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Q8TD30

- ALAT2_HUMAN

UniProt

Q8TD30 - ALAT2_HUMAN

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Protein

Alanine aminotransferase 2

Gene

GPT2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.1 Publication

Cofactori

pyridoxal 5'-phosphate1 Publication

Pathwayi

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. L-alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Source: UniProtKB
  2. pyridoxal phosphate binding Source: InterPro

GO - Biological processi

  1. 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process Source: UniProtKB
  2. cellular amino acid biosynthetic process Source: Reactome
  3. cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process Source: Reactome
  4. L-alanine catabolic process Source: UniProtKB-UniPathway
  5. L-alanine metabolic process Source: UniProtKB
  6. small molecule metabolic process Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Aminotransferase, Transferase

Keywords - Ligandi

Pyridoxal phosphate

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:HS09332-MONOMER.
ReactomeiREACT_238. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination).
UniPathwayiUPA00528; UER00586.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Alanine aminotransferase 2 (EC:2.6.1.2)
Short name:
ALT2
Alternative name(s):
Glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2
Short name:
GPT 2
Glutamic--alanine transaminase 2
Glutamic--pyruvic transaminase 2
Gene namesi
Name:GPT2
Synonyms:AAT2, ALT2
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640: Chromosome 16

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:18062. GPT2.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. mitochondrial matrix Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA28948.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 523523Alanine aminotransferase 2PRO_0000247532Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei341 – 3411N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysine
Modified residuei415 – 4151N6-acetyllysineBy similarity
Modified residuei505 – 5051N6-acetyllysineBy similarity
Modified residuei512 – 5121N6-acetyllysineBy similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ8TD30.
PaxDbiQ8TD30.
PRIDEiQ8TD30.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ8TD30.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed at high levels in muscle, adipose tissue, kidney and brain and at lower levels in the liver and breast.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ8TD30.
CleanExiHS_GPT2.
ExpressionAtlasiQ8TD30. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriQ8TD30.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA051514.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer.By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi124217. 5 interactions.
IntActiQ8TD30. 2 interactions.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000345282.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
523
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Beta strandi49 – 524Combined sources
Turni53 – 564Combined sources
Beta strandi57 – 648Combined sources
Helixi67 – 8014Combined sources
Beta strandi86 – 894Combined sources
Helixi107 – 11711Combined sources
Helixi119 – 1235Combined sources
Beta strandi125 – 1273Combined sources
Helixi129 – 14113Combined sources
Helixi157 – 17014Combined sources
Turni171 – 1733Combined sources
Helixi178 – 1803Combined sources
Beta strandi181 – 1866Combined sources
Helixi187 – 19812Combined sources
Helixi203 – 2053Combined sources
Beta strandi206 – 2149Combined sources
Helixi218 – 2258Combined sources
Beta strandi229 – 2346Combined sources
Helixi237 – 2393Combined sources
Helixi245 – 25511Combined sources
Turni256 – 2583Combined sources
Beta strandi259 – 26911Combined sources
Turni271 – 2733Combined sources
Helixi279 – 29214Combined sources
Beta strandi295 – 2995Combined sources
Turni301 – 3044Combined sources
Helixi316 – 3227Combined sources
Helixi325 – 3284Combined sources
Beta strandi333 – 34210Combined sources
Beta strandi347 – 3493Combined sources
Beta strandi352 – 3587Combined sources
Helixi361 – 37313Combined sources
Helixi379 – 38810Combined sources
Helixi399 – 42527Combined sources
Beta strandi437 – 4415Combined sources
Helixi449 – 4579Combined sources
Helixi462 – 47413Combined sources
Helixi481 – 4833Combined sources
Beta strandi492 – 4965Combined sources
Helixi501 – 52121Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
3IHJX-ray2.30A49-523[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ8TD30.
SMRiQ8TD30. Positions 48-522.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ8TD30.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG0436.
GeneTreeiENSGT00650000093331.
HOGENOMiHOG000215020.
HOVERGENiHBG026148.
InParanoidiQ8TD30.
KOiK00814.
OMAiFPANPQD.
OrthoDBiEOG76HQ18.
PhylomeDBiQ8TD30.
TreeFamiTF300839.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
3.90.1150.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR004839. Aminotransferase_I/II.
IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
IPR015422. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00155. Aminotran_1_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. Align

