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Protein

Appetite-regulating hormone

Gene

GHRL

Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Protein inferred from homologyi

Functioni

Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation (By similarity).By similarity
Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. ghrelin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  2. growth hormone-releasing hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  3. hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  4. protein tyrosine kinase activator activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  1. actin polymerization or depolymerization Source: UniProtKB
  2. activation of MAPK activity Source: UniProtKB
  3. decidualization Source: UniProtKB
  4. dendrite development Source: UniProtKB
  5. gastric acid secretion Source: GO_Central
  6. hormone-mediated signaling pathway Source: GO_Central
  7. negative regulation of apoptotic process Source: UniProtKB
  8. negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation Source: UniProtKB
  9. negative regulation of inflammatory response Source: UniProtKB
  10. negative regulation of insulin secretion Source: UniProtKB
  11. negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production Source: UniProtKB
  12. negative regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  13. negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  14. positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration Source: UniProtKB
  15. positive regulation of growth hormone secretion Source: GO_Central
  16. positive regulation of insulin secretion Source: UniProtKB
  17. positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity Source: GO_Central
  18. positive regulation of response to food Source: UniProtKB
  19. positive regulation of synapse assembly Source: UniProtKB
  20. regulation of cell proliferation Source: UniProtKB
  21. regulation of response to food Source: UniProtKB
  22. response to estrogen Source: UniProtKB
  23. response to hormone Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_209521. G alpha (q) signalling events.
REACT_219025. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
REACT_223503. Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Appetite-regulating hormone
Alternative name(s):
Growth hormone secretagogue
Growth hormone-releasing peptide
Motilin-related peptide
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:GHRL
OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
ProteomesiUP000009136: Chromosome 22

Subcellular locationi

Secreted By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. axon Source: UniProtKB
  2. extracellular region Source: UniProtKB
  3. extracellular space Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2323By similarityAdd
BLAST
Peptidei24 – 5027GhrelinBy similarityPRO_0000019194Add
BLAST
Propeptidei51 – 7424Removed in mature formBy similarityPRO_0000019195Add
BLAST
Peptidei75 – 9723ObestatinBy similarityPRO_0000045132Add
BLAST
Propeptidei98 – 11619Removed in mature formBy similarityPRO_0000045133Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Lipidationi26 – 261O-octanoyl serineBy similarity
Modified residuei97 – 971Leucine amideBy similarity

Post-translational modificationi

O-octanoylation is essential for ghrelin activity.By similarity
Amidation of Leu-97 is essential for obestatin activity.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Lipoprotein

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ9BDJ6. baseline.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the motilin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG45924.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000004064.
HOGENOMiHOG000236303.
HOVERGENiHBG018522.
InParanoidiQ9BDJ6.
KOiK05254.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR006737. Motilin_assoc.
IPR006738. Motilin_ghrelin.
IPR005441. Preproghrelin.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR14122. PTHR14122. 1 hit.
PfamiPF04643. Motilin_assoc. 1 hit.
PF04644. Motilin_ghrelin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01624. GHRELIN.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9BDJ6-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MPAPWTICSL LLLSVLCMDL AMAGSSFLSP EHQKLQRKEA KKPSGRLKPR
60 70 80 90 100
TLEGQFDPEV GSQAEGAEDE LEIRFNAPFN IGIKLAGAQS LQHGQTLGKF
110
LQDILWEEAE ETLANE
Length:116
Mass (Da):12,793
Last modified:June 1, 2001 - v1
Checksum:iF55536DAC5FA59B6
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti34 – 341K → E in BAB19047 (Ref. 3) Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF350329 mRNA. Translation: AAK18612.1.
AY903701 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAX89508.1.
AB035702 mRNA. Translation: BAB19047.1.
RefSeqiNP_776492.1. NM_174067.2.
UniGeneiBt.8142.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSBTAT00000016350; ENSBTAP00000016350; ENSBTAG00000012328.
GeneIDi281192.
KEGGibta:281192.

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Protein Spotlight

Gut feelings - Issue 66 of January 2006

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF350329 mRNA. Translation: AAK18612.1.
AY903701 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAX89508.1.
AB035702 mRNA. Translation: BAB19047.1.
RefSeqiNP_776492.1. NM_174067.2.
UniGeneiBt.8142.

3D structure databases

ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSBTAT00000016350; ENSBTAP00000016350; ENSBTAG00000012328.
GeneIDi281192.
KEGGibta:281192.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi51738.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG45924.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000004064.
HOGENOMiHOG000236303.
HOVERGENiHBG018522.
InParanoidiQ9BDJ6.
KOiK05254.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_209521. G alpha (q) signalling events.
REACT_219025. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
REACT_223503. Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi20805249.

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ9BDJ6. baseline.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR006737. Motilin_assoc.
IPR006738. Motilin_ghrelin.
IPR005441. Preproghrelin.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR14122. PTHR14122. 1 hit.
PfamiPF04643. Motilin_assoc. 1 hit.
PF04644. Motilin_ghrelin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01624. GHRELIN.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

  1. Kita K., Harada K., Yokota H.
    Submitted (FEB-2001) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  2. "A full length genomic sequence of the bovine ghrelin gene."
    Li C., Lobo S., Wang Z., Fu A., Meng Y., Murdoch B., Hansen C., Moore S.
    Submitted (JAN-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  3. Kojima M.
    Submitted (DEC-1999) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 24-99.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGHRL_BOVIN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9BDJ6
Secondary accession number(s): Q0VH85, Q9GKY6
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 13, 2001
Last sequence update: June 1, 2001
Last modified: February 4, 2015
This is version 78 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Protein Spotlight
    Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.