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Q8TD30 (ALAT2_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified March 19, 2014. Version 97. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (5) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Alt products·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Alanine aminotransferase 2

Short name=ALT2
EC=2.6.1.2
Alternative name(s):
Glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2
Short name=GPT 2
Glutamic--alanine transaminase 2
Glutamic--pyruvic transaminase 2
Gene names
Name:GPT2
Synonyms:AAT2, ALT2
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length523 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Ref.1

Catalytic activity

L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate. Ref.1

Cofactor

Pyridoxal phosphate. Ref.6

Pathway

Amino-acid degradation; L-alanine degradation via transaminase pathway; pyruvate from L-alanine: step 1/1.

Subunit structure

Homodimer By similarity.

Tissue specificity

Expressed at high levels in muscle, adipose tissue, kidney and brain and at lower levels in the liver and breast. Ref.1

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family. Alanine aminotransferase subfamily.

Alternative products

This entry describes 2 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. [Align] [Select]
Isoform 1 (identifier: Q8TD30-1)

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q8TD30-2)

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-100: Missing.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 523523Alanine aminotransferase 2
PRO_0000247532

Amino acid modifications

Modified residue3411N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysine
Modified residue4151N6-acetyllysine By similarity
Modified residue5051N6-acetyllysine By similarity
Modified residue5121N6-acetyllysine By similarity

Natural variations

Alternative sequence1 – 100100Missing in isoform 2.
VSP_020008

Experimental info

Sequence conflict2841D → G in BAC04465. Ref.4

Secondary structure

......................................................................... 523
Helix Strand Turn

Details...

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Isoform 1 [UniParc].

Last modified June 1, 2002. Version 1.
Checksum: 4DD87814C62C7DEA

FASTA52357,904
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MQRAAALVRR GCGPRTPSSW GRSQSSAAAE ASAVLKVRPE RSRRERILTL ESMNPQVKAV 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
EYAVRGPIVL KAGEIELELQ RGIKKPFTEV IRANIGDAQA MGQQPITFLR QVMALCTYPN 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
LLDSPSFPED AKKRARRILQ ACGGNSLGSY SASQGVNCIR EDVAAYITRR DGGVPADPDN 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
IYLTTGASDG ISTILKILVS GGGKSRTGVM IPIPQYPLYS AVISELDAIQ VNYYLDEENC 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
WALNVNELRR AVQEAKDHCD PKVLCIINPG NPTGQVQSRK CIEDVIHFAW EEKLFLLADE 

       310        320        330        340        350        360 
VYQDNVYSPD CRFHSFKKVL YEMGPEYSSN VELASFHSTS KGYMGECGYR GGYMEVINLH 

       370        380        390        400        410        420 
PEIKGQLVKL LSVRLCPPVS GQAAMDIVVN PPVAGEESFE QFSREKESVL GNLAKKAKLT 

       430        440        450        460        470        480 
EDLFNQVPGI HCNPLQGAMY AFPRIFIPAK AVEAAQAHQM APDMFYCMKL LEETGICVVP 

       490        500        510        520 
GSGFGQREGT YHFRMTILPP VEKLKTVLQK VKDFHINFLE KYA 

« Hide

Isoform 2 [UniParc].

Checksum: C76C2613BE0CC4BF
Show »

