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Q99988 (GDF15_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified July 9, 2014. Version 124. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (5) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Web links·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Growth/differentiation factor 15

Short name=GDF-15
Alternative name(s):
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1
Short name=MIC-1
NSAID-activated gene 1 protein
Short name=NAG-1
NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein
Short name=NRG-1
Placental TGF-beta
Placental bone morphogenetic protein
Prostate differentiation factor
Gene names
Name:GDF15
Synonyms:MIC1, PDF, PLAB, PTGFB
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length308 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Subunit structure

Homodimer; disulfide-linked By similarity.

Subcellular location

Secreted Probable.

Tissue specificity

Highly expressed in placenta, with lower levels in prostate and colon and some expression in kidney.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the TGF-beta family.

Ontologies

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Signal peptide1 – 2929 Potential
Propeptide30 – 194165 Potential
PRO_0000033992
Chain195 – 308114Growth/differentiation factor 15
PRO_0000033993

Amino acid modifications

Glycosylation701N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential
Disulfide bond211 ↔ 274 By similarity
Disulfide bond240 ↔ 305 By similarity
Disulfide bond244 ↔ 307 By similarity
Disulfide bond273Interchain By similarity

Natural variations

Natural variant91V → L. Ref.2 Ref.3 Ref.4 Ref.5
Corresponds to variant rs1059519 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_047646
Natural variant481S → T. Ref.2 Ref.3 Ref.5
Corresponds to variant rs1059369 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_010386
Natural variant2021H → D. Ref.1
Corresponds to variant rs1058587 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_047647

Experimental info

Sequence conflict2691V → E in AAB88913. Ref.1
Sequence conflict2881T → A in AAF89834. Ref.10

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Q99988 [UniParc].

Last modified November 30, 2010. Version 3.
Checksum: 2FF3959021B95238

FASTA30834,140
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MPGQELRTVN GSQMLLVLLV LSWLPHGGAL SLAEASRASF PGPSELHSED SRFRELRKRY 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
EDLLTRLRAN QSWEDSNTDL VPAPAVRILT PEVRLGSGGH LHLRISRAAL PEGLPEASRL 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
HRALFRLSPT ASRSWDVTRP LRRQLSLARP QAPALHLRLS PPPSQSDQLL AESSSARPQL 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
ELHLRPQAAR GRRRARARNG DHCPLGPGRC CRLHTVRASL EDLGWADWVL SPREVQVTMC 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
IGACPSQFRA ANMHAQIKTS LHRLKPDTVP APCCVPASYN PMVLIQKTDT GVSLQTYDDL 


LAKDCHCI 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"PLAB, a novel placental bone morphogenetic protein."
Hromas R., Hufford M., Sutton J., Xu D., Li Y., Lu L.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1354:40-44(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], VARIANT ASP-202.
Tissue: Placenta.
[2]"Human cDNA encoding a novel TGF-beta superfamily protein highly expressed in placenta."
Yokoyama-Kobayashi M., Saeki M., Sekine S., Kato S.
J. Biochem. 122:622-626(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], VARIANTS LEU-9 AND THR-48.
Tissue: Fibrosarcoma.
[3]"MIC-1, a novel macrophage inhibitory cytokine, is a divergent member of the TGF-beta superfamily."
Bootcov M.R., Bauskin A.R., Valenzuela S.M., Moore A.G., Bansal M., He X.Y., Zhang H.P., Donnellan M., Mahler S., Pryor K., Walsh B.J., Nicholson R.C., Fairlie W.D., Por S.B., Robbins J.M., Breit S.N.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94:11514-11519(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], VARIANTS LEU-9 AND THR-48.
[4]"Cloning and characterization of a novel member of the transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein family."
Paralkar V.M., Vail A.L., Grasser W.A., Brown T.A., Xu H., Vukicevic S., Ke H.Z., Qi H., Owen T.A., Thompson D.D.
J. Biol. Chem. 273:13760-13767(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], VARIANT LEU-9.
Tissue: Placenta.
[5]"Cloning of human full-length CDSs in BD Creator(TM) system donor vector."
Kalnine N., Chen X., Rolfs A., Halleck A., Hines L., Eisenstein S., Koundinya M., Raphael J., Moreira D., Kelley T., LaBaer J., Lin Y., Phelan M., Farmer A.
Submitted (MAY-2003) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA], VARIANTS LEU-9 AND THR-48.
[6]"Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S. expand/collapse author list , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Placenta.
[7]"The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19."
Grimwood J., Gordon L.A., Olsen A.S., Terry A., Schmutz J., Lamerdin J.E., Hellsten U., Goodstein D., Couronne O., Tran-Gyamfi M., Aerts A., Altherr M., Ashworth L., Bajorek E., Black S., Branscomb E., Caenepeel S., Carrano A.V. expand/collapse author list , Caoile C., Chan Y.M., Christensen M., Cleland C.A., Copeland A., Dalin E., Dehal P., Denys M., Detter J.C., Escobar J., Flowers D., Fotopulos D., Garcia C., Georgescu A.M., Glavina T., Gomez M., Gonzales E., Groza M., Hammon N., Hawkins T., Haydu L., Ho I., Huang W., Israni S., Jett J., Kadner K., Kimball H., Kobayashi A., Larionov V., Leem S.-H., Lopez F., Lou Y., Lowry S., Malfatti S., Martinez D., McCready P.M., Medina C., Morgan J., Nelson K., Nolan M., Ovcharenko I., Pitluck S., Pollard M., Popkie A.P., Predki P., Quan G., Ramirez L., Rash S., Retterer J., Rodriguez A., Rogers S., Salamov A., Salazar A., She X., Smith D., Slezak T., Solovyev V., Thayer N., Tice H., Tsai M., Ustaszewska A., Vo N., Wagner M., Wheeler J., Wu K., Xie G., Yang J., Dubchak I., Furey T.S., DeJong P., Dickson M., Gordon D., Eichler E.E., Pennacchio L.A., Richardson P., Stubbs L., Rokhsar D.S., Myers R.M., Rubin E.M., Lucas S.M.
Nature 428:529-535(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[8]Mural R.J., Istrail S., Sutton G.G., Florea L., Halpern A.L., Mobarry C.M., Lippert R., Walenz B., Shatkay H., Dew I., Miller J.R., Flanigan M.J., Edwards N.J., Bolanos R., Fasulo D., Halldorsson B.V., Hannenhalli S., Turner R. expand/collapse author list , Yooseph S., Lu F., Nusskern D.R., Shue B.C., Zheng X.H., Zhong F., Delcher A.L., Huson D.H., Kravitz S.A., Mouchard L., Reinert K., Remington K.A., Clark A.G., Waterman M.S., Eichler E.E., Adams M.D., Hunkapiller M.W., Myers E.W., Venter J.C.
Submitted (JUL-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[9]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Muscle.
[10]"Identification of a novel member of the TGF-beta superfamily highly expressed in human placenta."
Lawton L.N., de Fatima Bonaldo M., Jelenc P.C., Qiu L., Baumes S.A., Marcelino R.A., de Jesus G.M., Wellington S., Knowles J.A., Warburton D., Brown S., Soares M.B.
Gene 203:17-26(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 14-308.
[11]"Cyclooxygenase inhibitors regulate the expression of a TGF-beta superfamily member that has proapoptotic and antitumorigenic activities."
Baek S.J., Kim K.S., Nixon J.B., Wilson L.C., Eling T.E.
Mol. Pharmacol. 59:901-908(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 264-308.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
U88323 mRNA. Translation: AAB88913.1.
AB000584 mRNA. Translation: BAA19151.1.
AF019770 mRNA. Translation: AAB88673.1.
AF003934 mRNA. Translation: AAC24456.1.
AK291530 mRNA. Translation: BAF84219.1.
BT019465 mRNA. Translation: AAV38272.1.
AC008397 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH471106 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW84694.1.
BC000529 mRNA. Translation: AAH00529.1.
BC008962 mRNA. Translation: AAH08962.1.
AF008303 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC39537.1.
AF173860 mRNA. Translation: AAF89834.1.
CCDSCCDS12376.1.
PIRJC5697.
RefSeqNP_004855.2. NM_004864.2.
UniGeneHs.616962.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalQ99988.
SMRQ99988. Positions 209-307.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid114895. 4 interactions.
IntActQ99988. 2 interactions.
STRING9606.ENSP00000252809.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteQ99988.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM313104195.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBQ99988.
PaxDbQ99988.
PeptideAtlasQ99988.
PRIDEQ99988.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000252809; ENSP00000252809; ENSG00000130513.
GeneID9518.
KEGGhsa:9518.
UCSCuc002niv.2. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTD9518.
GeneCardsGC19P018496.
H-InvDBHIX0014912.
HGNCHGNC:30142. GDF15.
HPACAB062554.
HPA011191.
MIM605312. gene.
neXtProtNX_Q99988.
PharmGKBPA134866647.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG235805.
HOGENOMHOG000143379.
HOVERGENHBG051718.
InParanoidQ99988.
KOK05504.
OMASWDVTRP.
PhylomeDBQ99988.
TreeFamTF351787.

Gene expression databases

BgeeQ99988.
CleanExHS_GDF15.
GenevestigatorQ99988.

Family and domain databases

Gene3D2.10.90.10. 1 hit.
InterProIPR029034. Cystine-knot_cytokine.
IPR001839. TGF-b_C.
IPR015615. TGF-beta-rel.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERPTHR11848. PTHR11848. 1 hit.
PfamPF00019. TGF_beta. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTSM00204. TGFB. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMSSF57501. SSF57501. 1 hit.
PROSITEPS51362. TGF_BETA_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

ChiTaRSGDF15. human.
GeneWikiGDF15.
GenomeRNAi9518.
NextBio35670.
PMAP-CutDBQ9BWA0.
PROQ99988.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameGDF15_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q99988
Secondary accession number(s): O14629 expand/collapse secondary AC list , P78360, Q9BWA0, Q9NRT0
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 21, 2001
Last sequence update: November 30, 2010
Last modified: July 9, 2014
This is version 124 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

Human chromosome 19

Human chromosome 19: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM