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Protein

Spermine oxidase

Gene

Smox

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of spermine to spermidine. Can also use N(1)-acetylspermine and spermidine as substrates, with different affinity depending on the isoform (isozyme) and on the experimental conditions. Plays an important role in the regulation of polyamine intracellular concentration and has the potential to act as a determinant of cellular sensitivity to the antitumor polyamine analogs. May contribute to beta-alanine production via aldehyde dehydrogenase conversion of 3-amino-propanal.

Catalytic activityi

Spermine + O2 + H2O = spermidine + 3-aminopropanal + H2O2.

Cofactori

FADBy similarityNote: Binds 1 FAD per subunit.By similarity

Pathwayi: spermine degradation

This protein is involved in the pathway spermine degradation, which is part of Amine and polyamine degradation.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway spermine degradation and in Amine and polyamine degradation.

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Oxidoreductase

Keywords - Ligandi

FAD, Flavoprotein

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi1.5.3.16. 3474.
ReactomeiR-MMU-141334. PAOs oxidise polyamines to amines.
R-MMU-351200. Interconversion of polyamines.
UniPathwayiUPA00211.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Spermine oxidase (EC:1.5.3.16)
Alternative name(s):
Polyamine oxidase 1
Short name:
PAO-1
Short name:
PAOh1
Gene namesi
Name:Smox
Synonyms:Smo
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
Proteomesi
  • UP000000589 Componenti: Chromosome 2

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:2445356. Smox.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi320 – 3201C → R: No change in enzymatic activity. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 555555Spermine oxidasePRO_0000099878Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ99K82.
PRIDEiQ99K82.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ99K82.
PhosphoSiteiQ99K82.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Widely expressed. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are expressed at higher level in brain and skeletal muscle. Isoform 7 is found in brain and spleen, isoform 10 is widely expressed but found at lower level in heart, kidney, liver and lung.1 Publication

Inductioni

By antitumor polyamine analogs.Curated

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ99K82.
CleanExiMM_SMO.
MM_SMOX.
ExpressionAtlasiQ99K82. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ99K82. MM.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ99K82.
SMRiQ99K82. Positions 25-547.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the flavin monoamine oxidase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00530000062888.
HOVERGENiHBG053499.
InParanoidiQ99K82.
KOiK12259.
OMAiQEFFRHG.
OrthoDBiEOG751NFD.
PhylomeDBiQ99K82.
TreeFamiTF318348.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.50.50.60. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR002937. Amino_oxidase.
IPR023753. FAD/NAD-binding_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01593. Amino_oxidase. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF51905. SSF51905. 3 hits.

Sequences (10)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 10 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q99K82-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: Alpha, Polyamine oxidase-l

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MQSCESSGDS ADDPLSRGLR RRGQPRVVVI GAGLAGLAAA RALLEQGFTD
60 70 80 90 100
VTVLEASSHI GGRVQSVRLG DTTFELGATW IHGSHGNPIY QLAEANGLLE
110 120 130 140 150
ETTDGERSVG RISLYSKNGV ACYLTNRGCR IPKDVVEEFS DLYNEVYNMT
160 170 180 190 200
QEFFRHGKPV NAESQNSVGV FTREKVRNRI RDDPDDTEAT KRLKLAMIQQ
210 220 230 240 250
YLKVESCESS SHSIDEVSLS AFGEWTEIPG AHHIIPSGFM RVVELLAEGI
260 270 280 290 300
PPHVIQLGKP VRCIHWDQAS AHPRGPEIEP RGEGDHNHDT GEGGQSGENP
310 320 330 340 350
QQGRWDEDEP WPVVVECEDC EVIPADHVIV TVSLGVLKRQ YTSFFRPCLP
360 370 380 390 400
TEKVAAIHRL GIGTTDKIFL EFEEPFWGPE CNSLQFVWED EAESCTLTYP
410 420 430 440 450
PELWYRKICG FDVLYPPERY GHVLSGWICG EEALVMERCD DEAVAEICTE
460 470 480 490 500
MLRQFTGNPN IPKPRRILRS AWGSNPYFRG SYSYTQVGSS GADVEKLAKP
510 520 530 540 550
LPYTESSKTA PMQVLFSGEA THRKYYSTTH GALLSGQREA ARLIEMYRDL

FQQGP
Note: Major isoform.
Length:555
Mass (Da):61,852
Last modified:June 1, 2001 - v1
Checksum:iA297E9DBD094EA74
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q99K82-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: Mu

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     510-510: A → AHRSSTEQQPGHLLPSKCPEQSLDPSRGSIK

Note: Active. Nuclear and cytoplasmic.
Show »
Length:585
Mass (Da):65,135
Checksum:iE302FD53FA183AD6
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: Q99K82-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: Eta

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     205-555: ESCESSSHSI...MYRDLFQQGP → SLLWSIDARVKKMNSGGVSVQSALLLRALVPCMA

Show »
Length:238
Mass (Da):26,059
Checksum:i627B3AD32771EABD
GO
Isoform 4 (identifier: Q99K82-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: Omega

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     204-209: VESCES → SAMAMC
     210-555: Missing.

Show »
Length:209
Mass (Da):22,957
Checksum:iCE1BDE3E3C4C82DD
GO
Isoform 5 (identifier: Q99K82-5) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: Phi

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     204-510: Missing.

Show »
Length:248
Mass (Da):27,500
Checksum:i73F3D7410F9452CE
GO
Isoform 6 (identifier: Q99K82-6) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: Beta

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     458-512: NPNIPKPRRI...YTESSKTAPM → GLKWGGCGEA...GALLRGGHTP
     516-555: FSGEATHRKY...MYRDLFQQGP → LHHPRCSALW...KGVLTAKCVP

Show »
Length:536
Mass (Da):59,146
Checksum:iBCBD87D6CF22C93B
GO
Isoform 7 (identifier: Q99K82-7) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: Gamma

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     457-512: GNPNIPKPRRILRSAWGSNPYFRGSYSYTQVGSSGADVEKLAKPLPYTESSKTAPM → AHAGALLRGGHTP
     516-555: FSGEATHRKY...MYRDLFQQGP → LHHPRCSALW...KGVLTAKCVP

Note: No detectable activity. Cytoplasmic.
Show »
Length:512
Mass (Da):56,696
Checksum:iB0EB01FCD32C6F45
GO
Isoform 8 (identifier: Q99K82-8) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: Polyamine oxidase-m

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     282-417: Missing.

Show »
Length:419
Mass (Da):46,397
Checksum:i69147898863CBF04
GO
Isoform 9 (identifier: Q99K82-9) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: Polyamine oxidase-s

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     204-243: VESCESSSHS...IIPSGFMRVV → GTPIYQNLGE...WAQVGRMWRS
     244-255: Missing.

Show »
Length:543
Mass (Da):60,574
Checksum:iD92062F9D50B273B
GO
Isoform 10 (identifier: Q99K82-10) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: Delta

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     146-510: Missing.

