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Protein

Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p110 subunit

Gene

Rel

Organism
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Plays a key role in the humoral immune response (PubMed:8816802, PubMed:10619029, PubMed:11269501, PubMed:11872802, PubMed:22022271). Rel-p68 subunit translocates to the nucleus where it binds to the promoter of the Cecropin A1 gene and probably other antimicrobial peptide genes (PubMed:11269501). I-kappa-B kinase complex (IKKbeta and key) and PGRP-LC are essential signaling components in transmitting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signal leading to cact degradation for NF-kappa-B (rel) activation (PubMed:11872802, PubMed:11018014). Part of a Toll-related receptor pathway that functions in the apoptosis of unfit cells during cell competition (PubMed:25477468). May be part of a NF-kappa-B and Tollo signaling cascade that regulates development of the peripheral nervous system (PubMed:18000549). Possibly post-transcriptionally regulates the neuron-specific genes sc and ase, by promoting the rapid turnover of their transcripts in the wing imaginal disk (PubMed:18000549).7 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • chromatin binding Source: GO_Central
  • DNA binding Source: FlyBase
  • DNA binding transcription factor activity Source: FlyBase
  • identical protein binding Source: IntAct
  • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding Source: GO_Central
  • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding Source: FlyBase
  • sequence-specific DNA binding Source: FlyBase
  • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding Source: FlyBase

GO - Biological processi

  • cellular response to amino acid starvation Source: FlyBase
  • cellular response to DNA damage stimulus Source: FlyBase
  • defense response to Gram-negative bacterium Source: FlyBase
  • defense response to virus Source: FlyBase
  • dendrite morphogenesis Source: FlyBase
  • I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling Source: GO_Central
  • immune response Source: FlyBase
  • innate immune response Source: FlyBase
  • negative regulation of stem cell proliferation Source: FlyBase
  • negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II Source: GO_Central
  • NIK/NF-kappaB signaling Source: GO_Central
  • peptidoglycan recognition protein signaling pathway Source: FlyBase
  • peripheral nervous system neuron development Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of antibacterial peptide biosynthetic process Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of antifungal peptide biosynthetic process Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-negative bacteria Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of defense response to virus by host Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of gene expression Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of innate immune response Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process Source: FlyBase
  • positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II Source: FlyBase
  • regulation of innate immune response Source: FlyBase
  • response to bacterium Source: FlyBase
  • response to cytokine Source: GO_Central
  • signal transduction Source: FlyBase
  • Toll signaling pathway Source: FlyBase

Keywordsi

Molecular functionActivator
Biological processImmunity, Innate immunity, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-DME-1169091 Activation of NF-kappaB in B cells
R-DME-1810476 RIP-mediated NFkB activation via ZBP1
R-DME-202424 Downstream TCR signaling
R-DME-209394 Transcriptional activtion and repression of REL-68 target genes
R-DME-209560 NF-kB is activated and signals survival
R-DME-214399 Activated IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex, Phospho IRD5:KEY dimer, phosphorylates REL in the PGN:PGRP-LC/LE receptor 'signalling complex'
R-DME-214411 REL binds to DREDD in the PGN:PGRP-LC/LE receptor 'signalling complex'
R-DME-214416 Phosphorylated REL is cleaved by and dissociates from DREDD
R-DME-2871837 FCERI mediated NF-kB activation
R-DME-3134963 DEx/H-box helicases activate type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines production
R-DME-445989 TAK1 activates NFkB by phosphorylation and activation of IKKs complex
R-DME-5607761 Dectin-1 mediated noncanonical NF-kB signaling
R-DME-5607764 CLEC7A (Dectin-1) signaling
R-DME-5621575 CD209 (DC-SIGN) signaling
R-DME-5676590 NIK-->noncanonical NF-kB signaling
R-DME-6798695 Neutrophil degranulation
R-DME-9020702 Interleukin-1 signaling
R-DME-933542 TRAF6 mediated NF-kB activation
SignaLinkiQ94527

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p110 subunit
Alternative name(s):
Rel-p110
Relish protein
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Alternative name(s):
Rel-p68
Alternative name(s):
Rel-p49
Gene namesi
Name:RelImported
ORF Names:CG11992Imported
OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)Imported
Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraHolometabolaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
Proteomesi
  • UP000000803 Componenti: Chromosome 3R

Organism-specific databases

FlyBaseiFBgn0014018 Rel

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Larvae infected with Gram-negative bacteria fail to activate tracheal expression of the antibacterial peptide gene Drs (PubMed:22022271). Ectopic bristles develop on the dorsocentral, scutellar and lateral regions of the noctum, with one or more ectopic bristles per hemi-notum (PubMed:18000549).

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi545D → A: Completely resistant to cleavage. 1 Publication1

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000303181 – 971Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p110 subunit1 PublicationAdd BLAST971
ChainiPRO_00000303191 – 545Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p68 subunit1 PublicationAdd BLAST545
ChainiPRO_0000030320546 – 971Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p49 subunit1 PublicationAdd BLAST426

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei431Phosphoserine; by PKASequence analysis1
Modified residuei620Phosphothreonine1 Publication1
Modified residuei626Phosphotyrosine1 Publication1
Modified residuei950PhosphoserineBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated I-kappa-B kinase complex before being cleaved. Rel-p110 subunit is cleaved within seconds of an immune challenge into Rel-p49 subunit and Rel-p68 subunit. Rel-p110 subunit reappears after 45 minutes.3 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei545 – 546Cleavage (when cotranslationally processed)1 Publication2

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ94527
PRIDEiQ94527

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ94527

Expressioni

Developmental stagei

Expressed both maternally and zygotically.2 Publications

Inductioni

By bacteria and fungi.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiFBgn0014018
GenevisibleiQ94527 DM

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Rel-p68 subunit interacts with Dredd (PubMed:11269502). Interacts with DMAP1 (PubMed:24947515).2 Publications

Binary interactionsi

Show more details

GO - Molecular functioni

  • identical protein binding Source: IntAct

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi66255, 118 interactors
DIPiDIP-60434N
IntActiQ94527, 5 interactors
MINTiQ94527
STRINGi7227.FBpp0088375

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ94527
SMRiQ94527
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini147 – 339RHDPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST193
Repeati640 – 669ANK 1CuratedAdd BLAST30
Repeati673 – 702ANK 2CuratedAdd BLAST30
Repeati710 – 740ANK 3CuratedAdd BLAST31
Repeati745 – 775ANK 4CuratedAdd BLAST31
Repeati783 – 812ANK 5CuratedAdd BLAST30

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Motifi452 – 457Nuclear localization signalSequence analysis6

Keywords - Domaini

ANK repeat, Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0504 Eukaryota
COG0666 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00500000044765
InParanoidiQ94527
KOiK02580
OMAiHEQMFHL
OrthoDBiEOG091G05R7
PhylomeDBiQ94527

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00204 ANK, 1 hit
cd01177 IPT_NFkappaB, 1 hit
Gene3Di1.25.40.20, 1 hit
2.60.40.10, 1 hit
2.60.40.340, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR002110 Ankyrin_rpt
IPR020683 Ankyrin_rpt-contain_dom
IPR036770 Ankyrin_rpt-contain_sf
IPR013783 Ig-like_fold
IPR014756 Ig_E-set
IPR002909 IPT_dom
IPR033926 IPT_NFkappaB
IPR000451 NFkB/Dor
IPR008967 p53-like_TF_DNA-bd
IPR032397 RHD_dimer
IPR011539 RHD_DNA_bind_dom
IPR037059 RHD_DNA_bind_dom_sf
PANTHERiPTHR24169 PTHR24169, 2 hits
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF12796 Ank_2, 1 hit
PF16179 RHD_dimer, 1 hit
PF00554 RHD_DNA_bind, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00057 NFKBTNSCPFCT
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00248 ANK, 6 hits
SM00429 IPT, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF48403 SSF48403, 1 hit
SSF49417 SSF49417, 1 hit
SSF81296 SSF81296, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS50297 ANK_REP_REGION, 1 hit
PS50088 ANK_REPEAT, 2 hits
PS50254 REL_2, 1 hit

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform Major1 Publication (identifier: Q94527-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: A1 Publication, B, C, p1101 Publication

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MNMNQYYDLD NGKNVMFMND ASSTSGYSSS TSPNSTNRSF SPAHSPKTME
60 70 80 90 100
LQTDFANLNL PGGNSPHQPP MANSPYQNQL LNNGGICQLG ATNLINSTGV
110 120 130 140 150
SFGVANVTSF GNMYMDHQYF VPAPATVPPS QNFGYHQNGL ASDGDIKHVP
160 170 180 190 200
QLRIVEQPVE KFRFRYKSEM HGTHGSLNGA NSKRTPKTFP EVTLCNYDGP
210 220 230 240 250
AVIRCSLFQT NLDSPHSHQL VVRKDDRDVC DPHDLHVSKE RGYVAQFINM
260 270 280 290 300
GIIHTAKKYI FEELCKKKQD RLVFQMNRRE LSHKQLQELH QETEREAKDM
310 320 330 340 350
NLNQVRLCFE AFKIEDNGAW VPLAPPVYSN AINNRKSAQT GELRIVRLSK
360 370 380 390 400
PTGGVMGNDE LILLVEKVSK KNIKVRFFEE DEDGETVWEA YAKFRESDVH
410 420 430 440 450
HQYAIVCQTP PYKDKDVDRE VNVYIELIRP SDDERSFPAL PFRYKPRSVI
460 470 480 490 500
VSRKRRRTGS SANSSSSGTE SSNNSLDLPK TLGLAQPPNG LPNLSQHDQT
510 520 530 540 550
ISEEFGREKH LNEFIASEDF RKLIEHNSSD LEKICQLDMG ELQHDGHNRA
560 570 580 590 600
EVPSHRNRTI KCLDDLFEIY KQDRISPIKI SHHKVEKWFI EHALNNYNRD
610 620 630 640 650
TLLHEVISHK KDKLKLAIQT IQVMNYFNLK DVVNSTLNAD GDSALHVACQ
660 670 680 690 700
QDRAHYIRPL LGMGCNPNLK NNAGNTPLHV AVKEEHLSCV ESFLNGVPTV
710 720 730 740 750
QLDLSLTNDD GLTPLHMAIR QNKYDVAKKL ISYDRTSISV ANTMDGNNAL
760 770 780 790 800
HMAVLEQSVE LLVLILDAQN ENLTDILQAQ NAAGHTPLEL AERKANDRVV
810 820 830 840 850
QLLKNVYPEK GELAMTWIPC KVKEEIDSSS DESSDAGQLE IKSEEMDIET
860 870 880 890 900
KDEDSVELDL SSGPRRQKDE SSRDTEMDNN KLQLLLKNKF IYDRLCSLLN
910 920 930 940 950
QPLGHGSDPQ DRKWMQLARQ THLKQFAFIW LGAEDLLDHV KRKGASVEFS
960 970
TFARALQAVD PQAYALLVNP T
Length:971
Mass (Da):109,775
Last modified:February 1, 1997 - v1
Checksum:iEAF607357381AD32
GO
Isoform Maternal1 Publication (identifier: Q94527-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: D1 Publication, p1001 Publication

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-112: Missing.

Show »
Length:859
Mass (Da):97,894
Checksum:i1F9784818C642F99
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti114Missing in AAF07086 (PubMed:10619029).Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural varianti82N → S in strain: Zim2. 1 Publication1
Natural varianti110F → L in strain: Zim3. 1 Publication1
Natural varianti699T → I in strain: Zim8. 1 Publication1
Natural varianti845E → G in strain: Zim1. 1 Publication1
Natural varianti862S → N in strain: Zim8. 1 Publication1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0500891 – 112Missing in isoform Maternal. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST112

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U62005 mRNA Translation: AAB17264.1
AF186073 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF07931.1
AF186073 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF07932.1
AF186077 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF07086.1
AF186078 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF07087.2
AE014297 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF54333.2
AE014297 Genomic DNA Translation: AAS65130.1
AE014297 Genomic DNA Translation: AAS65131.1
AE014297 Genomic DNA Translation: AAS65132.1
AY058264 mRNA Translation: AAL13493.1
AF204284 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF20132.1
AF204285 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF20133.1
AF204286 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF20134.1
AF204287 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF20135.1
AF204288 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF20136.1
AF204289 Genomic DNA Translation: AAF20137.1
RefSeqiNP_477094.1, NM_057746.4 [Q94527-1]
NP_996187.1, NM_206465.1 [Q94527-2]
NP_996188.1, NM_206466.1 [Q94527-1]
NP_996189.1, NM_206467.1 [Q94527-1]
UniGeneiDm.4154

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0089338; FBpp0088375; FBgn0014018 [Q94527-1]
FBtr0089339; FBpp0088973; FBgn0014018 [Q94527-1]
FBtr0089340; FBpp0088971; FBgn0014018 [Q94527-1]
FBtr0089341; FBpp0088972; FBgn0014018 [Q94527-2]
GeneIDi41087
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG11992

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiNFKB1_DROME
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q94527
Secondary accession number(s): A4V2K3
, Q9U435, Q9U436, Q9U437, Q9U438, Q9U439, Q9U440, Q9U6H3, Q9U6H4, Q9U6H5, Q9VHI0
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 7, 2004
Last sequence update: February 1, 1997
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 163 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

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