Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.

Q8QGQ8

- PER2_CHICK

UniProt

Q8QGQ8 - PER2_CHICK

(max 400 entries)x

Your basket is currently empty.

Select item(s) and click on "Add to basket" to create your own collection here
(400 entries max)

Protein

Period circadian protein homolog 2

Gene

PER2

Organism
Gallus gallus (Chicken)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 3 out of 5- Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Transcriptional repressor which forms a core component of the circadian clock. The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. It is derived from the Latin roots 'circa' (about) and 'diem' (day) and acts as an important regulator of a wide array of physiological functions including metabolism, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and renal function. Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can be reset by environmental cues, also known as Zeitgebers (German for 'timegivers'). The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to the SCN. The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related cues, aligning all clocks with the external light/dark cycle. Circadian rhythms allow an organism to achieve temporal homeostasis with its environment at the molecular level by regulating gene expression to create a peak of protein expression once every 24 hours to control when a particular physiological process is most active with respect to the solar day. Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and CRY2) plays a critical role in rhythm generation, whereas delays imposed by post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important for determining the period (tau) of the rhythms (tau refers to the period of a rhythm and is the length, in time, of one complete cycle). A diurnal rhythm is synchronized with the day/night cycle, while the ultradian and infradian rhythms have a period shorter and longer than 24 hours, respectively. Disruptions in the circadian rhythms contribute to the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, metabolic syndrome and aging. A transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL) forms the core of the molecular circadian clock mechanism. Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the form of a heterodimer and activate the transcription of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes (involved in key metabolic processes), harboring E-box elements (5'-CACGTG-3') within their promoters. The core clock genes: PER1/2/3 and CRY1/2 which are transcriptional repressors form the negative limb of the feedback loop and interact with the CLOCK|NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1|ARNTL2/BMAL2 heterodimer inhibiting its activity and thereby negatively regulating their own expression. This heterodimer also activates nuclear receptors NR1D1/2 and RORA/B/G, which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. PER1 and PER2 proteins transport CRY1 and CRY2 into the nucleus with appropriate circadian timing, but also contribute directly to repression of clock-controlled target genes through interaction with several classes of RNA-binding proteins, helicases and others transcriptional repressors. PER appears to regulate circadian control of transcription by at least three different modes. First, interacts directly with the CLOCK-ARTNL/BMAL1 at the tail end of the nascent transcript peak to recruit complexes containing the SIN3-HDAC that remodel chromatin to repress transcription. Second, brings H3K9 methyltransferases such as SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 to the E-box elements of the circadian target genes, like PER2 itself or PER1. The recruitment of each repressive modifier to the DNA seems to be very precisely temporally orchestrated by the large PER complex, the deacetylases acting before than the methyltransferases. Additionally, large PER complexes are also recruited to the target genes 3' termination site through interactions with RNA-binding proteins and helicases that may play a role in transcription termination to regulate transcription independently of CLOCK-ARTNL/BMAL1 interactions (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. signal transducer activity Source: InterPro

GO - Biological processi

  1. circadian rhythm Source: UniProtKB
  2. regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
  3. transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Biological rhythms, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Period circadian protein homolog 2
Short name:
cPER2
Alternative name(s):
Circadian clock protein PERIOD 2
Gene namesi
Name:PER2
OrganismiGallus gallus (Chicken)
Taxonomic identifieri9031 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiTestudines + Archosauria groupArchosauriaDinosauriaSaurischiaTheropodaCoelurosauriaAvesNeognathaeGalliformesPhasianidaePhasianinaeGallus
ProteomesiUP000000539: Unplaced

Subcellular locationi

Nucleus By similarity. Cytoplasm By similarity
Note: Mainly nuclear. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is effected by interaction with other circadian core oscillator proteins and/or by phosphorylation. Retention of PER1 in the cytoplasm occurs through PER1-PER2 heterodimer formation or by interaction with CSNK1E and/or phosphorylation which appears to mask the PER1 nuclear localization signal. Also translocated to the nucleus by CRY1 or CRY2 (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. nucleus Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 13441344Period circadian protein homolog 2PRO_0000261154Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ8QGQ8.
PRIDEiQ8QGQ8.

Expressioni

Inductioni

Exhibits circadian rhythm expression. Peak levels in early morning and low levels at early night.1 Publication

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Component of the circadian clock oscillator which includes the CRY proteins, CLOCK or NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, CSNK1E, and the PER proteins. Interacts directly with PER3, and through a C-terminal domain, with CRY1 and CRY2.By similarity

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ8QGQ8.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini231 – 29868PAS 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini371 – 43767PAS 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini445 – 48844PACAdd
BLAST

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni530 – 5345Important for protein stabilityBy similarity
Regioni610 – 832223CSNK1E binding domainBy similarityAdd
BLAST
Regioni1244 – 1344101CRY binding domainBy similarityAdd
BLAST

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi161 – 17010Nuclear export signal 1By similarity
Motifi358 – 3625LXXLL
Motifi512 – 52110Nuclear export signal 2By similarity
Motifi851 – 86515Nuclear localization signalBy similarityAdd
BLAST
Motifi1138 – 11425LXXLL

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi78 – 15275Ser-richAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 2 PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) domains.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG253593.
HOGENOMiHOG000231111.
HOVERGENiHBG008167.
InParanoidiQ8QGQ8.
KOiK02633.
PhylomeDBiQ8QGQ8.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001610. PAC.
IPR000014. PAS.
IPR022728. Period_circadian-like_C.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF12114. Period_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00086. PAC. 1 hit.
SM00091. PAS. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF55785. SSF55785. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50112. PAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q8QGQ8 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MDCIEVRGFY SSTEEQNPEQ QADISENISS LFSLKEQQKM SEYSGLASNH
60 70 80 90 100
SQMIAEDSEI QPKPEHSPEV LQEDIEMSSG SSGNDFSGNE TNENYSSGHD
110 120 130 140 150
SHGHESDENG KDSAMLMESS DCHKSSSSNA FSLMIANSEH NQSSSGCSSE
160 170 180 190 200
QSTKAKTQKE LLKTLQELKA HLPAEKRIKG KSSVLTTLKY ALKSIKQVKA
210 220 230 240 250
NEEYYQLLMI NESQPSGLNV SSYTVEEVET ITSEYIMKNA DMFAVAVSLI
260 270 280 290 300
TGKIVYISDQ AAAILRCKRS YFKNAKFVEL LAPQDVSVFY TSTTPYRLPS
310 320 330 340 350
WNICSRAESS TQDCMEEKSF FCRISAGKER ENEICYHPFR MTPYLIKVQD
360 370 380 390 400
PEVAEDQLCC VLLAEKVHSG YEAPRIPPDK RIFTTTHTPT CLFQDVDERA
410 420 430 440 450
VPLLGYLPQD LIGTPVLVHL HPNDRPLMLA IHKKILQYGG QPFDYSPIRF
460 470 480 490 500
CTRNGDYITM DTSWSSFINP WSRKVSFIIG RHKVRTGPLN EDVFAAPNYT
510 520 530 540 550
EDRILHPSVQ EITEQIYRLL LQPVHNSGSS GYGSLGSNGS HEHLMSVASS
560 570 580 590 600
SDSTGNNNDD TQKDKTISQD ARKVKTKGQH IFTENKGKLE YKREPSAEKQ
610 620 630 640 650
NGPGGQVKDV IGKDTTATAA PKNVATEELA WKEQPVYSYQ QISCLDSVIR
660 670 680 690 700
YLESCNVPGT AKRKCEPSSS VNSSVHEQKA SVNAIQPLGD STVLKSSGKS
710 720 730 740 750
SGPPVVGAHL TSLALPGKPE SVVSLTSQCS YSSTIVHVGD KKPQPELEMI
760 770 780 790 800
EDGPSGAEVL DTQLPAPPPS STHVNQEKES FKKLGLTKEV LAVHTQKEEQ
810 820 830 840 850
SFLNKFKEIK RFNIFQSHCN YYLQDKPKGR PGERGGRGQR NGTSGMDQPW
860 870 880 890 900
KKSGKNRKSK RIKPQESSDS TTSGTKFPHR FPLQGLNTTA WSPSDTSQAS
910 920 930 940 950
YSAMSFPTVM PAYPLPVFPA AAGTVPPAPE TSVSGFNQLP DSGNTCSMQP
960 970 980 990 1000
SQFSAPLMTP VVALVLPNYV YPEMNNSLPQ TLYHSQANFP THPAFSSQTV
1010 1020 1030 1040 1050
FPAQPPFTTP SPFPQQAFFP MQPFHYNPPA EIEKVPVTET RNEPSRSCTP
1060 1070 1080 1090 1100
QSVGPQDQAS PPLFQSRCSS PLNLLQLEEN TKTVESGAPA GLHGALNEEG
1110 1120 1130 1140 1150
TIGKIMTTDA GSGKGSLPAE SPMDAQNSDA LSMSSVLLDI LLQEDACSGT
1160 1170 1180 1190 1200
GSASSGSGVS AAAESLGSGS NGCDMSGSRT GSSETSHTSK YFGSIDSSEN
1210 1220 1230 1240 1250
HHKTKMKAEI EESEHFIKYV LQDPIWLLMA NTDDTVMMTY QLPSRDLETV
1260 1270 1280 1290 1300
LKEDKLKLKQ MQKLQPKFTE DQKRELIEVH PWIQQGGLPK TVANSECIFC
1310 1320 1330 1340
EDNIQSNFYT SYDEEIHEMD LNEMIEDSGE NNLVPLSQVN EEQT
Length:1,344
Mass (Da):147,942
Last modified:June 1, 2002 - v1
Checksum:iA34EC8265066A2A0
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
AF246956 mRNA. Translation: AAL98705.1.
RefSeqiNP_989593.1. NM_204262.1.
UniGeneiGga.39390.

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi374116.
KEGGigga:374116.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
AF246956 mRNA. Translation: AAL98705.1 .
RefSeqi NP_989593.1. NM_204262.1.
UniGenei Gga.39390.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortali Q8QGQ8.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Proteomic databases

PaxDbi Q8QGQ8.
PRIDEi Q8QGQ8.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi 374116.
KEGGi gga:374116.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi 8864.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGi NOG253593.
HOGENOMi HOG000231111.
HOVERGENi HBG008167.
InParanoidi Q8QGQ8.
KOi K02633.
PhylomeDBi Q8QGQ8.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi 20813632.
PROi Q8QGQ8.

Family and domain databases

InterProi IPR001610. PAC.
IPR000014. PAS.
IPR022728. Period_circadian-like_C.
[Graphical view ]
Pfami PF12114. Period_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
SMARTi SM00086. PAC. 1 hit.
SM00091. PAS. 2 hits.
[Graphical view ]
SUPFAMi SSF55785. SSF55785. 1 hit.
PROSITEi PS50112. PAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

  1. "Chicken pineal clock genes: implication of BMAL2 as a bidirectional regulator in circadian clock oscillation."
    Okano T., Yamamoto K., Okano K., Hirota T., Kasahara T., Sasaki M., Takanaka Y., Fukada Y.
    Genes Cells 6:825-836(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION, INDUCTION.
    Tissue: Pineal gland.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPER2_CHICK
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q8QGQ8
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 28, 2006
Last sequence update: June 1, 2002
Last modified: October 29, 2014
This is version 73 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3