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q8TD30-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MQRAAALVRR GCGPRTPSSW GRSQSSAAAE ASAVLKVRPE RSRRERILTL
60 70 80 90 100
ESMNPQVKAV EYAVRGPIVL KAGEIELELQ RGIKKPFTEV IRANIGDAQA
110 120 130 140 150
MGQQPITFLR QVMALCTYPN LLDSPSFPED AKKRARRILQ ACGGNSLGSY
160 170 180 190 200
SASQGVNCIR EDVAAYITRR DGGVPADPDN IYLTTGASDG ISTILKILVS
210 220 230 240 250
GGGKSRTGVM IPIPQYPLYS AVISELDAIQ VNYYLDEENC WALNVNELRR
260 270 280 290 300
AVQEAKDHCD PKVLCIINPG NPTGQVQSRK CIEDVIHFAW EEKLFLLADE
310 320 330 340 350
VYQDNVYSPD CRFHSFKKVL YEMGPEYSSN VELASFHSTS KGYMGECGYR
360 370 380 390 400
GGYMEVINLH PEIKGQLVKL LSVRLCPPVS GQAAMDIVVN PPVAGEESFE
410 420 430 440 450
QFSREKESVL GNLAKKAKLT EDLFNQVPGI HCNPLQGAMY AFPRIFIPAK
460 470 480 490 500
AVEAAQAHQM APDMFYCMKL LEETGICVVP GSGFGQREGT YHFRMTILPP
510 520
VEKLKTVLQK VKDFHINFLE KYA
Length:523
Mass (Da):57,904
Last modified:June 1, 2002 - v1
Checksum:i4DD87814C62C7DEA
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q8TD30-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-100: Missing.

Show »
Length:423
Mass (Da):46,983
Checksum:iC76C2613BE0CC4BF
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti284 – 2841D → G in BAC04465. (PubMed:15489334)Curated

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei1 – 100100Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationVSP_020008Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY029173 mRNA. Translation: AAK31794.2.
AK094971 mRNA. Translation: BAC04465.1.
AC018845 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
BC062555 mRNA. Translation: AAH62555.1.
CCDSiCCDS10725.1. [Q8TD30-1]
CCDS45478.1. [Q8TD30-2]
RefSeqiNP_001135938.1. NM_001142466.1. [Q8TD30-2]
NP_597700.1. NM_133443.2. [Q8TD30-1]
UniGeneiHs.460693.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000340124; ENSP00000345282; ENSG00000166123. [Q8TD30-1]
ENST00000440783; ENSP00000413804; ENSG00000166123. [Q8TD30-2]
GeneIDi84706.
KEGGihsa:84706.
UCSCiuc002eel.3. human. [Q8TD30-1]

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi74730602.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY029173 mRNA. Translation: AAK31794.2 .
AK094971 mRNA. Translation: BAC04465.1 .
AC018845 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
BC062555 mRNA. Translation: AAH62555.1 .
CCDSi CCDS10725.1. [Q8TD30-1 ]
CCDS45478.1. [Q8TD30-2 ]
RefSeqi NP_001135938.1. NM_001142466.1. [Q8TD30-2 ]
NP_597700.1. NM_133443.2. [Q8TD30-1 ]
UniGenei Hs.460693.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
Entry Method Resolution (Å) Chain Positions PDBsum
3IHJ X-ray 2.30 A 49-523 [» ]
ProteinModelPortali Q8TD30.
SMRi Q8TD30. Positions 48-522.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi 124217. 5 interactions.
IntActi Q8TD30. 2 interactions.
STRINGi 9606.ENSP00000345282.

Chemistry

DrugBanki DB00160. L-Alanine.
DB00780. Phenelzine.

PTM databases

PhosphoSitei Q8TD30.

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi 74730602.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBi Q8TD30.
PaxDbi Q8TD30.
PRIDEi Q8TD30.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Genome annotation databases

Ensembli ENST00000340124 ; ENSP00000345282 ; ENSG00000166123 . [Q8TD30-1 ]
ENST00000440783 ; ENSP00000413804 ; ENSG00000166123 . [Q8TD30-2 ]
GeneIDi 84706.
KEGGi hsa:84706.
UCSCi uc002eel.3. human. [Q8TD30-1 ]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi 84706.
GeneCardsi GC16P046918.
HGNCi HGNC:18062. GPT2.
HPAi HPA051514.
MIMi 138210. gene.
neXtProti NX_Q8TD30.
PharmGKBi PA28948.
GenAtlasi Search...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGi COG0436.
GeneTreei ENSGT00650000093331.
HOGENOMi HOG000215020.
HOVERGENi HBG026148.
InParanoidi Q8TD30.
KOi K00814.
OMAi FPANPQD.
OrthoDBi EOG76HQ18.
PhylomeDBi Q8TD30.
TreeFami TF300839.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayi UPA00528 ; UER00586 .
BioCyci MetaCyc:HS09332-MONOMER.
Reactomei REACT_238. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination).

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSi GPT2. human.
EvolutionaryTracei Q8TD30.
GenomeRNAii 84706.
NextBioi 74798.
PROi Q8TD30.
SOURCEi Search...

Gene expression databases

Bgeei Q8TD30.
CleanExi HS_GPT2.
ExpressionAtlasi Q8TD30. baseline and differential.
Genevestigatori Q8TD30.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di 3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
3.90.1150.10. 1 hit.
InterProi IPR004839. Aminotransferase_I/II.
IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
IPR015422. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2.
[Graphical view ]
Pfami PF00155. Aminotran_1_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
SUPFAMi SSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of a novel human alanine aminotransferase."
    Yang R.-Z., Blaileanu G., Hansen B.C., Shuldiner A.R., Gong D.-W.
    Genomics 79:445-450(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    Tissue: Adipose tissue.
  2. "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
    Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
    , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
    Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
    Tissue: Hippocampus.
  3. "The sequence and analysis of duplication-rich human chromosome 16."
    Martin J., Han C., Gordon L.A., Terry A., Prabhakar S., She X., Xie G., Hellsten U., Chan Y.M., Altherr M., Couronne O., Aerts A., Bajorek E., Black S., Blumer H., Branscomb E., Brown N.C., Bruno W.J.
    , Buckingham J.M., Callen D.F., Campbell C.S., Campbell M.L., Campbell E.W., Caoile C., Challacombe J.F., Chasteen L.A., Chertkov O., Chi H.C., Christensen M., Clark L.M., Cohn J.D., Denys M., Detter J.C., Dickson M., Dimitrijevic-Bussod M., Escobar J., Fawcett J.J., Flowers D., Fotopulos D., Glavina T., Gomez M., Gonzales E., Goodstein D., Goodwin L.A., Grady D.L., Grigoriev I., Groza M., Hammon N., Hawkins T., Haydu L., Hildebrand C.E., Huang W., Israni S., Jett J., Jewett P.B., Kadner K., Kimball H., Kobayashi A., Krawczyk M.-C., Leyba T., Longmire J.L., Lopez F., Lou Y., Lowry S., Ludeman T., Manohar C.F., Mark G.A., McMurray K.L., Meincke L.J., Morgan J., Moyzis R.K., Mundt M.O., Munk A.C., Nandkeshwar R.D., Pitluck S., Pollard M., Predki P., Parson-Quintana B., Ramirez L., Rash S., Retterer J., Ricke D.O., Robinson D.L., Rodriguez A., Salamov A., Saunders E.H., Scott D., Shough T., Stallings R.L., Stalvey M., Sutherland R.D., Tapia R., Tesmer J.G., Thayer N., Thompson L.S., Tice H., Torney D.C., Tran-Gyamfi M., Tsai M., Ulanovsky L.E., Ustaszewska A., Vo N., White P.S., Williams A.L., Wills P.L., Wu J.-R., Wu K., Yang J., DeJong P., Bruce D., Doggett N.A., Deaven L., Schmutz J., Grimwood J., Richardson P., Rokhsar D.S., Eichler E.E., Gilna P., Lucas S.M., Myers R.M., Rubin E.M., Pennacchio L.A.
    Nature 432:988-994(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  4. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
    Tissue: Lung.
  5. Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  6. "Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2."
    Structural genomics consortium (SGC)
    Submitted (AUG-2009) to the PDB data bank
    Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.3 ANGSTROMS) OF 49-523 IN COMPLEX WITH PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE, COFACTOR.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiALAT2_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q8TD30
Secondary accession number(s): Q8N9E2
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 25, 2006
Last sequence update: June 1, 2002
Last modified: November 26, 2014
This is version 104 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 16
    Human chromosome 16: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  4. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3