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Q86V21 (AACS_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified July 9, 2014. Version 106. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (5) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Alt products·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase

EC=6.2.1.16
Alternative name(s):
Acyl-CoA synthetase family member 1
Protein sur-5 homolog
Gene names
Name:AACS
Synonyms:ACSF1
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length672 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Activates acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. May be involved in utilizing ketone body for the fatty acid-synthesis during adipose tissue development By similarity.

Catalytic activity

ATP + acetoacetate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + acetoacetyl-CoA.

Subcellular location

Cytoplasmcytosol By similarity.

Tissue specificity

Highly expressed in kidney, heart and brain, but low in liver. Ref.1

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the ATP-dependent AMP-binding enzyme family.

Sequence caution

The sequence AAH41000.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Frameshift at position 201.

The sequence BAB14793.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Frameshift at position 519.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Biological processFatty acid metabolism
Lipid metabolism
   Cellular componentCytoplasm
   Coding sequence diversityAlternative splicing
Polymorphism
   LigandATP-binding
Nucleotide-binding
   Molecular functionLigase
   Technical termComplete proteome
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processadipose tissue development

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

cellular response to cholesterol

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

cellular response to glucose stimulus

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

cellular response to testosterone stimulus

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

fatty acid metabolic process

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

liver development

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of insulin secretion

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to drug

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to ethanol

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to nutrient

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to oleic acid

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to purine-containing compound

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

response to starvation

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

white fat cell differentiation

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

   Cellular_componentcytosol

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

   Molecular_functionATP binding

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

acetoacetate-CoA ligase activity

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-EC

butyrate-CoA ligase activity

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

Complete GO annotation...

Alternative products

This entry describes 3 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. [Align] [Select]
Isoform 1 (identifier: Q86V21-1)

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q86V21-2)

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     561-672: ESFEEVEDSL...YRDIPELQGF → YAQRQESGSC...RDPGSVPGHP
Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Isoform 3 (identifier: Q86V21-3)

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-402: Missing.
Note: No experimental confirmation available.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 672672Acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase
PRO_0000315784

Natural variations

Alternative sequence1 – 402402Missing in isoform 3.
VSP_030701
Alternative sequence561 – 672112ESFEE…ELQGF → YAQRQESGSCRQTDHRWKSR GARRCFLEPRDPGSVPGHP in isoform 2.
VSP_030702
Natural variant1181I → V. Ref.4
Corresponds to variant rs12831803 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_038303
Natural variant4701A → V.
Corresponds to variant rs59883951 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_060997

Experimental info

Sequence conflict701G → E in BAB14793. Ref.2
Sequence conflict1191A → V in BAB14040. Ref.2
Sequence conflict1281K → E in BAB14793. Ref.2
Sequence conflict1371E → G in BAB14040. Ref.2
Sequence conflict1501V → A in BAB14040. Ref.2
Sequence conflict3911K → E in AAH41000. Ref.4

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Isoform 1 [UniParc].

Last modified June 1, 2003. Version 1.
Checksum: 36006739EE4857D9

FASTA67275,144
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MSKEERPGRE EILECQVMWE PDSKKNTQMD RFRAAVGAAC GLALESYDDL YHWSVESYSD 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
FWAEFWKFSG IVFSRVYDEV VDTSKGIADV PEWFKGSRLN YAENLLRHKE NDRVALYIAR 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
EGKEEIVKVT FEELRQEVAL FAAAMRKMGV KKGDRVVGYL PNSEHAVEAM LAAASIGAIW 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
SSTSPDFGVN GVLDRFSQIQ PKLIFSVEAV VYNGKEHNHM EKLQQVVKGL PDLKKVVVIP 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
YVSSRENIDL SKIPNSVFLD DFLATGTSEQ APQLEFEQLP FSHPLFIMFS SGTTGAPKCM 

       310        320        330        340        350        360 
VHSAGGTLIQ HLKEHLLHGN MTSSDILLCY TTVGWMMWNW MVSLLATGAA MVLYDGSPLV 

       370        380        390        400        410        420 
PTPNVLWDLV DRIGITVLVT GAKWLSVLEE KAMKPVETHS LQMLHTILST GSPLKAQSYE 

       430        440        450        460        470        480 
YVYRCIKSSI LLGSISGGTD IISCFMGHNF SLPVYKGEIQ ARNLGMAVEA WNEEGKAVWG 

       490        500        510        520        530        540 
ESGELVCTKP IPCQPTHFWN DENGNKYRKA YFSKFPGIWA HGDYCRINPK TGGIVMLGRS 

       550        560        570        580        590        600 
DGTLNPNGVR FGSSEIYNIV ESFEEVEDSL CVPQYNKYRE ERVILFLKMA SGHAFQPDLV 

       610        620        630        640        650        660 
KRIRDAIRMG LSARHVPSLI LETKGIPYTL NGKKVEVAVK QIIAGKAVEQ GGAFSNPETL 

       670 
DLYRDIPELQ GF 

« Hide

Isoform 2 [UniParc].

Checksum: 1C454CA0635CB5C5
Show »

FASTA59967,035
Isoform 3 [UniParc].

Checksum: 930E1C6E82B5061D
Show »

FASTA27030,061

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Expression of acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase, a novel cytosolic ketone body-utilizing enzyme, in human brain."
Ohgami M., Takahashi N., Yamasaki M., Fukui T.
Biochem. Pharmacol. 65:989-994(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[2]"Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S. expand/collapse author list , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
Tissue: Mammary gland and Retinoblastoma.
[3]Mural R.J., Istrail S., Sutton G.G., Florea L., Halpern A.L., Mobarry C.M., Lippert R., Walenz B., Shatkay H., Dew I., Miller J.R., Flanigan M.J., Edwards N.J., Bolanos R., Fasulo D., Halldorsson B.V., Hannenhalli S., Turner R. expand/collapse author list , Yooseph S., Lu F., Nusskern D.R., Shue B.C., Zheng X.H., Zhong F., Delcher A.L., Huson D.H., Kravitz S.A., Mouchard L., Reinert K., Remington K.A., Clark A.G., Waterman M.S., Eichler E.E., Adams M.D., Hunkapiller M.W., Myers E.W., Venter J.C.
Submitted (JUL-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[4]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORMS 1; 2 AND 3), VARIANT VAL-118.
Tissue: Brain, Kidney and Testis.
[5]"Caenorhabditis elegans SUR-5, a novel but conserved protein, negatively regulates LET-60 Ras activity during vulval induction."
Gu T., Orita S., Han M.
Mol. Cell. Biol. 18:4556-4564(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 12-672 (ISOFORM 1).
[6]"The full-ORF clone resource of the German cDNA consortium."
Bechtel S., Rosenfelder H., Duda A., Schmidt C.P., Ernst U., Wellenreuther R., Mehrle A., Schuster C., Bahr A., Bloecker H., Heubner D., Hoerlein A., Michel G., Wedler H., Koehrer K., Ottenwaelder B., Poustka A., Wiemann S., Schupp I.
BMC Genomics 8:399-399(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] OF 48-672 (ISOFORM 1).
Tissue: Stomach.
[7]"Evidence for 26 distinct acyl-coenzyme A synthetase genes in the human genome."
Watkins P.A., Maiguel D., Jia Z., Pevsner J.
J. Lipid Res. 48:2736-2750(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: IDENTIFICATION.
[8]"Initial characterization of the human central proteome."
Burkard T.R., Planyavsky M., Kaupe I., Breitwieser F.P., Buerckstuemmer T., Bennett K.L., Superti-Furga G., Colinge J.
BMC Syst. Biol. 5:17-17(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
AB054121 mRNA. Translation: BAD22560.1.
AK022451 mRNA. Translation: BAB14040.1.
AK024036 mRNA. Translation: BAB14793.1. Frameshift.
CH471054 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW98474.1.
BC004997 mRNA. Translation: AAH04997.1.
BC040490 mRNA. Translation: AAH40490.2.
BC040574 mRNA. Translation: AAH40574.1.
BC041000 mRNA. Translation: AAH41000.1. Frameshift.
BC051862 mRNA. Translation: AAH51862.1.
AY091468 mRNA. Translation: AAM44124.1.
AL833047 mRNA. Translation: CAH56309.1.
CCDSCCDS9263.1. [Q86V21-1]
RefSeqNP_076417.2. NM_023928.3. [Q86V21-1]
XP_005253667.1. XM_005253610.1. [Q86V21-2]
UniGeneHs.656073.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalQ86V21.
SMRQ86V21. Positions 130-414.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid122434. 1 interaction.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteQ86V21.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM74750446.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBQ86V21.
PaxDbQ86V21.
PRIDEQ86V21.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000261686; ENSP00000261686; ENSG00000081760. [Q86V21-2]
ENST00000316519; ENSP00000324842; ENSG00000081760. [Q86V21-1]
ENST00000316543; ENSP00000324929; ENSG00000081760. [Q86V21-3]
GeneID65985.
KEGGhsa:65985.
UCSCuc001uhc.3. human. [Q86V21-1]
uc001uhd.3. human. [Q86V21-2]
uc009zyi.3. human. [Q86V21-3]

Organism-specific databases

CTD65985.
GeneCardsGC12P125549.
H-InvDBHIX0022598.
HGNCHGNC:21298. AACS.
HPAHPA039811.
MIM614364. gene.
neXtProtNX_Q86V21.
PharmGKBPA134940696.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGCOG0365.
HOVERGENHBG059947.
InParanoidQ86V21.
KOK01907.
OMAYVYRCIK.
OrthoDBEOG738043.
PhylomeDBQ86V21.
TreeFamTF354241.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDA6.2.1.16. 2681.

Gene expression databases

ArrayExpressQ86V21.
BgeeQ86V21.
CleanExHS_AACS.
GenevestigatorQ86V21.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR005914. Acac_CoA_synth.
IPR020845. AMP-binding_CS.
IPR000873. AMP-dep_Synth/Lig.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF00501. AMP-binding. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
TIGRFAMsTIGR01217. ac_ac_CoA_syn. 1 hit.
PROSITEPS00455. AMP_BINDING. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

ChiTaRSAACS. human.
GenomeRNAi65985.
NextBio67451.
PROQ86V21.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameAACS_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q86V21
Secondary accession number(s): Q49AB9 expand/collapse secondary AC list , Q49AC3, Q658Q8, Q8IWD2, Q8NEW5, Q9BSJ9, Q9H829, Q9HA19
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 15, 2008
Last sequence update: June 1, 2003
Last modified: July 9, 2014
This is version 106 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

Human chromosome 12

Human chromosome 12: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM