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Protein

Tyrosinase

Gene

TYR

Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the initial and rate limiting step in the cascade of reactions leading to melanin production from tyrosine. In addition to hydroxylating tyrosine to DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), also catalyzes the oxidation of DOPA to DOPA-quinone, and possibly the oxidation of DHI (5,6-dihydroxyindole) to indole-5,6 quinone.By similarity

Catalytic activityi

2 L-dopa + O2 = 2 dopaquinone + 2 H2O.By similarity
L-tyrosine + O2 = dopaquinone + H2O.By similarity

Cofactori

Cu2+By similarityNote: Binds 2 copper ions per subunit.By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Metal bindingi180Copper ABy similarity1
Metal bindingi202Copper ABy similarity1
Metal bindingi211Copper ABy similarity1
Metal bindingi363Copper BBy similarity1
Metal bindingi367Copper BBy similarity1
Metal bindingi390Copper BBy similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Monooxygenase, Oxidoreductase

Keywords - Biological processi

Melanin biosynthesis

Keywords - Ligandi

Copper, Metal-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

SABIO-RKQ8MIU0.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Tyrosinase (EC:1.14.18.1)
Alternative name(s):
Monophenol monooxygenase
Gene namesi
Name:TYR
OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
Proteomesi
  • UP000009136 Componenti: Unplaced

Subcellular locationi

  • Melanosome membrane By similarity; Single-pass type I membrane protein By similarity
  • Melanosome By similarity

  • Note: Proper trafficking to melanosome is regulated by SGSM2, ANKRD27, RAB9A, RAB32 and RAB38.By similarity

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Topological domaini19 – 473Lumenal, melanosomeSequence analysisAdd BLAST455
Transmembranei474 – 494HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini495 – 530CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST36

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Defects in TYR are the cause of a form of albinism in Braunvieh calf.

Keywords - Diseasei

Albinism

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 17Sequence analysisAdd BLAST17
ChainiPRO_000003587618 – 530TyrosinaseAdd BLAST513

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Glycosylationi86N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis1
Glycosylationi230N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis1
Glycosylationi290N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis1
Glycosylationi337N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis1
Glycosylationi371N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis1

Post-translational modificationi

Glycosylated.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ8MIU0.
PRIDEiQ8MIU0.

Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000015679.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the tyrosinase family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IEZU. Eukaryota.
ENOG410Y42I. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000118376.
HOVERGENiHBG003553.
InParanoidiQ8MIU0.
KOiK00505.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.1280.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR002227. Tyrosinase_Cu-bd.
IPR008922. Unchr_di-copper_centre.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00264. Tyrosinase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00092. TYROSINASE.
SUPFAMiSSF48056. SSF48056. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00497. TYROSINASE_1. 1 hit.
PS00498. TYROSINASE_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q8MIU0-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MLLAALYCLL WSFRTSAGHF PRACASSKSL TEKECCPPWA GDGSPCGRLS
60 70 80 90 100
GRGSCQDVIL STAPLGPQFP FTGVDDRESW PSIFYNRTCQ CFSNFMGFNC
110 120 130 140 150
GSCKFGFRGP RCTERRLLVR RNIFDLSVPE KNKFLAYLTL AKHTTSPDYV
160 170 180 190 200
IPTGTYGQMN HGTTPLFNDV SVYDLFVWMH YYVSRDTLLG DSEVWRDIDF
210 220 230 240 250
AHEAPGFLPW HRLFLLLWEQ EIQKLTGDEN FTIPYWDWRD AENCDVCTDE
260 270 280 290 300
YMGGRNPANP NLLSPASFFS SWQIVCSRLE EYNSRQALCN GTSEGPLLRN
310 320 330 340 350
PGNHDKARTP RLPSSADVEF CLSLTQYESG SMDKAANFSF RNTLEGFADP
360 370 380 390 400
VTGIADASQS SMHNALHIYM NGTMSQVPGS ANDPIFLLHH AFVDSIFEQW
410 420 430 440 450
LRKYHPLQDV YPEANAPIGH NRESYMVPFI PLYRNGDFFI SSKDXGYDYS
460 470 480 490 500
YLQDSEPDIF QDYIKPYLEQ AQRIWPWLIG AAVVGSVLTA VLGGLTSLLC
510 520 530
RRKRNQLPEE KQPLLMEKED YHNLMYQSHL
Length:530
Mass (Da):60,304
Last modified:March 1, 2003 - v2
Checksum:i1C0CEF3D8CB1356C
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti172V → A in AAL38168 (Ref. 2) Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY046527 mRNA. Translation: AAL02331.2.
AF445639 mRNA. Translation: AAL38168.1.
RefSeqiNP_851344.1. NM_181001.3.
UniGeneiBt.9028.

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi280951.
KEGGibta:280951.

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Protein Spotlight

Snowy stardom - Issue 49 of August 2004

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY046527 mRNA. Translation: AAL02331.2.
AF445639 mRNA. Translation: AAL38168.1.
RefSeqiNP_851344.1. NM_181001.3.
UniGeneiBt.9028.

3D structure databases

ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000015679.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ8MIU0.
PRIDEiQ8MIU0.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi280951.
KEGGibta:280951.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi7299.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IEZU. Eukaryota.
ENOG410Y42I. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000118376.
HOVERGENiHBG003553.
InParanoidiQ8MIU0.
KOiK00505.

Enzyme and pathway databases

SABIO-RKQ8MIU0.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.1280.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR002227. Tyrosinase_Cu-bd.
IPR008922. Unchr_di-copper_centre.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00264. Tyrosinase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00092. TYROSINASE.
SUPFAMiSSF48056. SSF48056. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00497. TYROSINASE_1. 1 hit.
PS00498. TYROSINASE_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTYRO_BOVIN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q8MIU0
Secondary accession number(s): Q8WN56
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 12, 2005
Last sequence update: March 1, 2003
Last modified: October 5, 2016
This is version 86 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Protein Spotlight
    Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.