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Protein

Period circadian protein homolog 3

Gene

Per3

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 3 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Originally described as a core component of the circadian clock. The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. It is derived from the Latin roots 'circa' (about) and 'diem' (day) and acts as an important regulator of a wide array of physiological functions including metabolism, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and renal function. Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can be reset by environmental cues, also known as Zeitgebers (German for 'timegivers'). The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to the SCN. The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related cues, aligning all clocks with the external light/dark cycle. Circadian rhythms allow an organism to achieve temporal homeostasis with its environment at the molecular level by regulating gene expression to create a peak of protein expression once every 24 hours to control when a particular physiological process is most active with respect to the solar day. Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and CRY2) plays a critical role in rhythm generation, whereas delays imposed by post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important for determining the period (tau) of the rhythms (tau refers to the period of a rhythm and is the length, in time, of one complete cycle). A diurnal rhythm is synchronized with the day/night cycle, while the ultradian and infradian rhythms have a period shorter and longer than 24 hours, respectively. Disruptions in the circadian rhythms contribute to the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, metabolic syndromes and aging. A transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL) forms the core of the molecular circadian clock mechanism. Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the form of a heterodimer and activate the transcription of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes (involved in key metabolic processes), harboring E-box elements (5'-CACGTG-3') within their promoters. The core clock genes: PER1/2/3 and CRY1/2 which are transcriptional repressors form the negative limb of the feedback loop and interact with the CLOCK|NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1|ARNTL2/BMAL2 heterodimer inhibiting its activity and thereby negatively regulating their own expression. This heterodimer also activates nuclear receptors NR1D1, NR1D2, RORA, RORB and RORG, which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. Has a redundant role with the other PER proteins PER1 and PER2 and is not essential for the circadian rhythms maintenance. In contrast, plays an important role in sleep-wake timing and sleep homeostasis probably through the transcriptional regulation of sleep homeostasis-related genes, without influencing circadian parameters. Can bind heme (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Biological rhythms, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Period circadian protein homolog 3
Short name:
rPER3
Alternative name(s):
Circadian clock protein PERIOD 3
Gene namesi
Name:Per3
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 Componenti: Unplaced

Organism-specific databases

RGDi621581. Per3.

Subcellular locationi

  • Cytoplasm By similarity
  • Nucleus By similarity

  • Note: Mainly cytoplasmic. Translocates to the nucleus through binding PER1, PER2, CRY1 or CRY2, but not TIMELESS (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 11191119Period circadian protein homolog 3PRO_0000261155Add
BLAST

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylation by CSNK1E is weak and appears to require association with PER1 and translocation to the nucleus.By similarity
Ubiquitinated.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ8CJE2.
PRIDEiQ8CJE2.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer. Component of the circadian core oscillator, which includes the CRY proteins, CLOCK or NPAS2, ARTNL/BMAL1 or ARTNL2/BMAL2, CSNK1D and/or CSNK1E, TIMELESS and the PER proteins. Interacts directly with PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, and TIMELESS; interaction with CRY1 and CRY2 is weak and not rhythmic. Interacts with FBXW11 and BTRC (By similarity).By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000024932.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ8CJE2.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini120 – 18768PAS 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini259 – 32567PAS 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini334 – 37744PACAdd
BLAST

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni551 – 750200CSNK1E binding domainBy similarityAdd
BLAST
Regioni1037 – 111983CRY binding domainBy similarityAdd
BLAST

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi54 – 6310Nuclear export signal 1By similarity
Motifi400 – 40910Nuclear export signal 3By similarity
Motifi720 – 73920Nuclear localization signalBy similarityAdd
BLAST
Motifi913 – 9208Nuclear export signal 2By similarity

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi562 – 5654Poly-Ser
Compositional biasi740 – 7445Poly-Ser

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 2 PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) domains.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3753. Eukaryota.
ENOG410Y118. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000231111.
HOVERGENiHBG008167.
InParanoidiQ8CJE2.
KOiK02633.
PhylomeDBiQ8CJE2.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR000014. PAS.
IPR013655. PAS_fold_3.
IPR022728. Period_circadian-like_C.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF08447. PAS_3. 1 hit.
PF12114. Period_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00091. PAS. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF55785. SSF55785. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50112. PAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q8CJE2-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MDPCGNPAVP GGDCPQTRGP GLQGSSGQEG PLQGICVDSS HSEHEDRNRM
60 70 80 90 100
SEELIMVVQE MKKYFPAERH TKPSTLDALN YALRCVHSVQ ANSEFFQSLS
110 120 130 140 150
PRGARQAEAT VYNLEELTSL ASEHTSKNTD TFVAVFSFLS GRLVHISEQA
160 170 180 190 200
AWILNSKKGF LKSLHFVDLL APRDVRVFYA HTAPTQLPFW NTWTQRASQY
210 220 230 240 250
ECAPVKPFFC RICGGGDREQ KRHYSPFRIL PYLVHVHSPA QPEPEPCCLT
260 270 280 290 300
LVEKIHSGYE APRIPVDKRV FTTTHTPGCV FLEVDERAVP LLGFLPQDLI
310 320 330 340 350
GTSILTYLHP EDRPLMVAVH QKVLKYVGHP PFEHSPIRFC TQNGDYVILD
360 370 380 390 400
SSWSSFVNPW SRKVSFIIGR HKVRTSPLNE DVFATRIKKA TSHDEDITEL
410 420 430 440 450
QEQIHRLLLQ PVHASASSGY GSLGSSGSQE QHISVTSSSE SSGHCVEEAQ
460 470 480 490 500
QEQMTLQQVY ASVNKIKNVG QQLYIESMAR SSVKPVMETC TEPQGSDEQK
510 520 530 540 550
DFSSSQTLKN KSTDTGSGGD LRPEQHSSSY QQMNCIDSVI RYLTSYSFPA
560 570 580 590 600
LKRKCISCTN TSSSSEEAKP NPEADGSLRD TEQLLDIPEQ ETTTPSADAE
610 620 630 640 650
GGVARTLSTA ALSMASGVSQ CSCSSTTDHV PPLQSESVAG ACEPWALRTK
660 670 680 690 700
AHVTAEGFKP VGLTAAVLSA HTQKEEQNYV DRFREKILTS PYGCYLQQEG
710 720 730 740 750
RNHAKYACVV GAGATPKHSR CAGSERRKHK RKKLPTPVDS SSSSAHLCPH
760 770 780 790 800
VRGLLPDVQH WSASVTSPCA TGLALPSALV VPNQTPYLLS SFPLQDMAPH
810 820 830 840 850
GVGDSAPWGA AAECPPLSAG PHPVSTFPSA YMGTFMTVLL HNSPLFPLWP
860 870 880 890 900
ASFSPYPFLG ATGPSQMAPL VPAMAPDLEP TPSDHGPRRV EENWETHSEE
910 920 930 940 950
EHPFISSRSS SPLQLNLLQE EMPAPSEYAD ALRRGACPDA KQLCVTGNSG
960 970 980 990 1000
SRSPPCATGE LATASVQQES PSAAASGSSA SSVHGSGSDY TSEVSENGQR
1010 1020 1030 1040 1050
SQDTHRDRAF SGAAEESIWR MIERTPQCVL MTYQVPERGR DTVLREDLEK
1060 1070 1080 1090 1100
LHSMERQRPQ FSSAQKEELA KVRSWIHSHP APEERQLQRA MSPVKTEVQL
1110
VTLQRPVNSV QQKTPVEQL
Length:1,119
Mass (Da):122,686
Last modified:March 1, 2003 - v1
Checksum:i38FD286377CD234E
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB092512 mRNA. Translation: BAC16806.1.
RefSeqiNP_076468.2. NM_023978.2.
UniGeneiRn.230006.

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi78962.
KEGGirno:78962.
UCSCiRGD:621581. rat.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB092512 mRNA. Translation: BAC16806.1.
RefSeqiNP_076468.2. NM_023978.2.
UniGeneiRn.230006.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ8CJE2.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000024932.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ8CJE2.
PRIDEiQ8CJE2.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi78962.
KEGGirno:78962.
UCSCiRGD:621581. rat.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi8863.
RGDi621581. Per3.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3753. Eukaryota.
ENOG410Y118. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000231111.
HOVERGENiHBG008167.
InParanoidiQ8CJE2.
KOiK02633.
PhylomeDBiQ8CJE2.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi614392.
PROiQ8CJE2.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR000014. PAS.
IPR013655. PAS_fold_3.
IPR022728. Period_circadian-like_C.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF08447. PAS_3. 1 hit.
PF12114. Period_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00091. PAS. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF55785. SSF55785. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50112. PAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

  1. "Cloning and circadian expression of rat period3 gene."
    Suzuki S., Oishi K., Sakamoto K., Ishida N.
    Submitted (SEP-2002) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Tissue: Brain.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPER3_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q8CJE2
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 28, 2006
Last sequence update: March 1, 2003
Last modified: May 11, 2016
This is version 88 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.