FASTA42346,983

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of a novel human alanine aminotransferase."
Yang R.-Z., Blaileanu G., Hansen B.C., Shuldiner A.R., Gong D.-W.
Genomics 79:445-450(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
Tissue: Adipose tissue.
[2]"Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S. expand/collapse author list , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
Tissue: Hippocampus.
[3]"The sequence and analysis of duplication-rich human chromosome 16."
Martin J., Han C., Gordon L.A., Terry A., Prabhakar S., She X., Xie G., Hellsten U., Chan Y.M., Altherr M., Couronne O., Aerts A., Bajorek E., Black S., Blumer H., Branscomb E., Brown N.C., Bruno W.J. expand/collapse author list , Buckingham J.M., Callen D.F., Campbell C.S., Campbell M.L., Campbell E.W., Caoile C., Challacombe J.F., Chasteen L.A., Chertkov O., Chi H.C., Christensen M., Clark L.M., Cohn J.D., Denys M., Detter J.C., Dickson M., Dimitrijevic-Bussod M., Escobar J., Fawcett J.J., Flowers D., Fotopulos D., Glavina T., Gomez M., Gonzales E., Goodstein D., Goodwin L.A., Grady D.L., Grigoriev I., Groza M., Hammon N., Hawkins T., Haydu L., Hildebrand C.E., Huang W., Israni S., Jett J., Jewett P.B., Kadner K., Kimball H., Kobayashi A., Krawczyk M.-C., Leyba T., Longmire J.L., Lopez F., Lou Y., Lowry S., Ludeman T., Manohar C.F., Mark G.A., McMurray K.L., Meincke L.J., Morgan J., Moyzis R.K., Mundt M.O., Munk A.C., Nandkeshwar R.D., Pitluck S., Pollard M., Predki P., Parson-Quintana B., Ramirez L., Rash S., Retterer J., Ricke D.O., Robinson D.L., Rodriguez A., Salamov A., Saunders E.H., Scott D., Shough T., Stallings R.L., Stalvey M., Sutherland R.D., Tapia R., Tesmer J.G., Thayer N., Thompson L.S., Tice H., Torney D.C., Tran-Gyamfi M., Tsai M., Ulanovsky L.E., Ustaszewska A., Vo N., White P.S., Williams A.L., Wills P.L., Wu J.-R., Wu K., Yang J., DeJong P., Bruce D., Doggett N.A., Deaven L., Schmutz J., Grimwood J., Richardson P., Rokhsar D.S., Eichler E.E., Gilna P., Lucas S.M., Myers R.M., Rubin E.M., Pennacchio L.A.
Nature 432:988-994(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[4]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
Tissue: Lung.
[5]"Initial characterization of the human central proteome."
Burkard T.R., Planyavsky M., Kaupe I., Breitwieser F.P., Buerckstuemmer T., Bennett K.L., Superti-Furga G., Colinge J.
BMC Syst. Biol. 5:17-17(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
[6]"Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2."
Structural genomics consortium (SGC)
Submitted (AUG-2009) to the PDB data bank
Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.3 ANGSTROMS) OF 49-523 IN COMPLEX WITH PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE, COFACTOR.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
AY029173 mRNA. Translation: AAK31794.2.
AK094971 mRNA. Translation: BAC04465.1.
AC018845 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
BC062555 mRNA. Translation: AAH62555.1.
RefSeqNP_001135938.1. NM_001142466.1.
NP_597700.1. NM_133443.2.
UniGeneHs.460693.

3D structure databases

PDBe
RCSB PDB
PDBj
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
3IHJX-ray2.30A49-523[»]
ProteinModelPortalQ8TD30.
SMRQ8TD30. Positions 48-522.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid124217. 4 interactions.
IntActQ8TD30. 2 interactions.
STRING9606.ENSP00000345282.

Chemistry

DrugBankDB00160. L-Alanine.
DB00142. L-Glutamic Acid.
DB00114. Pyridoxal Phosphate.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteQ8TD30.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM74730602.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbQ8TD30.
PRIDEQ8TD30.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000340124; ENSP00000345282; ENSG00000166123. [Q8TD30-1]
ENST00000440783; ENSP00000413804; ENSG00000166123. [Q8TD30-2]
GeneID84706.
KEGGhsa:84706.
UCSCuc002eel.3. human. [Q8TD30-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTD84706.
GeneCardsGC16P046918.
HGNCHGNC:18062. GPT2.
HPAHPA051514.
MIM138210. gene.
neXtProtNX_Q8TD30.
PharmGKBPA28948.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGCOG0436.
HOGENOMHOG000215020.
HOVERGENHBG026148.
InParanoidQ8TD30.
KOK00814.
OMAFPANPQD.
OrthoDBEOG76HQ18.
PhylomeDBQ8TD30.
TreeFamTF300839.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCycMetaCyc:HS09332-MONOMER.
ReactomeREACT_111217. Metabolism.
UniPathwayUPA00528; UER00586.

Gene expression databases

ArrayExpressQ8TD30.
BgeeQ8TD30.
CleanExHS_GPT2.
GenevestigatorQ8TD30.

Family and domain databases

Gene3D3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
3.90.1150.10. 1 hit.
InterProIPR004839. Aminotransferase_I/II.
IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
IPR015422. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF00155. Aminotran_1_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMSSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

ChiTaRSGPT2. human.
EvolutionaryTraceQ8TD30.
GenomeRNAi84706.
NextBio74798.
PROQ8TD30.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameALAT2_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q8TD30
Secondary accession number(s): Q8N9E2
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 25, 2006
Last sequence update: June 1, 2002
Last modified: March 19, 2014
This is version 97 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

PDB cross-references

Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references

PATHWAY comments

Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human chromosome 16

Human chromosome 16: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM