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Protein

Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial

Gene

gsr-1

Organism
Caenorhabditis elegans
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol (PubMed:23593298). Involved in resistance to oxidative stress and starvation (PubMed:23593298). Together with thioredoxin reductase txtr-1, required for the reduction of disulfide groups in the cuticle during molting (PubMed:21199936).2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH.1 Publication

Cofactori

FADBy similarityNote: Binds 1 FAD per subunit.By similarity

Kineticsi

  1. KM=34.1 µM for glutathione disulfide (at 25 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  2. KM=12.9 µM for NADPH (at 25 degrees Celsius)1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Active sitei456 – 4561Proton acceptorBy similarity

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Nucleotide bindingi50 – 589FADBy similarity

    GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    • cell redox homeostasis Source: InterPro
    • ecdysis, collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle Source: WormBase
    • glutathione metabolic process Source: InterPro
    • oxidation-reduction process Source: WormBase
    • response to superoxide Source: WormBase
    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Oxidoreductase

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Stress response

    Keywords - Ligandi

    FAD, Flavoprotein, NADP

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    ReactomeiR-CEL-3299685. Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species.
    R-CEL-499943. Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates.
    R-CEL-5628897. TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione reductase, mitochondrialBy similarity (EC:1.8.1.71 Publication)
    Short name:
    GRBy similarity
    Alternative name(s):
    Glutathione disulfide reductaseImported
    Gene namesi
    Name:gsr-1Imported
    ORF Names:C46F11.2Imported
    OrganismiCaenorhabditis elegansImported
    Taxonomic identifieri6239 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaNematodaChromadoreaRhabditidaRhabditoideaRhabditidaePeloderinaeCaenorhabditis
    Proteomesi
    • UP000001940 Componenti: Chromosome III

    Organism-specific databases

    WormBaseiC46F11.2a; CE17558; WBGene00008117; gsr-1.
    C46F11.2b; CE08773; WBGene00008117; gsr-1.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    • cytosol Source: WormBase
    • mitochondrion Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cytoplasm, Mitochondrion

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Disruption phenotypei

    RNAi-mediated knockdown causes a severe decrease in survival upon treatment with oxidants including juglone, paraquat and to a lesser extent cumen and tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBOOH). Enhances further the production of gamma-glutamylycysteine and glutathione disulfide upon juglone treatment. Increases gst-4 and gcs-1 expression. Reduces lifespan (PubMed:23593298). RNAi-mediated knockdown in a trxr-1 mutant background causes an arrest during larval molting characterized by a partial detachment of the old cuticle and an impaired ability to reduce cuticle components (PubMed:21199936).2 Publications

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini? – 473Glutathione reductase, mitochondrialCuratedPRO_0000436306
    Transit peptidei1 – ?Mitochondrion1 Publication

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Disulfide bondi58 ↔ 63Redox-activeBy similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Disulfide bond

    Proteomic databases

    EPDiQ93379.
    PaxDbiQ86DB5.
    Q93379.
    PRIDEiQ93379.

    2D gel databases

    World-2DPAGE0020:Q86DB5.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Expressed at all larval stages and in adults in intestine, vulva muscle, pharynx and some cells in the tail.2 Publications

    Inductioni

    By oxidant juglone and starvation.1 Publication

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiWBGene00008117.
    ExpressionAtlasiQ93379. baseline and differential.

    Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    DIPiDIP-27224N.
    MINTiMINT-1098913.
    STRINGi6239.C46F11.2a.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliQ93379.
    SMRiQ93379. Positions 17-467.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.UniRule annotation

    Keywords - Domaini

    Redox-active center, Transit peptide

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG0405. Eukaryota.
    COG1249. LUCA.
    GeneTreeiENSGT00390000007578.
    HOGENOMiHOG000276712.
    InParanoidiQ93379.
    OMAiHLYAKDY.
    OrthoDBiEOG091G078A.
    PhylomeDBiQ93379.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.30.390.30. 1 hit.
    3.50.50.60. 3 hits.
    InterProiIPR023753. FAD/NAD-binding_dom.
    IPR016156. FAD/NAD-linked_Rdtase_dimer.
    IPR006322. Glutathione_Rdtase_euk/bac.
    IPR004099. Pyr_nucl-diS_OxRdtase_dimer.
    IPR012999. Pyr_OxRdtase_I_AS.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF07992. Pyr_redox_2. 1 hit.
    PF02852. Pyr_redox_dim. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF51905. SSF51905. 1 hit.
    SSF55424. SSF55424. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR01421. gluta_reduc_1. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00076. PYRIDINE_REDOX_1. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequences (2)i

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

    Isoform aImported (identifier: Q93379-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MLRFRCILST SRSIMSGVKE FDYLVIGGGS GGIASARRAR EFGVSVGLIE
    60 70 80 90 100
    SGRLGGTCVN VGCVPKKVMY NCSLHAEFIR DHADYGFDVT LNKFDWKVIK
    110 120 130 140 150
    KSRDEYIKRL NGLYESGLKG SSVEYIRGRA TFAEDGTVEV NGAKYRGKNT
    160 170 180 190 200
    LIAVGGKPTI PNIKGAEHGI DSDGFFDLED LPSRTVVVGA GYIAVEIAGV
    210 220 230 240 250
    LANLGSDTHL LIRYDKVLRT FDKMLSDELT ADMDEETNPL HLHKNTQVTE
    260 270 280 290 300
    VIKGDDGLLT IKTTTGVIEK VQTLIWAIGR DPLTKELNLE RVGVKTDKSG
    310 320 330 340 350
    HIIVDEYQNT SAPGILSVGD DTGKFLLTPV AIAAGRRLSH RLFNGETDNK
    360 370 380 390 400
    LTYENIATVV FSHPLIGTVG LTEAEAVEKY GKDEVTLYKS RFNPMLFAVT
    410 420 430 440 450
    KHKEKAAMKL VCVGKDEKVV GVHVFGVGSD EMLQGFAVAV TMGATKKQFD
    460 470
    QTVAIHPTSA EELVTMRGGV KPE
    Length:473
    Mass (Da):51,467
    Last modified:August 1, 1998 - v2
    Checksum:iE1DAA50758109D80
    GO
    Isoform bImported (identifier: Q93379-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         1-14: Missing.

    Note: No experimental confirmation available.Curated
    Show »
    Length:459
    Mass (Da):49,802
    Checksum:i78492F3D546A703A
    GO

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Alternative sequencei1 – 1414Missing in isoform b. CuratedVSP_058343Add
    BLAST

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    BX284603 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB03763.1.
    BX284603 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD88214.1.
    PIRiT19972.
    RefSeqiNP_001021220.1. NM_001026049.5. [Q93379-1]
    NP_001021221.1. NM_001026050.2. [Q93379-2]
    UniGeneiCel.10704.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblMetazoaiC46F11.2a; C46F11.2a; WBGene00008117. [Q93379-1]
    C46F11.2b.1; C46F11.2b.1; WBGene00008117. [Q93379-2]
    C46F11.2b.2; C46F11.2b.2; WBGene00008117. [Q93379-2]
    C46F11.2b.3; C46F11.2b.3; WBGene00008117. [Q93379-2]
    GeneIDi175467.
    KEGGicel:CELE_C46F11.2.
    UCSCiC46F11.2a. c. elegans. [Q93379-1]

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    BX284603 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB03763.1.
    BX284603 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD88214.1.
    PIRiT19972.
    RefSeqiNP_001021220.1. NM_001026049.5. [Q93379-1]
    NP_001021221.1. NM_001026050.2. [Q93379-2]
    UniGeneiCel.10704.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliQ93379.
    SMRiQ93379. Positions 17-467.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    DIPiDIP-27224N.
    MINTiMINT-1098913.
    STRINGi6239.C46F11.2a.

    2D gel databases

    World-2DPAGE0020:Q86DB5.

    Proteomic databases

    EPDiQ93379.
    PaxDbiQ86DB5.
    Q93379.
    PRIDEiQ93379.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblMetazoaiC46F11.2a; C46F11.2a; WBGene00008117. [Q93379-1]
    C46F11.2b.1; C46F11.2b.1; WBGene00008117. [Q93379-2]
    C46F11.2b.2; C46F11.2b.2; WBGene00008117. [Q93379-2]
    C46F11.2b.3; C46F11.2b.3; WBGene00008117. [Q93379-2]
    GeneIDi175467.
    KEGGicel:CELE_C46F11.2.
    UCSCiC46F11.2a. c. elegans. [Q93379-1]

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi175467.
    WormBaseiC46F11.2a; CE17558; WBGene00008117; gsr-1.
    C46F11.2b; CE08773; WBGene00008117; gsr-1.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG0405. Eukaryota.
    COG1249. LUCA.
    GeneTreeiENSGT00390000007578.
    HOGENOMiHOG000276712.
    InParanoidiQ93379.
    OMAiHLYAKDY.
    OrthoDBiEOG091G078A.
    PhylomeDBiQ93379.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    ReactomeiR-CEL-3299685. Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species.
    R-CEL-499943. Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates.
    R-CEL-5628897. TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes.

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiWBGene00008117.
    ExpressionAtlasiQ93379. baseline and differential.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.30.390.30. 1 hit.
    3.50.50.60. 3 hits.
    InterProiIPR023753. FAD/NAD-binding_dom.
    IPR016156. FAD/NAD-linked_Rdtase_dimer.
    IPR006322. Glutathione_Rdtase_euk/bac.
    IPR004099. Pyr_nucl-diS_OxRdtase_dimer.
    IPR012999. Pyr_OxRdtase_I_AS.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF07992. Pyr_redox_2. 1 hit.
    PF02852. Pyr_redox_dim. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF51905. SSF51905. 1 hit.
    SSF55424. SSF55424. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR01421. gluta_reduc_1. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00076. PYRIDINE_REDOX_1. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    ProtoNetiSearch...

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiGSHR_CAEEL
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q93379
    Secondary accession number(s): Q86DB5
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 8, 2016
    Last sequence update: August 1, 1998
    Last modified: September 7, 2016
    This is version 131 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programCaenorhabditis annotation project

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Caenorhabditis elegans
      Caenorhabditis elegans: entries, gene names and cross-references to WormBase
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.