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Q86VQ3 (TXND2_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified July 9, 2014. Version 111. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (4) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Alt products·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Thioredoxin domain-containing protein 2
Alternative name(s):
Spermatid-specific thioredoxin-1
Short name=Sptrx-1
Gene names
Name:TXNDC2
Synonyms:SPTRX, SPTRX1
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length553 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Probably plays a regulatory role in sperm development. May participate in regulation of fibrous sheath (FS) assembly by supporting the formation of disulfide bonds during sperm tail morphogenesis. May also be required to rectify incorrect disulfide pairing and generate suitable pairs between the FS constituents. Can reduce disulfide bonds in vitro in the presence of NADP and thioredoxin reductase.

Subcellular location

Cytoplasm. Note: In ejaculated spermatozoa, it localizes in the caudal region of the head to the end of the principal piece. Ref.1

Tissue specificity

Testis-specific. Only expressed during spermiogenesis, prominently in round and elongating spermatids. Ref.1

Sequence similarities

Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Biological processDifferentiation
Spermatogenesis
   Cellular componentCytoplasm
   Coding sequence diversityAlternative splicing
Polymorphism
   DomainRedox-active center
Repeat
   Molecular functionDevelopmental protein
   PTMDisulfide bond
   Technical termComplete proteome
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processcell differentiation

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

cell redox homeostasis

Non-traceable author statement Ref.1. Source: UniProtKB

glycerol ether metabolic process

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: InterPro

multicellular organismal development

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

oxidation-reduction process

Inferred from direct assay Ref.1. Source: GOC

spermatogenesis

Non-traceable author statement Ref.1. Source: UniProtKB

   Cellular_componentcytoplasm

Inferred from direct assay Ref.1. Source: UniProtKB

motile cilium

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

nucleolus

Inferred from direct assay. Source: HPA

nucleus

Inferred from direct assay. Source: HPA

outer dense fiber

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

   Molecular_functionnutrient reservoir activity

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: InterPro

protein disulfide isomerase activity

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: InterPro

thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity

Inferred from direct assay Ref.1. Source: UniProtKB

Complete GO annotation...

Alternative products

This entry describes 3 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. [Align] [Select]
Isoform 1 (identifier: Q86VQ3-1)

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q86VQ3-2)

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-67: Missing.
Isoform 3 (identifier: Q86VQ3-3)

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     304-318: Missing.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 553553Thioredoxin domain-containing protein 2
PRO_0000120153

Regions

Repeat113 – 127151
Repeat128 – 142152
Repeat143 – 157153
Repeat158 – 172154
Repeat173 – 187155
Repeat188 – 202156
Repeat203 – 217157
Repeat218 – 232158
Repeat233 – 247159
Repeat248 – 2621510
Repeat263 – 2771511
Repeat278 – 2921512
Repeat293 – 3071513
Repeat308 – 3221514
Repeat323 – 3371515
Repeat338 – 3521516
Repeat353 – 3671517
Repeat368 – 3821518
Repeat383 – 3971519
Repeat398 – 4121520
Repeat413 – 4271521
Repeat428 – 4421522
Domain429 – 553125Thioredoxin
Region113 – 44233022 X 15 AA approximate tandem repeat of Q-P-K-X-G-D-I-P-K-S-[PS]-E-[KE]-X-I

Amino acid modifications

Disulfide bond480 ↔ 483Redox-active By similarity

Natural variations

Alternative sequence1 – 6767Missing in isoform 2.
VSP_014328
Alternative sequence304 – 31815Missing in isoform 3.
VSP_053684
Natural variant2251A → P.
Corresponds to variant rs11662946 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_057351
Natural variant3141I → L.
Corresponds to variant rs2240909 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_057352
Natural variant3411E → K. Ref.2 Ref.3 Ref.5
Corresponds to variant rs11081510 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_022762
Natural variant3571G → D. Ref.3 Ref.5
Corresponds to variant rs2240906 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_022763
Natural variant4611A → T. Ref.6
Corresponds to variant rs17732496 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_022764
Natural variant4871R → T. Ref.3
Corresponds to variant rs17805544 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_022765

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Isoform 1 [UniParc].

Last modified November 30, 2010. Version 4.
Checksum: 74EE3210BA5EBCF1

FASTA55360,404
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MDVDKELGME SVKAGASGKP EMRLGTQEET SEGDANESSL LVLSSNVPLL ALEFLEIAQA 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
KEKAFLPMVS HTFHMRTEES DASQEGDDLP KSSANTSHPK QDDSPKSSEE TIQPKEGDIP 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
KAPEETIQSK KEDLPKSSEK AIQPKESNIP KSSAKPIQPK LGNIPKASVK PSQPKEGDIP 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
KAPEETIQSK KEDLPKSSEE AIQPKEGDIP KSSAKPIQPK LGNIAKTSVK PSQPKESDIP 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
KSPEETIQPK EGDIPKSSAK PIQPKLGNIP KASVKPSQPK EGDISKSPEE AIQPKEGDLP 

       310        320        330        340        350        360 
KSLEEAIQPK EGDIPKSPEE AIQPKEGDIP KSLEEAIQPK EGDIPKSPEE TIQPKKGDIP 

       370        380        390        400        410        420 
KSPEEAIQPK EGDIPKSPKQ AIQPKEGDIP KSLEEAIPPK EIDIPKSPEE TIQPKEDDSP 

       430        440        450        460        470        480 
KSLEEATPSK EGDILKPEEE TMEFPEGDKV KVILSKEDFE ASLKEAGERL VAVDFSATWC 

       490        500        510        520        530        540 
GPCRTIRPFF HALSVKHEDV VFLEVDADNC EEVVRECAIM CVPTFQFYKK EEKVDELCGA 

       550 
LKEKLEAVIA ELK 

« Hide

Isoform 2 [UniParc].

Checksum: C9C7056E2E8D4BAF
Show »

FASTA48653,271
Isoform 3 [UniParc].

Checksum: 2A675984F81D0834
Show »

FASTA53858,784

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Characterization of Sptrx, a novel member of the thioredoxin family specifically expressed in human spermatozoa."
Miranda-Vizuete A., Ljung J., Damdimopoulos A.E., Gustafsson J.-A., Oko R., Pelto-Huikko M., Spyrou G.
J. Biol. Chem. 276:31567-31574(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 2), SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, ENZYME ACTIVITY IN VITRO.
[2]Schupp I.
Submitted (APR-2007) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 3), VARIANT LYS-341.
[3]"Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S. expand/collapse author list , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), VARIANTS LYS-341; ASP-357 AND THR-487.
Tissue: Testis.
[4]"DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 18."
Nusbaum C., Zody M.C., Borowsky M.L., Kamal M., Kodira C.D., Taylor T.D., Whittaker C.A., Chang J.L., Cuomo C.A., Dewar K., FitzGerald M.G., Yang X., Abouelleil A., Allen N.R., Anderson S., Bloom T., Bugalter B., Butler J. expand/collapse author list , Cook A., DeCaprio D., Engels R., Garber M., Gnirke A., Hafez N., Hall J.L., Norman C.H., Itoh T., Jaffe D.B., Kuroki Y., Lehoczky J., Lui A., Macdonald P., Mauceli E., Mikkelsen T.S., Naylor J.W., Nicol R., Nguyen C., Noguchi H., O'Leary S.B., Piqani B., Smith C.L., Talamas J.A., Topham K., Totoki Y., Toyoda A., Wain H.M., Young S.K., Zeng Q., Zimmer A.R., Fujiyama A., Hattori M., Birren B.W., Sakaki Y., Lander E.S.
Nature 437:551-555(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[5]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 2), VARIANTS LYS-341 AND ASP-357.
Tissue: Brain.
[6]"Towards a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs."
Wiemann S., Weil B., Wellenreuther R., Gassenhuber J., Glassl S., Ansorge W., Boecher M., Bloecker H., Bauersachs S., Blum H., Lauber J., Duesterhoeft A., Beyer A., Koehrer K., Strack N., Mewes H.-W., Ottenwaelder B., Obermaier B. expand/collapse author list , Tampe J., Heubner D., Wambutt R., Korn B., Klein M., Poustka A.
Genome Res. 11:422-435(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] OF 393-553, VARIANT THR-461.
Tissue: Testis.
[7]"Human spermatid-specific thioredoxin-1 (Sptrx-1) is a two-domain protein with oxidizing activity."
Jimenez A., Johansson C., Ljung J., Sagemark J., Berndt K.D., Ren B., Tibbelin G., Ladenstein R., Kieselbach T., Holmgren A., Gustafsson J.-A., Miranda-Vizuete A.
FEBS Lett. 530:79-84(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: ENZYME ACTIVITY IN VITRO.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
AF080095 mRNA. Translation: AAK94950.1.
EF560747 mRNA. Translation: ABQ59057.1.
AK097656 mRNA. Translation: BAC05133.1.
AC006238 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
BC050132 mRNA. Translation: AAH50132.1.
AL136742 mRNA. Translation: CAB66676.2.
CCDSCCDS11846.1. [Q86VQ3-2]
CCDS42414.1. [Q86VQ3-1]
RefSeqNP_001091999.1. NM_001098529.1. [Q86VQ3-1]
NP_115619.4. NM_032243.5. [Q86VQ3-2]
UniGeneHs.98712.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalQ86VQ3.
SMRQ86VQ3. Positions 450-552.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid123944. 2 interactions.
IntActQ86VQ3. 1 interaction.
MINTMINT-3057977.
STRING9606.ENSP00000304908.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteQ86VQ3.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM313104290.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbQ86VQ3.
PRIDEQ86VQ3.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASU84203.
StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000306084; ENSP00000304908; ENSG00000168454. [Q86VQ3-1]
ENST00000357775; ENSP00000350419; ENSG00000168454. [Q86VQ3-2]
GeneID84203.
KEGGhsa:84203.
UCSCuc002koh.4. human. [Q86VQ3-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTD84203.
GeneCardsGC18P009875.
HGNCHGNC:16470. TXNDC2.
HPACAB016414.
HPA018817.
neXtProtNX_Q86VQ3.
PharmGKBPA38147.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGCOG0526.
HOGENOMHOG000154719.
HOVERGENHBG087115.
InParanoidQ86VQ3.
OMAKTIPPKQ.
OrthoDBEOG7H4DX9.
PhylomeDBQ86VQ3.
TreeFamTF106377.

Gene expression databases

ArrayExpressQ86VQ3.
BgeeQ86VQ3.
CleanExHS_TXNDC2.
GenevestigatorQ86VQ3.

Family and domain databases

Gene3D3.40.30.10. 1 hit.
InterProIPR001419. Glutenin.
IPR005746. Thioredoxin.
IPR012336. Thioredoxin-like_fold.
IPR013766. Thioredoxin_domain.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERPTHR10438. PTHR10438. 1 hit.
PfamPF03157. Glutenin_hmw. 1 hit.
PF00085. Thioredoxin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMSSF52833. SSF52833. 1 hit.
PROSITEPS51352. THIOREDOXIN_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

GeneWikiTXNDC2.
GenomeRNAi84203.
NextBio35462341.
PROQ86VQ3.

Entry information

Entry nameTXND2_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q86VQ3
Secondary accession number(s): A5YM73 expand/collapse secondary AC list , Q8N7U4, Q96RX3, Q9H0L8
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 5, 2005
Last sequence update: November 30, 2010
Last modified: July 9, 2014
This is version 111 of the entry and version 4 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

Human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

Human chromosome 18

Human chromosome 18: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM