258 – 2581K → E in CAC27994. (PubMed:11278918)Curated
    Sequence conflicti429 – 4291P → Q in BAG60185. (PubMed:14702039)Curated
    Sequence conflicti446 – 4461W → C in CAC27994. (PubMed:11278918)Curated

    Natural variant

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti231 – 2311L → P.3 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs10891338 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_047047
    Natural varianti289 – 2891G → E.
    Corresponds to variant rs17113607 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_047048
    Natural varianti548 – 5481I → L.5 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs2217401 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_047049

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Alternative sequencei1 – 105105Missing in isoform 6. 1 PublicationVSP_046915Add
    BLAST
    Alternative sequencei1 – 3434Missing in isoform 2 and isoform 4. 2 PublicationsVSP_008599Add
    BLAST
    Alternative sequencei173 – 24573Missing in isoform 5. 1 PublicationVSP_046916Add
    BLAST
    Alternative sequencei501 – 5066Missing in isoform 4. 1 PublicationVSP_008600

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    AF276432 mRNA. Translation: AAK69433.1.
    AK027801 mRNA. Translation: BAB55379.1.
    AK297853 mRNA. Translation: BAG60185.1.
    EF444956 Genomic DNA. Translation: ACA05952.1.
    AP002884 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
    CH471065 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW67192.1.
    BC041656 mRNA. Translation: AAH41656.2.
    AJ290393 mRNA. Translation: CAC27994.1. Different initiation.
    CCDSiCCDS41716.1. [Q9BYV7-2]
    CCDS58181.1. [Q9BYV7-5]
    CCDS58182.1. [Q9BYV7-4]
    CCDS58183.1. [Q9BYV7-6]
    CCDS8358.2. [Q9BYV7-1]
    RefSeqiNP_001032367.2. NM_001037290.2.
    NP_001243326.1. NM_001256397.1.
    NP_001243327.1. NM_001256398.1.
    NP_001243329.1. NM_001256400.1.
    UniGeneiHs.728325.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000357685; ENSP00000350314; ENSG00000197580. [Q9BYV7-1]
    ENST00000361053; ENSP00000354338; ENSG00000197580. [Q9BYV7-5]
    ENST00000438022; ENSP00000414843; ENSG00000197580. [Q9BYV7-2]
    ENST00000526088; ENSP00000436615; ENSG00000197580. [Q9BYV7-4]
    ENST00000531169; ENSP00000437053; ENSG00000197580. [Q9BYV7-2]
    ENST00000532593; ENSP00000431802; ENSG00000197580. [Q9BYV7-6]
    GeneIDi83875.
    KEGGihsa:83875.
    UCSCiuc001pne.1. human. [Q9BYV7-1]
    uc001png.3. human.

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi308153680.

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    AF276432 mRNA. Translation: AAK69433.1 .
    AK027801 mRNA. Translation: BAB55379.1 .
    AK297853 mRNA. Translation: BAG60185.1 .
    EF444956 Genomic DNA. Translation: ACA05952.1 .
    AP002884 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
    CH471065 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW67192.1 .
    BC041656 mRNA. Translation: AAH41656.2 .
    AJ290393 mRNA. Translation: CAC27994.1 . Different initiation.
    CCDSi CCDS41716.1. [Q9BYV7-2 ]
    CCDS58181.1. [Q9BYV7-5 ]
    CCDS58182.1. [Q9BYV7-4 ]
    CCDS58183.1. [Q9BYV7-6 ]
    CCDS8358.2. [Q9BYV7-1 ]
    RefSeqi NP_001032367.2. NM_001037290.2.
    NP_001243326.1. NM_001256397.1.
    NP_001243327.1. NM_001256398.1.
    NP_001243329.1. NM_001256400.1.
    UniGenei Hs.728325.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali Q9BYV7.
    SMRi Q9BYV7. Positions 57-576.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSitei Q9BYV7.

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi 308153680.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbi Q9BYV7.
    PRIDEi Q9BYV7.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembli ENST00000357685 ; ENSP00000350314 ; ENSG00000197580 . [Q9BYV7-1 ]
    ENST00000361053 ; ENSP00000354338 ; ENSG00000197580 . [Q9BYV7-5 ]
    ENST00000438022 ; ENSP00000414843 ; ENSG00000197580 . [Q9BYV7-2 ]
    ENST00000526088 ; ENSP00000436615 ; ENSG00000197580 . [Q9BYV7-4 ]
    ENST00000531169 ; ENSP00000437053 ; ENSG00000197580 . [Q9BYV7-2 ]
    ENST00000532593 ; ENSP00000431802 ; ENSG00000197580 . [Q9BYV7-6 ]
    GeneIDi 83875.
    KEGGi hsa:83875.
    UCSCi uc001pne.1. human. [Q9BYV7-1 ]
    uc001png.3. human.

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi 83875.
    GeneCardsi GC11P112046.
    HGNCi HGNC:18503. BCO2.
    HPAi HPA039825.
    HPA040695.
    MIMi 611740. gene.
    neXtProti NX_Q9BYV7.
    PharmGKBi PA162377424.
    GenAtlasi Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi COG3670.
    HOGENOMi HOG000232156.
    HOVERGENi HBG050679.
    InParanoidi Q9BYV7.
    KOi K10252.
    OMAi GCENRSD.
    OrthoDBi EOG7353WB.
    PhylomeDBi Q9BYV7.
    TreeFami TF314019.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyci MetaCyc:G66-33846-MONOMER.
    Reactomei REACT_24968. Retinoid metabolism and transport.

    Miscellaneous databases

    ChiTaRSi BCO2. human.
    GenomeRNAii 83875.
    NextBioi 35501420.
    PROi Q9BYV7.
    SOURCEi Search...

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressi Q9BYV7.
    Bgeei Q9BYV7.
    CleanExi HS_BCO2.
    Genevestigatori Q9BYV7.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProi IPR004294. Carotenoid_Oase.
    [Graphical view ]
    PANTHERi PTHR10543. PTHR10543. 1 hit.
    Pfami PF03055. RPE65. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "An ortholog of the human retinal pigment epithelium protein RPE65."
      Cunningham F.X. Jr.
      Submitted (JUN-2000) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 2), VARIANTS PRO-231 AND LEU-548.
      Tissue: Uterus.
    2. "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
      Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
      , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
      Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORMS 4 AND 6), VARIANTS PRO-231 AND LEU-548.
      Tissue: Heart and Placenta.
    3. NHLBI resequencing and genotyping service (RS&G)
      Submitted (FEB-2007) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    4. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    5. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA], VARIANT LEU-548.
    6. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
      The MGC Project Team
      Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 5), VARIANT LEU-548.
      Tissue: Brain.
    7. "Identification and characterization of a mammalian enzyme catalyzing the asymmetric oxidative cleavage of provitamin A."
      Kiefer C., Hessel S., Lampert J.M., Vogt K., Lederer M.O., Breithaupt D.E., von Lintig J.
      J. Biol. Chem. 276:14110-14116(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 17-579 (ISOFORM 1), VARIANTS PRO-231 AND LEU-548.
      Tissue: Liver.
    8. "Cell type-specific expression of beta-carotene 9',10'-monooxygenase in human tissues."
      Lindqvist A., He Y.-G., Andersson S.
      J. Histochem. Cytochem. 53:1403-1412(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    9. "A mitochondrial enzyme degrades carotenoids and protects against oxidative stress."
      Amengual J., Lobo G.P., Golczak M., Li H.N., Klimova T., Hoppel C.L., Wyss A., Palczewski K., von Lintig J.
      FASEB J. 25:948-959(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiBCDO2_HUMAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9BYV7
    Secondary accession number(s): B0YIX5
    , B4DNC3, E9PBI8, E9PJJ1, Q8IUS0, Q96JC8, Q96JY5
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 10, 2003
    Last sequence update: October 5, 2010
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 113 of the entry and version 5 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Human chromosome 11
      Human chromosome 11: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
      List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
      Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    4. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    5. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3