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Protein

Thioredoxin, mitochondrial

Gene

TXN2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Important for the control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species homeostasis, apoptosis regulation and cell viability. Possesses a dithiol-reducing activity.3 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sitei84 – 841Deprotonates C-terminal active site CysBy similarity
Active sitei90 – 901NucleophileBy similarity
Sitei91 – 911Contributes to redox potential valueBy similarity
Sitei92 – 921Contributes to redox potential valueBy similarity
Active sitei93 – 931NucleophileBy similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Electron transport, Transport

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-3299685. Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Thioredoxin, mitochondrial
Short name:
MTRX
Short name:
Mt-Trx
Alternative name(s):
Thioredoxin-2
Gene namesi
Name:TXN2
Synonyms:TRX2
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 22

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:17772. TXN2.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • dendrite Source: Ensembl
  • mitochondrial matrix Source: Reactome
  • mitochondrion Source: CACAO
  • neuronal cell body Source: Ensembl
  • nucleolus Source: HPA
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Mitochondrion

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 29 (COXPD29)1 Publication
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionAn autosomal recessive, infantile-onset, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by decreased activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes I and III, severe cerebellar atrophy, epilepsy, dystonia, optic atrophy, and peripheral neuropathy.
See also OMIM:616811

Keywords - Diseasei

Neurodegeneration

Organism-specific databases

MIMi616811. phenotype.
PharmGKBiPA38245.

Chemistry

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2189153.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiTXN2.
DMDMi20455529.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Transit peptidei1 – 5959MitochondrionCombined sources1 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Chaini60 – 166107Thioredoxin, mitochondrialPRO_0000034150Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Disulfide bondi90 ↔ 93Redox-active
Modified residuei152 – 1521N6-acetyllysine; alternateCombined sources
Modified residuei152 – 1521N6-succinyllysine; alternateBy similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Disulfide bond

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ99757.
MaxQBiQ99757.
PaxDbiQ99757.
PeptideAtlasiQ99757.
PRIDEiQ99757.
TopDownProteomicsiQ99757.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ99757.
PhosphoSiteiQ99757.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Widely expressed in adult (at protein level) and fetal tissues.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000100348.
CleanExiHS_TXN2.
ExpressionAtlasiQ99757. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ99757. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB008681.
HPA000994.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer.1 Publication

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
AGTRAPQ6RW133EBI-2932492,EBI-741181
AP2B1P630103EBI-2932492,EBI-432924
CCDC114Q96M633EBI-2932492,EBI-10173858
DCTDP323213EBI-2932492,EBI-739870
FAM9BQ8IZU03EBI-2932492,EBI-10175124
KRT40Q6A1623EBI-2932492,EBI-10171697
MAGEA11P43364-23EBI-2932492,EBI-10178634
MAPRE2Q155553EBI-2932492,EBI-739717
MAPRE3Q9UPY83EBI-2932492,EBI-726739
MRFAP1L1Q96HT83EBI-2932492,EBI-748896
MTUS2Q5JR593EBI-2932492,EBI-742948
PPCDCQ96CD23EBI-2932492,EBI-724333
PSME3P612893EBI-2932492,EBI-355546
RABGEF1Q9UJ413EBI-2932492,EBI-913954
RBM45Q8IUH33EBI-2932492,EBI-2512147
REEP6Q96HR93EBI-2932492,EBI-750345
RPIAP492473EBI-2932492,EBI-744831
SCYL3Q8IZE33EBI-2932492,EBI-1380680
SSNA1O438053EBI-2932492,EBI-2515299
STUB1Q9UNE73EBI-2932492,EBI-357085
TIFAQ96CG33EBI-2932492,EBI-740711
TRIM21P194743EBI-2932492,EBI-81290
TRIP6Q156543EBI-2932492,EBI-742327
VPS52Q8N1B43EBI-2932492,EBI-2799833
ZBTB14O438293EBI-2932492,EBI-10176632

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi117356. 59 interactions.
IntActiQ99757. 33 interactions.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000216185.

Chemistry

BindingDBiQ99757.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
166
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Beta strandi60 – 634Combined sources
Helixi67 – 737Combined sources
Turni74 – 763Combined sources
Beta strandi81 – 866Combined sources
Helixi91 – 10616Combined sources
Turni107 – 1093Combined sources
Beta strandi110 – 1178Combined sources
Turni118 – 1214Combined sources
Helixi122 – 1276Combined sources
Beta strandi132 – 1409Combined sources
Beta strandi143 – 1508Combined sources
Helixi154 – 16512Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1UVZX-ray2.01A/B/C/D/E/F60-166[»]
1W4VX-ray1.80A/B/C/D/E/F60-166[»]
1W89X-ray2.00A/B/C/D/E/F60-166[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ99757.
SMRiQ99757. Positions 60-166.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ99757.

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini61 – 166106ThioredoxinPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the thioredoxin family.Curated
Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Redox-active center, Transit peptide

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0910. Eukaryota.
COG0526. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000064086.
HOVERGENiHBG009243.
InParanoidiQ99757.
KOiK03671.
OMAiDYEVGSV.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0UDG.
PhylomeDBiQ99757.
TreeFamiTF314517.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.30.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR005746. Thioredoxin.
IPR012336. Thioredoxin-like_fold.
IPR017937. Thioredoxin_CS.
IPR013766. Thioredoxin_domain.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10438. PTHR10438. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00085. Thioredoxin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF52833. SSF52833. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01068. thioredoxin. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00194. THIOREDOXIN_1. 1 hit.
PS51352. THIOREDOXIN_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q99757-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAQRLLLRRF LASVISRKPS QGQWPPLTSR ALQTPQCSPG GLTVTPNPAR
60 70 80 90 100
TIYTTRISLT TFNIQDGPDF QDRVVNSETP VVVDFHAQWC GPCKILGPRL
110 120 130 140 150
EKMVAKQHGK VVMAKVDIDD HTDLAIEYEV SAVPTVLAMK NGDVVDKFVG
160
IKDEDQLEAF LKKLIG
Length:166
Mass (Da):18,383
Last modified:May 2, 2002 - v2
Checksum:iC4CA8CDAD485D499
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti30 – 301R → K in AAB41631 (PubMed:12080052).Curated
Sequence conflicti30 – 301R → K in AAF86467 (Ref. 3) Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF480262 mRNA. Translation: AAN05576.1.
U78678 mRNA. Translation: AAB41631.1.
AF276920 mRNA. Translation: AAF86467.1.
CR456601 mRNA. Translation: CAG30487.1.
CR541896 mRNA. Translation: CAG46694.1.
CR541917 mRNA. Translation: CAG46715.1.
AL022313 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAQ06700.1.
CH471095 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW60103.1.
BC013726 mRNA. Translation: AAH13726.1.
BC050610 mRNA. Translation: AAH50610.1.
CCDSiCCDS13928.1.
RefSeqiNP_036605.2. NM_012473.3.
XP_006724289.1. XM_006724226.1.
UniGeneiHs.211929.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000216185; ENSP00000216185; ENSG00000100348.
ENST00000403313; ENSP00000385393; ENSG00000100348.
GeneIDi25828.
KEGGihsa:25828.
UCSCiuc003apk.2. human.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF480262 mRNA. Translation: AAN05576.1.
U78678 mRNA. Translation: AAB41631.1.
AF276920 mRNA. Translation: AAF86467.1.
CR456601 mRNA. Translation: CAG30487.1.
CR541896 mRNA. Translation: CAG46694.1.
CR541917 mRNA. Translation: CAG46715.1.
AL022313 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAQ06700.1.
CH471095 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW60103.1.
BC013726 mRNA. Translation: AAH13726.1.
BC050610 mRNA. Translation: AAH50610.1.
CCDSiCCDS13928.1.
RefSeqiNP_036605.2. NM_012473.3.
XP_006724289.1. XM_006724226.1.
UniGeneiHs.211929.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1UVZX-ray2.01A/B/C/D/E/F60-166[»]
1W4VX-ray1.80A/B/C/D/E/F60-166[»]
1W89X-ray2.00A/B/C/D/E/F60-166[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ99757.
SMRiQ99757. Positions 60-166.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi117356. 59 interactions.
IntActiQ99757. 33 interactions.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000216185.

Chemistry

BindingDBiQ99757.
ChEMBLiCHEMBL2189153.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ99757.
PhosphoSiteiQ99757.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiTXN2.
DMDMi20455529.

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ99757.
MaxQBiQ99757.
PaxDbiQ99757.
PeptideAtlasiQ99757.
PRIDEiQ99757.
TopDownProteomicsiQ99757.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi25828.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000216185; ENSP00000216185; ENSG00000100348.
ENST00000403313; ENSP00000385393; ENSG00000100348.
GeneIDi25828.
KEGGihsa:25828.
UCSCiuc003apk.2. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi25828.
GeneCardsiTXN2.
HGNCiHGNC:17772. TXN2.
HPAiCAB008681.
HPA000994.
MIMi609063. gene.
616811. phenotype.
neXtProtiNX_Q99757.
PharmGKBiPA38245.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0910. Eukaryota.
COG0526. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000064086.
HOVERGENiHBG009243.
InParanoidiQ99757.
KOiK03671.
OMAiDYEVGSV.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0UDG.
PhylomeDBiQ99757.
TreeFamiTF314517.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-3299685. Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiTXN2. human.
EvolutionaryTraceiQ99757.
GeneWikiiTXN2.
GenomeRNAii25828.
PROiQ99757.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000100348.
CleanExiHS_TXN2.
ExpressionAtlasiQ99757. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ99757. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.30.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR005746. Thioredoxin.
IPR012336. Thioredoxin-like_fold.
IPR017937. Thioredoxin_CS.
IPR013766. Thioredoxin_domain.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10438. PTHR10438. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00085. Thioredoxin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF52833. SSF52833. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01068. thioredoxin. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00194. THIOREDOXIN_1. 1 hit.
PS51352. THIOREDOXIN_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTHIOM_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q99757
Secondary accession number(s): Q5JZA0, Q6FH60, Q9UH29
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 15, 1998
Last sequence update: May 2, 2002
Last modified: September 7, 2016
This is version 163 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 22
    Human chromosome 22: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  4. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.