Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Protein

Growth/differentiation factor 15

Gene

GDF15

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

GO - Molecular functioni

  • cytokine activity Source: ProtInc
  • transforming growth factor beta receptor binding Source: GO_Central

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Cytokine, Growth factor

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Growth/differentiation factor 15
Short name:
GDF-15
Alternative name(s):
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1
Short name:
MIC-1
NSAID-activated gene 1 protein
Short name:
NAG-1
NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein
Short name:
NRG-1
Placental TGF-beta
Placental bone morphogenetic protein
Prostate differentiation factor
Gene namesi
Name:GDF15
Synonyms:MIC1, PDF, PLAB, PTGFB
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 19

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:30142. GDF15.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • extracellular exosome Source: UniProtKB
  • extracellular region Source: ProtInc
  • extracellular space Source: GO_Central
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA134866647.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGDF15.
DMDMi313104195.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2929Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Propeptidei30 – 194165Sequence AnalysisPRO_0000033992Add
BLAST
Chaini195 – 308114Growth/differentiation factor 15PRO_0000033993Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Glycosylationi70 – 701N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Disulfide bondi211 ↔ 274By similarity
Disulfide bondi240 ↔ 305By similarity
Disulfide bondi244 ↔ 307By similarity
Disulfide bondi273 – 273InterchainBy similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ99988.
PaxDbiQ99988.
PeptideAtlasiQ99988.
PRIDEiQ99988.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ99988.

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBQ9BWA0.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Highly expressed in placenta, with lower levels in prostate and colon and some expression in kidney.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ99988.
CleanExiHS_GDF15.
ExpressionAtlasiQ99988. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriQ99988.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB062554.
HPA011191.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer; disulfide-linked.By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi114895. 4 interactions.
IntActiQ99988. 2 interactions.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000252809.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ99988.
SMRiQ99988. Positions 209-307.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the TGF-beta family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG235805.
GeneTreeiENSGT00740000114888.
HOGENOMiHOG000143379.
HOVERGENiHBG051718.
InParanoidiQ99988.
KOiK05504.
OMAiSWDVTRP.
PhylomeDBiQ99988.
TreeFamiTF351787.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.10.90.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR029034. Cystine-knot_cytokine.
IPR001839. TGF-b_C.
IPR015615. TGF-beta-rel.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11848. PTHR11848. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00019. TGF_beta. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00204. TGFB. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF57501. SSF57501. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51362. TGF_BETA_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q99988-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MPGQELRTVN GSQMLLVLLV LSWLPHGGAL SLAEASRASF PGPSELHSED
60 70 80 90 100
SRFRELRKRY EDLLTRLRAN QSWEDSNTDL VPAPAVRILT PEVRLGSGGH
110 120 130 140 150
LHLRISRAAL PEGLPEASRL HRALFRLSPT ASRSWDVTRP LRRQLSLARP
160 170 180 190 200
QAPALHLRLS PPPSQSDQLL AESSSARPQL ELHLRPQAAR GRRRARARNG
210 220 230 240 250
DHCPLGPGRC CRLHTVRASL EDLGWADWVL SPREVQVTMC IGACPSQFRA
260 270 280 290 300
ANMHAQIKTS LHRLKPDTVP APCCVPASYN PMVLIQKTDT GVSLQTYDDL

LAKDCHCI
Length:308
Mass (Da):34,140
Last modified:November 30, 2010 - v3
Checksum:i2FF3959021B95238
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti269 – 2691V → E in AAB88913 (PubMed:9375789).Curated
Sequence conflicti288 – 2881T → A in AAF89834 (PubMed:9426002).Curated

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti9 – 91V → L.4 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs1059519 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_047646
Natural varianti48 – 481S → T.3 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs1059369 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_010386
Natural varianti202 – 2021H → D.1 Publication
Corresponds to variant rs1058587 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_047647

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U88323 mRNA. Translation: AAB88913.1.
AB000584 mRNA. Translation: BAA19151.1.
AF019770 mRNA. Translation: AAB88673.1.
AF003934 mRNA. Translation: AAC24456.1.
AK291530 mRNA. Translation: BAF84219.1.
BT019465 mRNA. Translation: AAV38272.1.
AC008397 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH471106 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW84694.1.
BC000529 mRNA. Translation: AAH00529.1.
BC008962 mRNA. Translation: AAH08962.1.
AF008303 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC39537.1.
AF173860 mRNA. Translation: AAF89834.1.
CCDSiCCDS12376.1.
PIRiJC5697.
RefSeqiNP_004855.2. NM_004864.2.
UniGeneiHs.616962.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000252809; ENSP00000252809; ENSG00000130513.
GeneIDi9518.
KEGGihsa:9518.
UCSCiuc002niv.2. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U88323 mRNA. Translation: AAB88913.1.
AB000584 mRNA. Translation: BAA19151.1.
AF019770 mRNA. Translation: AAB88673.1.
AF003934 mRNA. Translation: AAC24456.1.
AK291530 mRNA. Translation: BAF84219.1.
BT019465 mRNA. Translation: AAV38272.1.
AC008397 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH471106 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW84694.1.
BC000529 mRNA. Translation: AAH00529.1.
BC008962 mRNA. Translation: AAH08962.1.
AF008303 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC39537.1.
AF173860 mRNA. Translation: AAF89834.1.
CCDSiCCDS12376.1.
PIRiJC5697.
RefSeqiNP_004855.2. NM_004864.2.
UniGeneiHs.616962.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ99988.
SMRiQ99988. Positions 209-307.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi114895. 4 interactions.
IntActiQ99988. 2 interactions.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000252809.

Chemistry

ChEMBLiCHEMBL3120039.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ99988.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGDF15.
DMDMi313104195.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ99988.
PaxDbiQ99988.
PeptideAtlasiQ99988.
PRIDEiQ99988.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000252809; ENSP00000252809; ENSG00000130513.
GeneIDi9518.
KEGGihsa:9518.
UCSCiuc002niv.2. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi9518.
GeneCardsiGC19P018613.
H-InvDBHIX0014912.
HGNCiHGNC:30142. GDF15.
HPAiCAB062554.
HPA011191.
MIMi605312. gene.
neXtProtiNX_Q99988.
PharmGKBiPA134866647.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG235805.
GeneTreeiENSGT00740000114888.
HOGENOMiHOG000143379.
HOVERGENiHBG051718.
InParanoidiQ99988.
KOiK05504.
OMAiSWDVTRP.
PhylomeDBiQ99988.
TreeFamiTF351787.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiGDF15. human.
GeneWikiiGDF15.
GenomeRNAii9518.
NextBioi35670.
PMAP-CutDBQ9BWA0.
PROiQ99988.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ99988.
CleanExiHS_GDF15.
ExpressionAtlasiQ99988. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriQ99988.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.10.90.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR029034. Cystine-knot_cytokine.
IPR001839. TGF-b_C.
IPR015615. TGF-beta-rel.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11848. PTHR11848. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00019. TGF_beta. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00204. TGFB. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF57501. SSF57501. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51362. TGF_BETA_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "PLAB, a novel placental bone morphogenetic protein."
    Hromas R., Hufford M., Sutton J., Xu D., Li Y., Lu L.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1354:40-44(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], VARIANT ASP-202.
    Tissue: Placenta.
  2. "Human cDNA encoding a novel TGF-beta superfamily protein highly expressed in placenta."
    Yokoyama-Kobayashi M., Saeki M., Sekine S., Kato S.
    J. Biochem. 122:622-626(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], VARIANTS LEU-9 AND THR-48.
    Tissue: Fibrosarcoma.
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], VARIANTS LEU-9 AND THR-48.
  4. "Cloning and characterization of a novel member of the transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein family."
    Paralkar V.M., Vail A.L., Grasser W.A., Brown T.A., Xu H., Vukicevic S., Ke H.Z., Qi H., Owen T.A., Thompson D.D.
    J. Biol. Chem. 273:13760-13767(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], VARIANT LEU-9.
    Tissue: Placenta.
  5. "Cloning of human full-length CDSs in BD Creator(TM) system donor vector."
    Kalnine N., Chen X., Rolfs A., Halleck A., Hines L., Eisenstein S., Koundinya M., Raphael J., Moreira D., Kelley T., LaBaer J., Lin Y., Phelan M., Farmer A.
    Submitted (MAY-2003) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA], VARIANTS LEU-9 AND THR-48.
  6. "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
    Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
    , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
    Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Placenta.
  7. "The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19."
    Grimwood J., Gordon L.A., Olsen A.S., Terry A., Schmutz J., Lamerdin J.E., Hellsten U., Goodstein D., Couronne O., Tran-Gyamfi M., Aerts A., Altherr M., Ashworth L., Bajorek E., Black S., Branscomb E., Caenepeel S., Carrano A.V.
    , Caoile C., Chan Y.M., Christensen M., Cleland C.A., Copeland A., Dalin E., Dehal P., Denys M., Detter J.C., Escobar J., Flowers D., Fotopulos D., Garcia C., Georgescu A.M., Glavina T., Gomez M., Gonzales E., Groza M., Hammon N., Hawkins T., Haydu L., Ho I., Huang W., Israni S., Jett J., Kadner K., Kimball H., Kobayashi A., Larionov V., Leem S.-H., Lopez F., Lou Y., Lowry S., Malfatti S., Martinez D., McCready P.M., Medina C., Morgan J., Nelson K., Nolan M., Ovcharenko I., Pitluck S., Pollard M., Popkie A.P., Predki P., Quan G., Ramirez L., Rash S., Retterer J., Rodriguez A., Rogers S., Salamov A., Salazar A., She X., Smith D., Slezak T., Solovyev V., Thayer N., Tice H., Tsai M., Ustaszewska A., Vo N., Wagner M., Wheeler J., Wu K., Xie G., Yang J., Dubchak I., Furey T.S., DeJong P., Dickson M., Gordon D., Eichler E.E., Pennacchio L.A., Richardson P., Stubbs L., Rokhsar D.S., Myers R.M., Rubin E.M., Lucas S.M.
    Nature 428:529-535(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  8. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  9. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Muscle.
  10. "Identification of a novel member of the TGF-beta superfamily highly expressed in human placenta."
    Lawton L.N., de Fatima Bonaldo M., Jelenc P.C., Qiu L., Baumes S.A., Marcelino R.A., de Jesus G.M., Wellington S., Knowles J.A., Warburton D., Brown S., Soares M.B.
    Gene 203:17-26(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 14-308.
  11. "Cyclooxygenase inhibitors regulate the expression of a TGF-beta superfamily member that has proapoptotic and antitumorigenic activities."
    Baek S.J., Kim K.S., Nixon J.B., Wilson L.C., Eling T.E.
    Mol. Pharmacol. 59:901-908(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 264-308.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGDF15_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q99988
Secondary accession number(s): O14629
, P78360, Q9BWA0, Q9NRT0
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 21, 2001
Last sequence update: November 30, 2010
Last modified: May 27, 2015
This is version 132 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 19
    Human chromosome 19: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.