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Protein

Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial

Gene

gsr-1

Organism
Caenorhabditis elegans
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol (PubMed:23593298). Involved in resistance to oxidative stress and starvation (PubMed:23593298). Together with thioredoxin reductase txtr-1, required for the reduction of disulfide groups in the cuticle during molting (PubMed:21199936).2 Publications

Caution

Catalytic activityi

2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH.1 Publication

Cofactori

FADBy similarityNote: Binds 1 FAD per subunit.By similarity

Kineticsi

  1. KM=34.1 µM for glutathione disulfide (at 25 degrees Celsius)1 Publication
  2. KM=12.9 µM for NADPH (at 25 degrees Celsius)1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Active sitei456Proton acceptorBy similarity1

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Nucleotide bindingi50 – 58FADBy similarity9

    GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    • cell redox homeostasis Source: InterPro
    • ecdysis, collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle Source: WormBase
    • glutathione metabolic process Source: InterPro
    • oxidation-reduction process Source: WormBase
    • response to superoxide Source: WormBase

    Keywordsi

    Molecular functionOxidoreductase
    Biological processStress response
    LigandFAD, Flavoprotein, NADP

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    ReactomeiR-CEL-3299685 Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species
    R-CEL-499943 Interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates
    R-CEL-5628897 TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione reductase, mitochondrialBy similarity (EC:1.8.1.71 Publication)
    Short name:
    GRBy similarity
    Alternative name(s):
    Glutathione disulfide reductaseImported
    Gene namesi
    Name:gsr-1Imported
    ORF Names:C46F11.2Imported
    OrganismiCaenorhabditis elegansImported
    Taxonomic identifieri6239 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaNematodaChromadoreaRhabditidaRhabditoideaRhabditidaePeloderinaeCaenorhabditis
    Proteomesi
    • UP000001940 Componenti: Chromosome III

    Organism-specific databases

    WormBaseiC46F11.2a ; CE17558 ; WBGene00008117 ; gsr-1
    C46F11.2b ; CE08773 ; WBGene00008117 ; gsr-1

    Subcellular locationi

    Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cytoplasm, Mitochondrion

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Disruption phenotypei

    RNAi-mediated knockdown causes a severe decrease in survival upon treatment with oxidants including juglone, paraquat and to a lesser extent, cumen and tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBOOH). Enhances further the production of gamma-glutamylycysteine and glutathione disulfide upon juglone treatment. Increases gst-4 and gcs-1 expression. Reduces lifespan (PubMed:23593298). RNAi-mediated knockdown in a trxr-1 mutant background causes an arrest during larval molting characterized by a partial detachment of the old cuticle and an impaired ability to reduce cuticle components (PubMed:21199936).2 Publications

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    ChainiPRO_0000436306? – 473Glutathione reductase, mitochondrialCurated
    Transit peptidei1 – ?Mitochondrion1 Publication

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Disulfide bondi58 ↔ 63Redox-activeBy similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Disulfide bond

    Proteomic databases

    EPDiQ93379
    PaxDbiQ93379
    PeptideAtlasiQ93379

    2D gel databases

    World-2DPAGEi0020:Q86DB5

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Expressed at all larval stages and in adults in intestine, vulva muscle, pharynx and some cells in the tail.2 Publications

    Inductioni

    Induced by the oxidant juglone and starvation.1 Publication

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiWBGene00008117

    Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    DIPiDIP-27224N
    IntActiQ93379 1 interactor.
    STRINGi6239.C46F11.2a

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliQ93379
    SMRiQ93379
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.UniRule annotation

    Keywords - Domaini

    Redox-active center, Transit peptide

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG0405 Eukaryota
    COG1249 LUCA
    GeneTreeiENSGT00390000007578
    HOGENOMiHOG000276712
    InParanoidiQ93379
    KOiK00383
    OMAiKCAIIEA
    OrthoDBiEOG091G078A
    PhylomeDBiQ93379

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.30.390.301 hit
    3.50.50.603 hits
    InterProiView protein in InterPro
    IPR036188 FAD/NAD-bd_sf
    IPR023753 FAD/NAD-binding_dom
    IPR016156 FAD/NAD-linked_Rdtase_dimer_sf
    IPR006322 Glutathione_Rdtase_euk/bac
    IPR001100 Pyr_nuc-diS_OxRdtase
    IPR004099 Pyr_nucl-diS_OxRdtase_dimer
    IPR012999 Pyr_OxRdtase_I_AS
    PANTHERiPTHR42737 PTHR42737, 1 hit
    PfamiView protein in Pfam
    PF07992 Pyr_redox_2, 1 hit
    PF02852 Pyr_redox_dim, 1 hit
    PIRSFiPIRSF000350 Mercury_reductase_MerA, 1 hit
    SUPFAMiSSF51905 SSF51905, 1 hit
    SSF55424 SSF55424, 1 hit
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR01421 gluta_reduc_1, 1 hit
    PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
    PS00076 PYRIDINE_REDOX_1, 1 hit

    Sequences (2)i

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

    Isoform aImported (identifier: Q93379-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MLRFRCILST SRSIMSGVKE FDYLVIGGGS GGIASARRAR EFGVSVGLIE
    60 70 80 90 100
    SGRLGGTCVN VGCVPKKVMY NCSLHAEFIR DHADYGFDVT LNKFDWKVIK
    110 120 130 140 150
    KSRDEYIKRL NGLYESGLKG SSVEYIRGRA TFAEDGTVEV NGAKYRGKNT
    160 170 180 190 200
    LIAVGGKPTI PNIKGAEHGI DSDGFFDLED LPSRTVVVGA GYIAVEIAGV
    210 220 230 240 250
    LANLGSDTHL LIRYDKVLRT FDKMLSDELT ADMDEETNPL HLHKNTQVTE
    260 270 280 290 300
    VIKGDDGLLT IKTTTGVIEK VQTLIWAIGR DPLTKELNLE RVGVKTDKSG
    310 320 330 340 350
    HIIVDEYQNT SAPGILSVGD DTGKFLLTPV AIAAGRRLSH RLFNGETDNK
    360 370 380 390 400
    LTYENIATVV FSHPLIGTVG LTEAEAVEKY GKDEVTLYKS RFNPMLFAVT
    410 420 430 440 450
    KHKEKAAMKL VCVGKDEKVV GVHVFGVGSD EMLQGFAVAV TMGATKKQFD
    460 470
    QTVAIHPTSA EELVTMRGGV KPE
    Length:473
    Mass (Da):51,467
    Last modified:August 1, 1998 - v2
    Checksum:iE1DAA50758109D80
    GO
    Isoform bImported (identifier: Q93379-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         1-14: Missing.

    Note: No experimental confirmation available.Curated
    Show »
    Length:459
    Mass (Da):49,802
    Checksum:i78492F3D546A703A
    GO

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Alternative sequenceiVSP_0583431 – 14Missing in isoform b. CuratedAdd BLAST14

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    BX284603 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB03763.1
    BX284603 Genomic DNA Translation: CAD88214.1
    PIRiT19972
    RefSeqiNP_001021220.1, NM_001026049.5 [Q93379-1]
    NP_001021221.1, NM_001026050.2 [Q93379-2]
    UniGeneiCel.10704

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblMetazoaiC46F11.2a; C46F11.2a; WBGene00008117 [Q93379-1]
    GeneIDi175467
    KEGGicel:CELE_C46F11.2
    UCSCiC46F11.2a c. elegans

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing

    Similar proteinsi

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiGSHR_CAEEL
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q93379
    Secondary accession number(s): Q86DB5
    Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 8, 2016
    Last sequence update: August 1, 1998
    Last modified: March 28, 2018
    This is version 146 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programCaenorhabditis annotation project

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome