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Q8TD30

- ALAT2_HUMAN

UniProt

Q8TD30 - ALAT2_HUMAN

Protein

Alanine aminotransferase 2

Gene

GPT2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 102 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 1 (01 Jun 2002)
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    Functioni

    Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate.1 Publication

    Catalytic activityi

    L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.1 Publication

    Cofactori

    Pyridoxal phosphate.1 Publication

    Pathwayi

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. L-alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Source: UniProtKB
    2. pyridoxal phosphate binding Source: InterPro

    GO - Biological processi

    1. 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process Source: UniProtKB
    2. cellular amino acid biosynthetic process Source: Reactome
    3. cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process Source: Reactome
    4. L-alanine catabolic process Source: UniProtKB-UniPathway
    5. L-alanine metabolic process Source: UniProtKB
    6. small molecule metabolic process Source: Reactome

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Aminotransferase, Transferase

    Keywords - Ligandi

    Pyridoxal phosphate

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciMetaCyc:HS09332-MONOMER.
    ReactomeiREACT_238. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination).
    UniPathwayiUPA00528; UER00586.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Alanine aminotransferase 2 (EC:2.6.1.2)
    Short name:
    ALT2
    Alternative name(s):
    Glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2
    Short name:
    GPT 2
    Glutamic--alanine transaminase 2
    Glutamic--pyruvic transaminase 2
    Gene namesi
    Name:GPT2
    Synonyms:AAT2, ALT2
    OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    ProteomesiUP000005640: Chromosome 16

    Organism-specific databases

    HGNCiHGNC:18062. GPT2.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. mitochondrial matrix Source: Reactome

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Organism-specific databases

    PharmGKBiPA28948.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 523523Alanine aminotransferase 2PRO_0000247532Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Modified residuei341 – 3411N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysine
    Modified residuei415 – 4151N6-acetyllysineBy similarity
    Modified residuei505 – 5051N6-acetyllysineBy similarity
    Modified residuei512 – 5121N6-acetyllysineBy similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Acetylation

    Proteomic databases

    MaxQBiQ8TD30.
    PaxDbiQ8TD30.
    PRIDEiQ8TD30.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSiteiQ8TD30.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Expressed at high levels in muscle, adipose tissue, kidney and brain and at lower levels in the liver and breast.1 Publication

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressiQ8TD30.
    BgeeiQ8TD30.
    CleanExiHS_GPT2.
    GenevestigatoriQ8TD30.

    Organism-specific databases

    HPAiHPA051514.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Homodimer.By similarity

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi124217. 4 interactions.
    IntActiQ8TD30. 2 interactions.
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000345282.

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1
    523
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Beta strandi49 – 524
    Turni53 – 564
    Beta strandi57 – 648
    Helixi67 – 8014
    Beta strandi86 – 894
    Helixi107 – 11711
    Helixi119 – 1235
    Beta strandi125 – 1273
    Helixi129 – 14113
    Helixi157 – 17014
    Turni171 – 1733
    Helixi178 – 1803
    Beta strandi181 – 1866
    Helixi187 – 19812
    Helixi203 – 2053
    Beta strandi206 – 2149
    Helixi218 – 2258
    Beta strandi229 – 2346
    Helixi237 – 2393
    Helixi245 – 25511
    Turni256 – 2583
    Beta strandi259 – 26911
    Turni271 – 2733
    Helixi279 – 29214
    Beta strandi295 – 2995
    Turni301 – 3044
    Helixi316 – 3227
    Helixi325 – 3284
    Beta strandi333 – 34210
    Beta strandi347 – 3493
    Beta strandi352 – 3587
    Helixi361 – 37313
    Helixi379 – 38810
    Helixi399 – 42527
    Beta strandi437 – 4415
    Helixi449 – 4579
    Helixi462 – 47413
    Helixi481 – 4833
    Beta strandi492 – 4965
    Helixi501 – 52121

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    3IHJX-ray2.30A49-523[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliQ8TD30.
    SMRiQ8TD30. Positions 48-522.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTraceiQ8TD30.

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG0436.
    HOGENOMiHOG000215020.
    HOVERGENiHBG026148.
    InParanoidiQ8TD30.
    KOiK00814.
    OMAiFPANPQD.
    OrthoDBiEOG76HQ18.
    PhylomeDBiQ8TD30.
    TreeFamiTF300839.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
    3.90.1150.10. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR004839. Aminotransferase_I/II.
    IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
    IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
    IPR015422. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00155. Aminotran_1_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.

    Sequences (2)i

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. Align

    Isoform 1 (identifier: Q8TD30-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide

    MQRAAALVRR GCGPRTPSSW GRSQSSAAAE ASAVLKVRPE RSRRERILTL    50
    ESMNPQVKAV EYAVRGPIVL KAGEIELELQ RGIKKPFTEV IRANIGDAQA 100
    MGQQPITFLR QVMALCTYPN LLDSPSFPED AKKRARRILQ ACGGNSLGSY 150
    SASQGVNCIR EDVAAYITRR DGGVPADPDN IYLTTGASDG ISTILKILVS 200
    GGGKSRTGVM IPIPQYPLYS AVISELDAIQ VNYYLDEENC WALNVNELRR 250
    AVQEAKDHCD PKVLCIINPG NPTGQVQSRK CIEDVIHFAW EEKLFLLADE 300
    VYQDNVYSPD CRFHSFKKVL YEMGPEYSSN VELASFHSTS KGYMGECGYR 350
    GGYMEVINLH PEIKGQLVKL LSVRLCPPVS GQAAMDIVVN PPVAGEESFE 400
    QFSREKESVL GNLAKKAKLT EDLFNQVPGI HCNPLQGAMY AFPRIFIPAK 450
    AVEAAQAHQM APDMFYCMKL LEETGICVVP GSGFGQREGT YHFRMTILPP 500
    VEKLKTVLQK VKDFHINFLE KYA 523
    Length:523
    Mass (Da):57,904
    Last modified:June 1, 2002 - v1
    Checksum:i4DD87814C62C7DEA
    GO
    Isoform 2 (identifier: Q8TD30-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         1-100: Missing.

    Show »
    Length:423
    Mass (Da):46,983
    Checksum:iC76C2613BE0CC4BF
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Sequence conflicti284 – 2841D → G in BAC04465. (PubMed:15489334)Curated

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Alternative sequencei1 – 100100Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationVSP_020008Add
    BLAST

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    AY029173 mRNA. Translation: AAK31794.2.
    AK094971 mRNA. Translation: BAC04465.1.
    AC018845 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
    BC062555 mRNA. Translation: AAH62555.1.
    CCDSiCCDS10725.1. [Q8TD30-1]
    CCDS45478.1. [Q8TD30-2]
    RefSeqiNP_001135938.1. NM_001142466.1. [Q8TD30-2]
    NP_597700.1. NM_133443.2. [Q8TD30-1]
    UniGeneiHs.460693.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000340124; ENSP00000345282; ENSG00000166123. [Q8TD30-1]
    ENST00000440783; ENSP00000413804; ENSG00000166123. [Q8TD30-2]
    GeneIDi84706.
    KEGGihsa:84706.
    UCSCiuc002eel.3. human. [Q8TD30-1]

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi74730602.

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    AY029173 mRNA. Translation: AAK31794.2 .
    AK094971 mRNA. Translation: BAC04465.1 .
    AC018845 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
    BC062555 mRNA. Translation: AAH62555.1 .
    CCDSi CCDS10725.1. [Q8TD30-1 ]
    CCDS45478.1. [Q8TD30-2 ]
    RefSeqi NP_001135938.1. NM_001142466.1. [Q8TD30-2 ]
    NP_597700.1. NM_133443.2. [Q8TD30-1 ]
    UniGenei Hs.460693.

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    Entry Method Resolution (Å) Chain Positions PDBsum
    3IHJ X-ray 2.30 A 49-523 [» ]
    ProteinModelPortali Q8TD30.
    SMRi Q8TD30. Positions 48-522.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 124217. 4 interactions.
    IntActi Q8TD30. 2 interactions.
    STRINGi 9606.ENSP00000345282.

    Chemistry

    DrugBanki DB00160. L-Alanine.
    DB00780. Phenelzine.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSitei Q8TD30.

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi 74730602.

    Proteomic databases

    MaxQBi Q8TD30.
    PaxDbi Q8TD30.
    PRIDEi Q8TD30.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembli ENST00000340124 ; ENSP00000345282 ; ENSG00000166123 . [Q8TD30-1 ]
    ENST00000440783 ; ENSP00000413804 ; ENSG00000166123 . [Q8TD30-2 ]
    GeneIDi 84706.
    KEGGi hsa:84706.
    UCSCi uc002eel.3. human. [Q8TD30-1 ]

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi 84706.
    GeneCardsi GC16P046918.
    HGNCi HGNC:18062. GPT2.
    HPAi HPA051514.
    MIMi 138210. gene.
    neXtProti NX_Q8TD30.
    PharmGKBi PA28948.
    GenAtlasi Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi COG0436.
    HOGENOMi HOG000215020.
    HOVERGENi HBG026148.
    InParanoidi Q8TD30.
    KOi K00814.
    OMAi FPANPQD.
    OrthoDBi EOG76HQ18.
    PhylomeDBi Q8TD30.
    TreeFami TF300839.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayi UPA00528 ; UER00586 .
    BioCyci MetaCyc:HS09332-MONOMER.
    Reactomei REACT_238. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination).

    Miscellaneous databases

    ChiTaRSi GPT2. human.
    EvolutionaryTracei Q8TD30.
    GenomeRNAii 84706.
    NextBioi 74798.
    PROi Q8TD30.
    SOURCEi Search...

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressi Q8TD30.
    Bgeei Q8TD30.
    CleanExi HS_GPT2.
    Genevestigatori Q8TD30.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di 3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
    3.90.1150.10. 1 hit.
    InterProi IPR004839. Aminotransferase_I/II.
    IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
    IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
    IPR015422. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF00155. Aminotran_1_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    SUPFAMi SSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of a novel human alanine aminotransferase."
      Yang R.-Z., Blaileanu G., Hansen B.C., Shuldiner A.R., Gong D.-W.
      Genomics 79:445-450(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
      Tissue: Adipose tissue.
    2. "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
      Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
      , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
      Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
      Tissue: Hippocampus.
    3. "The sequence and analysis of duplication-rich human chromosome 16."
      Martin J., Han C., Gordon L.A., Terry A., Prabhakar S., She X., Xie G., Hellsten U., Chan Y.M., Altherr M., Couronne O., Aerts A., Bajorek E., Black S., Blumer H., Branscomb E., Brown N.C., Bruno W.J.
      , Buckingham J.M., Callen D.F., Campbell C.S., Campbell M.L., Campbell E.W., Caoile C., Challacombe J.F., Chasteen L.A., Chertkov O., Chi H.C., Christensen M., Clark L.M., Cohn J.D., Denys M., Detter J.C., Dickson M., Dimitrijevic-Bussod M., Escobar J., Fawcett J.J., Flowers D., Fotopulos D., Glavina T., Gomez M., Gonzales E., Goodstein D., Goodwin L.A., Grady D.L., Grigoriev I., Groza M., Hammon N., Hawkins T., Haydu L., Hildebrand C.E., Huang W., Israni S., Jett J., Jewett P.B., Kadner K., Kimball H., Kobayashi A., Krawczyk M.-C., Leyba T., Longmire J.L., Lopez F., Lou Y., Lowry S., Ludeman T., Manohar C.F., Mark G.A., McMurray K.L., Meincke L.J., Morgan J., Moyzis R.K., Mundt M.O., Munk A.C., Nandkeshwar R.D., Pitluck S., Pollard M., Predki P., Parson-Quintana B., Ramirez L., Rash S., Retterer J., Ricke D.O., Robinson D.L., Rodriguez A., Salamov A., Saunders E.H., Scott D., Shough T., Stallings R.L., Stalvey M., Sutherland R.D., Tapia R., Tesmer J.G., Thayer N., Thompson L.S., Tice H., Torney D.C., Tran-Gyamfi M., Tsai M., Ulanovsky L.E., Ustaszewska A., Vo N., White P.S., Williams A.L., Wills P.L., Wu J.-R., Wu K., Yang J., DeJong P., Bruce D., Doggett N.A., Deaven L., Schmutz J., Grimwood J., Richardson P., Rokhsar D.S., Eichler E.E., Gilna P., Lucas S.M., Myers R.M., Rubin E.M., Pennacchio L.A.
      Nature 432:988-994(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    4. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
      The MGC Project Team
      Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
      Tissue: Lung.
    5. Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    6. "Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2."
      Structural genomics consortium (SGC)
      Submitted (AUG-2009) to the PDB data bank
      Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.3 ANGSTROMS) OF 49-523 IN COMPLEX WITH PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE, COFACTOR.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiALAT2_HUMAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q8TD30
    Secondary accession number(s): Q8N9E2
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 25, 2006
    Last sequence update: June 1, 2002
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 102 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Human chromosome 16
      Human chromosome 16: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    2. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    3. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    4. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    5. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3