Note: No detectable activity. Cytoplasmic.
Show »
Length:190
Mass (Da):20,647
Checksum:iDF4B58D0585BDFD0
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei146 – 510365Missing in isoform 10. 1 PublicationVSP_011127Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei204 – 510307Missing in isoform 5. 1 PublicationVSP_011130Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei204 – 24340VESCE…FMRVV → GTPIYQNLGESCAQPGAATH TSGVPIPTHRWAQVGRMWRS in isoform 9. CuratedVSP_011129Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei204 – 2096VESCES → SAMAMC in isoform 4. 1 PublicationVSP_011128
Alternative sequencei205 – 555351ESCES…FQQGP → SLLWSIDARVKKMNSGGVSV QSALLLRALVPCMA in isoform 3. 1 PublicationVSP_011131Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei210 – 555346Missing in isoform 4. 1 PublicationVSP_011132Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei244 – 25512Missing in isoform 9. CuratedVSP_011133Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei282 – 417136Missing in isoform 8. CuratedVSP_011134Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei457 – 51256GNPNI…KTAPM → AHAGALLRGGHTP in isoform 7. 1 PublicationVSP_011135Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei458 – 51255NPNIP…KTAPM → GLKWGGCGEASQAPALHREL QDSAHAGALLRGGHTP in isoform 6. 1 PublicationVSP_011136Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei510 – 5101A → AHRSSTEQQPGHLLPSKCPE QSLDPSRGSIK in isoform 2. 1 PublicationVSP_011137
Alternative sequencei516 – 55540FSGEA…FQQGP → LHHPRCSALWPARGRPAHRD VPRPLPAGALKGVLTAKCVP in isoform 6 and isoform 7. 1 PublicationVSP_011138Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AJ567473 mRNA. Translation: CAD98866.1.
AJ567474 mRNA. Translation: CAD98867.1.
AJ567475 mRNA. Translation: CAD98868.1.
AJ567476 mRNA. Translation: CAD98869.1.
AJ567477 mRNA. Translation: CAD98870.1.
AJ567478 mRNA. Translation: CAD98871.1.
AJ567479 mRNA. Translation: CAD98872.1.
AJ567480 mRNA. Translation: CAD98873.1.
AF495851 mRNA. Translation: AAN32908.1.
AF495852 mRNA. Translation: AAN32909.1.
AF495853 mRNA. Translation: AAN32910.1.
AF498364 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAN32915.1.
AL831781, AL831731 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM20374.1.
AL831781, AL831731 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM20375.1.
AL831781, AL831731 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM20376.1.
AL831781, AL831731 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM20378.1.
AL831781, AL831731 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM20379.1.
AL831731, AL831781 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM24528.1.
AL831731, AL831781 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM24529.1.
AL831731, AL831781 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM24530.1.
AL831731, AL831781 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM24531.1.
AL831731, AL831781 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM24532.1.
BC004831 mRNA. Translation: AAH04831.1.
CCDSiCCDS16763.1. [Q99K82-1]
CCDS50718.1. [Q99K82-8]
CCDS50719.1. [Q99K82-2]
CCDS50720.1. [Q99K82-6]
CCDS50721.1. [Q99K82-7]
CCDS50724.1. [Q99K82-5]
CCDS50725.1. [Q99K82-10]
RefSeqiNP_001171304.1. NM_001177833.1. [Q99K82-2]
NP_001171305.1. NM_001177834.1. [Q99K82-6]
NP_001171306.1. NM_001177835.1. [Q99K82-7]
NP_001171307.1. NM_001177836.1. [Q99K82-8]
NP_001171309.1. NM_001177838.1. [Q99K82-5]
NP_001171310.1. NM_001177839.1.
NP_001171311.1. NM_001177840.1. [Q99K82-10]
NP_663508.1. NM_145533.2. [Q99K82-1]
XP_006499350.1. XM_006499287.2. [Q99K82-2]
XP_006499351.1. XM_006499288.1. [Q99K82-2]
UniGeneiMm.136586.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000028806; ENSMUSP00000028806; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-1]
ENSMUST00000110180; ENSMUSP00000105809; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-8]
ENSMUST00000110182; ENSMUSP00000105811; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-10]
ENSMUST00000110183; ENSMUSP00000105812; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-5]
ENSMUST00000110186; ENSMUSP00000105815; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-2]
ENSMUST00000110188; ENSMUSP00000105817; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-6]
ENSMUST00000110189; ENSMUSP00000105818; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-7]
ENSMUST00000183947; ENSMUSP00000139278; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-4]
GeneIDi228608.
KEGGimmu:228608.
UCSCiuc008mlm.2. mouse. [Q99K82-1]
uc008mln.2. mouse. [Q99K82-2]
uc008mlp.2. mouse. [Q99K82-8]
uc008mls.2. mouse. [Q99K82-10]
uc008mlt.2. mouse. [Q99K82-6]
uc012cep.1. mouse. [Q99K82-7]
uc012ceq.1. mouse. [Q99K82-5]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AJ567473 mRNA. Translation: CAD98866.1.
AJ567474 mRNA. Translation: CAD98867.1.
AJ567475 mRNA. Translation: CAD98868.1.
AJ567476 mRNA. Translation: CAD98869.1.
AJ567477 mRNA. Translation: CAD98870.1.
AJ567478 mRNA. Translation: CAD98871.1.
AJ567479 mRNA. Translation: CAD98872.1.
AJ567480 mRNA. Translation: CAD98873.1.
AF495851 mRNA. Translation: AAN32908.1.
AF495852 mRNA. Translation: AAN32909.1.
AF495853 mRNA. Translation: AAN32910.1.
AF498364 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAN32915.1.
AL831781, AL831731 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM20374.1.
AL831781, AL831731 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM20375.1.
AL831781, AL831731 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM20376.1.
AL831781, AL831731 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM20378.1.
AL831781, AL831731 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM20379.1.
AL831731, AL831781 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM24528.1.
AL831731, AL831781 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM24529.1.
AL831731, AL831781 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM24530.1.
AL831731, AL831781 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM24531.1.
AL831731, AL831781 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAM24532.1.
BC004831 mRNA. Translation: AAH04831.1.
CCDSiCCDS16763.1. [Q99K82-1]
CCDS50718.1. [Q99K82-8]
CCDS50719.1. [Q99K82-2]
CCDS50720.1. [Q99K82-6]
CCDS50721.1. [Q99K82-7]
CCDS50724.1. [Q99K82-5]
CCDS50725.1. [Q99K82-10]
RefSeqiNP_001171304.1. NM_001177833.1. [Q99K82-2]
NP_001171305.1. NM_001177834.1. [Q99K82-6]
NP_001171306.1. NM_001177835.1. [Q99K82-7]
NP_001171307.1. NM_001177836.1. [Q99K82-8]
NP_001171309.1. NM_001177838.1. [Q99K82-5]
NP_001171310.1. NM_001177839.1.
NP_001171311.1. NM_001177840.1. [Q99K82-10]
NP_663508.1. NM_145533.2. [Q99K82-1]
XP_006499350.1. XM_006499287.2. [Q99K82-2]
XP_006499351.1. XM_006499288.1. [Q99K82-2]
UniGeneiMm.136586.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ99K82.
SMRiQ99K82. Positions 25-547.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ99K82.
PhosphoSiteiQ99K82.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ99K82.
PRIDEiQ99K82.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000028806; ENSMUSP00000028806; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-1]
ENSMUST00000110180; ENSMUSP00000105809; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-8]
ENSMUST00000110182; ENSMUSP00000105811; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-10]
ENSMUST00000110183; ENSMUSP00000105812; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-5]
ENSMUST00000110186; ENSMUSP00000105815; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-2]
ENSMUST00000110188; ENSMUSP00000105817; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-6]
ENSMUST00000110189; ENSMUSP00000105818; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-7]
ENSMUST00000183947; ENSMUSP00000139278; ENSMUSG00000027333. [Q99K82-4]
GeneIDi228608.
KEGGimmu:228608.
UCSCiuc008mlm.2. mouse. [Q99K82-1]
uc008mln.2. mouse. [Q99K82-2]
uc008mlp.2. mouse. [Q99K82-8]
uc008mls.2. mouse. [Q99K82-10]
uc008mlt.2. mouse. [Q99K82-6]
uc012cep.1. mouse. [Q99K82-7]
uc012ceq.1. mouse. [Q99K82-5]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi54498.
MGIiMGI:2445356. Smox.

Phylogenomic databases

GeneTreeiENSGT00530000062888.
HOVERGENiHBG053499.
InParanoidiQ99K82.
KOiK12259.
OMAiQEFFRHG.
OrthoDBiEOG751NFD.
PhylomeDBiQ99K82.
TreeFamiTF318348.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00211.
BRENDAi1.5.3.16. 3474.
ReactomeiR-MMU-141334. PAOs oxidise polyamines to amines.
R-MMU-351200. Interconversion of polyamines.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiQ99K82.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ99K82.
CleanExiMM_SMO.
MM_SMOX.
ExpressionAtlasiQ99K82. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ99K82. MM.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.50.50.60. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR002937. Amino_oxidase.
IPR023753. FAD/NAD-binding_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01593. Amino_oxidase. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF51905. SSF51905. 3 hits.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Mouse spermine oxidase gene splice variants. Nuclear subcellular localization of a novel active isoform."
    Cervelli M., Bellini A., Bianchi M., Marcocci L., Nocera S., Polticelli F., Federico R., Amendola R., Mariottini P.
    Eur. J. Biochem. 271:760-770(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORMS 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7 AND 10), TISSUE SPECIFICITY, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
    Strain: DBA/2J.
    Tissue: Brain.
  2. Wang Y., Devereux W., Stewart T.M., Casero R.A. Jr.
    Submitted (APR-2002) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE (ISOFORMS 1; 8 AND 9).
    Tissue: Liver.
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: C57BL/6J.
  4. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
    Strain: FVB/N.
    Tissue: Mammary tumor.
  5. "Identification and characterization of a novel flavin-containing spermine oxidase of mammalian cell origin."
    Vujcic S., Diegelman P., Bacchi C.J., Kramer D.L., Porter C.W.
    Biochem. J. 367:665-675(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: CHARACTERIZATION, MUTAGENESIS OF CYS-320.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiSMOX_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q99K82
Secondary accession number(s): A2ANQ8
, A2ANQ9, A2ANR0, A2ANR1, A2ANR2, Q70LA3, Q70LA4, Q70LA5, Q70LA7, Q70LA8, Q70LA9, Q70LB0, Q8CJ56, Q8CJ57
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 19, 2004
Last sequence update: June 1, 2001
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 104 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.