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Protein Vpr



Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Unreviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 2 out of 5-Protein predictedi


During virus entry, involved in the transport of the viral pre-integration (PIC) complex to the nucleus. This function is crucial for viral infection of non-dividing macrophages. May act directly at the nuclear pore complex, by binding nucleoporins phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat regions.UniRule annotation
May target specific host proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Acts by associating with the cellular CUL4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex through direct interaction with host VPRPB/DCAF-1. This change in the E3 ligase substrate specificity would result in cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in infected cells. Prevents infected cells from undergoing mitosis and proliferating, by inducing arrest or delay in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. This arrest creates a favorable environment for maximizing viral expression and production by rendering the HIV-1 LTR transcriptionally more active. In this context, Vpr stimulates gene expression driven by the HIV-1 LTR by interacting with human SP1, TFIIB and TFIID. Cell cycle arrest reportedly occurs within hours of infection and is not blocked by antiviral agents, suggesting that it is initiated by the Vpr carried into the virion. Additionally, Vpr induces apoptosis in a cell cycle dependent manner suggesting that these two effects are mechanistically linked. Interacts with mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex (PTPC). This interaction induces a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and mitochondrial release of apoptogenic proteins such as cytochrome C or apoptosis inducing factors. Detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient, Vpr may also induce cell death to bystander cells.UniRule annotation

GO - Biological processi


Molecular functionActivatorUniRule annotationSAAS annotation
Biological processCell cycleUniRule annotationSAAS annotation, Host-virus interactionUniRule annotationSAAS annotation, Transcription, Transcription regulationUniRule annotationSAAS annotation, Viral penetration into host nucleusUniRule annotationSAAS annotation, Virus entry into host cell

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein VprUniRule annotationSAAS annotation
Alternative name(s):
Viral protein RUniRule annotation
Gene namesi
Name:vprUniRule annotationImported
OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus 1Imported
Taxonomic identifieri11676 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]

Subcellular locationi

  • Host nucleus SAAS annotation
  • Virion UniRule annotation
  • Host nucleus UniRule annotation

GO - Cellular componenti

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host nucleusUniRule annotationSAAS annotation, VirionUniRule annotationSAAS annotation


3D structure databases


Family & Domainsi

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000012. RetroV_VpR/X.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00522. VPR. 1 hit.


Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q89677-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

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Mass (Da):11,235
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
Links Updated
U41714 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA87870.1.
U61918 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB05516.1.

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiQ89677_9HIV1
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q89677
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL: November 1, 1996
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: June 7, 2017
This is version 90 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiUnreviewed (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)