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Protein

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5

Gene

MKK5

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Involved in the second phase of hydrogen peroxide generation during hypersensitive response-like cell death. Involved in the innate immune MAP kinase signaling cascade (MEKK1, MKK4/MKK5 and MPK3/MPK6) downstream of bacterial flagellin receptor FLS2. Activates by phosphorylation the downstream MPK3 and MPK6. YDA-MKK4/MKK5-MPK3/MPK6 module regulates stomatal cell fate before the guard mother cell (GMC) is specified. This MAPK cascade also functions downstream of the ER receptor in regulating coordinated local cell proliferation, which shapes the morphology of plant organs. MKK4 and MKK5 participate in the regulation of floral organ abscission. Target of the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopF2, that inhibits the activation of the downstream MPK6 and PAMP-triggered immunity. Plays a critical role in high light stress tolerance by the mediation of the Cu/Zn SODs CSD1 and CSD2 gene expression. Phosphorylates BZR1 in vitro.10 Publications

Catalytic activityi

ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.

Enzyme regulationi

Activated through serine and threonine phosphorylation by MEKK1. Inhibited through phosphorylation by GSK3/Shaggy-like kinase ASKs. Inhibited through ADP-Ribosylation by P.syringae HopF2. Activated after high light stress.4 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Binding sitei99ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Active sitei187Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Nucleotide bindingi76 – 84ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation9

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • activation of protein kinase activity Source: GO_Central
  • defense response, incompatible interaction Source: TAIR
  • floral organ abscission Source: TAIR
  • inflorescence development Source: TAIR
  • plant-type hypersensitive response Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of ethylene biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of mitotic cell cycle Source: GO_Central
  • signal transduction by protein phosphorylation Source: GO_Central
  • stress-activated protein kinase signaling cascade Source: GO_Central

Keywordsi

Molecular functionKinase, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Transferase
Biological processHypersensitive response, Plant defense
LigandATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-ATH-110056. MAPK3 (ERK1) activation.
R-ATH-112411. MAPK1 (ERK2) activation.
R-ATH-2559580. Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence.
R-ATH-445144. Signal transduction by L1.
R-ATH-450302. activated TAK1 mediates p38 MAPK activation.
R-ATH-5674135. MAP2K and MAPK activation.
R-ATH-5674499. Negative feedback regulation of MAPK pathway.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (EC:2.7.12.2)
Short name:
AtMAP2Kalpha
Short name:
AtMEK5
Short name:
AtMKK5
Short name:
MAP kinase kinase 5
Gene namesi
Name:MKK5
Synonyms:MEK5
Ordered Locus Names:At3g21220
ORF Names:MXL8.8
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 3

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT3G21220.
TAIRilocus:2094761. AT3G21220.

Subcellular locationi

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

RNAi double mutants MKK4 and MKK5 have a strong abscission defect. RNAi mutant MKK5 shows super-sensitivity to high light stress.2 Publications

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi99K → M: Loss of kinase activity. 3 Publications1
Mutagenesisi99K → R: Loss of kinase activity. Phosphorylated by MAPKKK5. 4 Publications1
Mutagenesisi215T → A: Impaired phosphorylation by MAPKKK5; when associated with A-221. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi215T → D: Constitutively active; when associated with D-221. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi215T → E: Constitutively active; when associated with E-221. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi221S → A: Impaired phosphorylation by MAPKKK5; when associated with A-215. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi221S → D: Constitutively active; when associated with D-215. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi221S → E: Constitutively active; when associated with E-215. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi313R → A or K: Loss of ADP-ribosylation. 1 Publication1

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00002458241 – 348Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5Add BLAST348

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei6Phosphoserine; by ASK7By similarity1
Modified residuei215Phosphothreonine1 Publication1
Modified residuei221Phosphoserine1 Publication1
Modified residuei221Phosphoserine; by ASK7By similarity1
Modified residuei225Phosphothreonine; by ASK7By similarity1
Modified residuei313ADP-ribosylarginine; by HopF21 Publication1

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylation at Thr-215 and Ser-221 by MAP kinase kinase kinases positively regulates kinase activity (PubMed:11875555). Phosphorylated by MAPKKK5 (PubMed:27679653).2 Publications
ADP-ribosylation at Arg-313 by P.syringae type III effector HopF2 reduces the ability of the protein to phosphorylate downstream MPK6.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

ADP-ribosylation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ8RXG3.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ8RXG3.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed higher in stems and leaves than in flowers and roots.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ8RXG3. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ8RXG3. AT.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with P.syringae type III effector HopF2 (PubMed:20571112). Interacts with BZR1 (PubMed:24019147). Interacts with MPK6 (PubMed:19513235). Interacts with RACK1A, RACK1B and RACK1C (PubMed:25731164). Interacts with MAPKKK5 mainly in the cytosol (PubMed:27679653).5 Publications

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi7008. 6 interactors.
IntActiQ8RXG3. 1 interactor.
STRINGi3702.AT3G21220.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ8RXG3.
SMRiQ8RXG3.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini70 – 325Protein kinasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST256

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0581. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XQ5A. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000234206.
InParanoidiQ8RXG3.
KOiK13413.
OMAiELMFGCP.
OrthoDBiEOG09360HJ2.
PhylomeDBiQ8RXG3.

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
SUPFAMiSSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q8RXG3-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKPIQSPSGV ASPMKNRLRK RPDLSLPLPH RDVALAVPLP LPPPSSSSSA
60 70 80 90 100
PASSSAISTN ISAAKSLSEL ERVNRIGSGA GGTVYKVIHT PTSRPFALKV
110 120 130 140 150
IYGNHEDTVR RQICREIEIL RSVDHPNVVK CHDMFDHNGE IQVLLEFMDQ
160 170 180 190 200
GSLEGAHIWQ EQELADLSRQ ILSGLAYLHR RHIVHRDIKP SNLLINSAKN
210 220 230 240 250
VKIADFGVSR ILAQTMDPCN SSVGTIAYMS PERINTDLNH GRYDGYAGDV
260 270 280 290 300
WSLGVSILEF YLGRFPFAVS RQGDWASLMC AICMSQPPEA PATASQEFRH
310 320 330 340
FVSCCLQSDP PKRWSAQQLL QHPFILKATG GPNLRQMLPP PRPLPSAS
Length:348
Mass (Da):38,329
Last modified:July 11, 2006 - v2
Checksum:i216C96728F34B5B5
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAL91161 differs from that shown. Reason: Frameshift at position 10.Curated
The sequence AAM47877 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti192N → D in BAA28831 (PubMed:10048483).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB015316 mRNA. Translation: BAA28831.1.
Y07694 mRNA. Translation: CAA68958.1.
AB023045 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB01714.1.
CP002686 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE76478.1.
CP002686 Genomic DNA. Translation: ANM64001.1.
AY081272 mRNA. Translation: AAL91161.1. Frameshift.
AY114558 mRNA. Translation: AAM47877.1. Different initiation.
PIRiT51340.
T52635.
RefSeqiNP_001319606.1. NM_001338511.1.
NP_188759.1. NM_113017.4.
UniGeneiAt.24898.
At.71795.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT3G21220.1; AT3G21220.1; AT3G21220.
AT3G21220.2; AT3G21220.2; AT3G21220.
GeneIDi821676.
GrameneiAT3G21220.1; AT3G21220.1; AT3G21220.
AT3G21220.2; AT3G21220.2; AT3G21220.
KEGGiath:AT3G21220.

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiM2K5_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q8RXG3
Secondary accession number(s): O80398, Q96517
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 11, 2006
Last sequence update: July 11, 2006
Last modified: September 27, 2017
This is version 120 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families