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Protein

Spexin

Gene

SPX

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Plays a role as a central modulator of cardiovascular and renal function and nociception. Plays also a role in energy metabolism and storage. Inhibits adrenocortical cell proliferation with minor stimulation on corticosteroid release (By similarity).By similarity
Spexin-1: Intracerebroventricular administration of the peptide induces an increase in arterial blood pressure, a decrease in both heart rate and renal excretion and delayed natriuresis. Intraventricular administration of the peptide induces antinociceptive activity. Also induces contraction of muscarinic-like stomach smooth muscles. Intraperitoneal administration of the peptide induces a reduction in food consumption and body weight. Inhibits long chain fatty acid uptake into adipocytes (By similarity). Acts as a ligand for galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3 (PubMed:17284679, PubMed:24517231).By similarity2 Publications
Spexin-2: Intracerebroventricular administration of the peptide induces a decrease in heart rate, but no change in arterial pressure, and an increase in urine flow rate. Intraventricular administration of the peptide induces antinociceptive activity (By similarity).By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sitei35 – 362Cleavage; by prohormone convertase 2
Sitei52 – 532Cleavage; by prohormone convertase 2
Sitei72 – 732Cleavage; by prohormone convertase 2

GO - Molecular functioni

  • neuropeptide hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • type 2 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • type 3 galanin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Spexin
Alternative name(s):
NPQ
Neuropeptide Q
Spexin hormone
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Alternative name(s):
NPQ 53-70
Gene namesi
Name:SPX
Synonyms:C12orf39
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 12

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:28139. SPX.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • extracellular space Source: UniProtKB
  • transport vesicle Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasmic vesicle, Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA143485369.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiC12orf39.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2626Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Chaini27 – 11690SpexinPRO_0000430213Add
BLAST
Propeptidei27 – 359PRO_0000363216
Peptidei36 – 4914Spexin-1PRO_0000042159Add
BLAST
Propeptidei50 – 11667PRO_0000363217Add
BLAST
Peptidei53 – 7018Spexin-2PRO_0000430214Add
BLAST
Propeptidei74 – 11643PRO_0000430215Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei49 – 491Glutamine amideCurated

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9BT56.
PRIDEiQ9BT56.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in the type I glomic cells within the carotid body (at protein level). Expressed predominantly in pancreas, testis, kidney, brain and placenta. Expressed in submucosal layer of esophagus and stomach fundus.4 Publications

Inductioni

Down-regulated in omental and subcutaneous fat of obese subjects.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ9BT56.
CleanExiHS_C12orf39.
ExpressionAtlasiQ9BT56. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ9BT56. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA012890.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi123297. 1 interaction.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000256969.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9BT56.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG75104.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000012501.
HOGENOMiHOG000154403.
HOVERGENiHBG095171.
InParanoidiQ9BT56.
OMAiQRRNWTP.
OrthoDBiEOG741Z4Q.
PhylomeDBiQ9BT56.
TreeFamiTF333402.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR028126. Spexin.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF15171. Spexin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9BT56-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKGLRSLAAT TLALFLVFVF LGNSSCAPQR LLERRNWTPQ AMLYLKGAQG
60 70 80 90 100
RRFISDQSRR KDLSDRPLPE RRSPNPQLLT IPEAATILLA SLQKSPEDEE
110
KNFDQTRFLE DSLLNW
Length:116
Mass (Da):13,302
Last modified:June 1, 2001 - v1
Checksum:iCCBC3E7BD22E357E
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AK027273 mRNA. Translation: BAG51298.1.
AK075342 mRNA. Translation: BAG52117.1.
CH471094 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW96444.1.
BC004336 mRNA. Translation: AAH04336.1.
CCDSiCCDS31757.1.
RefSeqiNP_085049.1. NM_030572.2.
UniGeneiHs.130692.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000256969; ENSP00000256969; ENSG00000134548.
GeneIDi80763.
KEGGihsa:80763.
UCSCiuc001rfa.1. human.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AK027273 mRNA. Translation: BAG51298.1.
AK075342 mRNA. Translation: BAG52117.1.
CH471094 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW96444.1.
BC004336 mRNA. Translation: AAH04336.1.
CCDSiCCDS31757.1.
RefSeqiNP_085049.1. NM_030572.2.
UniGeneiHs.130692.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9BT56.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi123297. 1 interaction.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000256969.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiC12orf39.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9BT56.
PRIDEiQ9BT56.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000256969; ENSP00000256969; ENSG00000134548.
GeneIDi80763.
KEGGihsa:80763.
UCSCiuc001rfa.1. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi80763.
GeneCardsiGC12P021679.
HGNCiHGNC:28139. SPX.
HPAiHPA012890.
neXtProtiNX_Q9BT56.
PharmGKBiPA143485369.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG75104.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000012501.
HOGENOMiHOG000154403.
HOVERGENiHBG095171.
InParanoidiQ9BT56.
OMAiQRRNWTP.
OrthoDBiEOG741Z4Q.
PhylomeDBiQ9BT56.
TreeFamiTF333402.

Miscellaneous databases

GenomeRNAii80763.
NextBioi71141.
PROiQ9BT56.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ9BT56.
CleanExiHS_C12orf39.
ExpressionAtlasiQ9BT56. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ9BT56. HS.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR028126. Spexin.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF15171. Spexin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  2. "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
    Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
    , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
    Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Embryo.
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  4. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Uterus.
  5. "Identification of novel peptide hormones in the human proteome by hidden Markov model screening."
    Mirabeau O., Perlas E., Severini C., Audero E., Gascuel O., Possenti R., Birney E., Rosenthal N., Gross C.
    Genome Res. 17:320-327(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION (SPEXIN-1), SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  6. "C12ORF39, a novel secreted prot ein with a typical amidation processing signal."
    Wan B., Wang X.R., Zhou Y.B., Zhang X., Huo K., Han Z.G.
    Biosci. Rep. 30:1-10(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  7. "Spexin is expressed in the carotid body and is upregulated by postnatal hyperoxia exposure."
    Porzionato A., Rucinski M., Macchi V., Stecco C., Sarasin G., Sfriso M.M., Di Giulio C., Malendowicz L.K., De Caro R.
    Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 758:207-213(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  8. "Peptides derived from the prohormone proNPQ/spexin are potent central modulators of cardiovascular and renal function and nociception."
    Toll L., Khroyan T.V., Sonmez K., Ozawa A., Lindberg I., McLaughlin J.P., Eans S.O., Shahien A.A., Kapusta D.R.
    FASEB J. 26:947-954(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSING (SPEXIN-1 AND SPEXIN-2).
  9. "Coevolution of the spexin/galanin/kisspeptin family: Spexin activates galanin receptor type II and III."
    Kim D.K., Yun S., Son G.H., Hwang J.I., Park C.R., Kim J.I., Kim K., Vaudry H., Seong J.Y.
    Endocrinology 155:1864-1873(2014) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION (SPEXIN-1), PHYLOGENY.
  10. "Spexin is a novel human peptide that reduces adipocyte uptake of long chain fatty acids and causes weight loss in rodents with diet-induced obesity."
    Walewski J.L., Ge F., Lobdell H. IV, Levin N., Schwartz G.J., Vasselli J.R., Pomp A., Dakin G., Berk P.D.
    Obesity 22:1643-1652(2014) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, INDUCTION.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiSPXN_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9BT56
Secondary accession number(s): B3KND6
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: September 27, 2005
Last sequence update: June 1, 2001
Last modified: June 24, 2015
This is version 82 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 12
    Human chromosome 12: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.