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Protein

Laccase-15

Gene

TT10

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Lignin degradation and detoxification of lignin-derived products (By similarity). Involved in lignin synthesis in seed coats, in seed coat permeability, in seed germination, and in root elongation. Required for the seed coat (testa) brown pigmentation by mediating the polymerization of proanthocyanidin (tannin) from its monomer precursor epicatechin. Promotes sligthly seed dormancy.By similarity5 Publications

Catalytic activityi

4 benzenediol + O2 = 4 benzosemiquinone + 2 H2O.

Cofactori

Cu cationBy similarityNote: Binds 4 Cu cations per monomer.By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Metal bindingi77 – 771Copper 1; type 2By similarity
Metal bindingi79 – 791Copper 2; type 3By similarity
Metal bindingi122 – 1221Copper 2; type 3By similarity
Metal bindingi124 – 1241Copper 3; type 3By similarity
Metal bindingi462 – 4621Copper 4; type 1By similarity
Metal bindingi465 – 4651Copper 1; type 2By similarity
Metal bindingi467 – 4671Copper 3; type 3By similarity
Metal bindingi526 – 5261Copper 3; type 3By similarity
Metal bindingi527 – 5271Copper 4; type 1By similarity
Metal bindingi528 – 5281Copper 2; type 3By similarity
Metal bindingi532 – 5321Copper 4; type 1By similarity
Metal bindingi537 – 5371Copper 4; type 1By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. copper ion binding Source: TAIR
  2. hydroquinone:oxygen oxidoreductase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC

GO - Biological processi

  1. lignin biosynthetic process Source: TAIR
  2. lignin catabolic process Source: UniProtKB-KW
  3. proanthocyanidin biosynthetic process Source: TAIR
  4. response to copper ion Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Oxidoreductase

Keywords - Biological processi

Lignin degradation

Keywords - Ligandi

Copper, Metal-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT5G48100-MONOMER.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Laccase-15 (EC:1.10.3.2)
Alternative name(s):
Benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase 15
Diphenol oxidase 15
Protein TRANSPARENT TESTA 10
Urishiol oxidase 15
Gene namesi
Name:TT10
Synonyms:LAC15
Ordered Locus Names:At5g48100
ORF Names:MDN11.18
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
ProteomesiUP000006548: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G48100.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. apoplast Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Apoplast, Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi152 – 1521D → G in tt10-1; transparent testa; when associated with D-509. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi509 – 5091G → D in tt10-1; transparent testa; when associated with G-152. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2121Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Chaini22 – 565544Laccase-15PRO_0000283643Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Glycosylationi73 – 731N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Glycosylationi182 – 1821N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Glycosylationi234 – 2341N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Glycosylationi293 – 2931N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Glycosylationi324 – 3241N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Glycosylationi372 – 3721N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Glycosylationi382 – 3821N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Glycosylationi418 – 4181N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Glycosylationi482 – 4821N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis

Keywords - PTMi

Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ84J37.
PRIDEiQ84J37.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Mostly expressed in siliques, particularly in developing seeds. Also detected at low levels in stems, seedlings, and flowers.4 Publications

Developmental stagei

Transcript levels increase during rosette leaves development. In the inflorescence stem, highest levels in the young, developing tip and lowest levels in the basal stem tissues. Strong increase 4 days after fertilization. Specifically localized in developing seed coat (testa). Detected in the endothelium and in the pigment strand at the chalaza zone during early stages of embryo morphogenesis. Later, the activity increased and spread to the outer integument, mostly in the oil penultimate cell layer. Strongly expressed in early aborted seeds and in the transmitting tissue of the silique.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriQ84J37.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi3702.AT5G48100.1-P.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ84J37.
SMRiQ84J37. Positions 23-553.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini27 – 143117Plastocyanin-like 1Add
BLAST
Domaini153 – 305153Plastocyanin-like 2Add
BLAST
Domaini408 – 547140Plastocyanin-like 3Add
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the multicopper oxidase family.Curated
Contains 3 plastocyanin-like domains.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG2132.
HOGENOMiHOG000241916.
InParanoidiQ84J37.
OMAiASENITM.
PhylomeDBiQ84J37.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.60.40.420. 3 hits.
InterProiIPR001117. Cu-oxidase.
IPR011706. Cu-oxidase_2.
IPR011707. Cu-oxidase_3.
IPR002355. Cu_oxidase_Cu_BS.
IPR008972. Cupredoxin.
IPR017761. Laccase.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00394. Cu-oxidase. 1 hit.
PF07731. Cu-oxidase_2. 1 hit.
PF07732. Cu-oxidase_3. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF49503. SSF49503. 4 hits.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR03389. laccase. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00079. MULTICOPPER_OXIDASE1. 1 hit.
PS00080. MULTICOPPER_OXIDASE2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q84J37-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MSHSFFNLFL ISLFLYNNCI AHHYTFTVRE VPYTKLCSTK AILTVNSQFP
60 70 80 90 100
GPIIKVHKGD TIYVNVQNRA SENITMHWHG VEQPRNPWSD GPEYITQCPI
110 120 130 140 150
RPGSDFLYKV IFSIEDTTVW WHAHSSWTRA TVHGLIFVYP RPPQILPFPK
160 170 180 190 200
ADHEVPIILG EWWKRDVREV VEEFVRTGGA PNVSDALTIN GHPGFLYPCS
210 220 230 240 250
KSDTFHLTVE KGKTYRIRMV NAAMNLPLFF AIANHSLTVV SADGHYIKPI
260 270 280 290 300
KATYITISPG ETLDMLLHAD QDPERTYYMA ARAYQSGNID FNNSTTIGIL
310 320 330 340 350
SYTSSCKAKT SSFSGYYPTL PFYNDTSAAF GFFTKIKCLF SGQVPVQISR
360 370 380 390 400
RIITTVSINL RMCPQNSCEG PNGSRLAASM NNISFVTPSH VDILKAYYYH
410 420 430 440 450
IKGVYGTRFP EFPPLIFNFT AENQPLFLET PRLATEVKVI EFGQVVELVI
460 470 480 490 500
QGTSLVGGGL DHPMHLHGFS FYVVGVGFGN YNISEEDPSS RYNLYDPPYK
510 520 530 540 550
NTMTVPRNGW IAIRFVADNP GVWFMHCHLD RHQTWGMNVV FIVKNGREPN
560
QQILPPPDDL PPCYE
Length:565
Mass (Da):63,994
Last modified:June 1, 2003 - v1
Checksum:iFDBCBE3D6F10DBA4
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence BAB11074.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction. Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB017064 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB11074.1. Sequence problems.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED95619.1.
BT002919 mRNA. Translation: AAO22735.1.
BT005152 mRNA. Translation: AAO50685.1.
RefSeqiNP_199621.2. NM_124184.2.
UniGeneiAt.9463.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G48100.1; AT5G48100.1; AT5G48100.
GeneIDi834862.
KEGGiath:AT5G48100.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB017064 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB11074.1. Sequence problems.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED95619.1.
BT002919 mRNA. Translation: AAO22735.1.
BT005152 mRNA. Translation: AAO50685.1.
RefSeqiNP_199621.2. NM_124184.2.
UniGeneiAt.9463.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ84J37.
SMRiQ84J37. Positions 23-553.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi3702.AT5G48100.1-P.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ84J37.
PRIDEiQ84J37.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G48100.1; AT5G48100.1; AT5G48100.
GeneIDi834862.
KEGGiath:AT5G48100.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G48100.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG2132.
HOGENOMiHOG000241916.
InParanoidiQ84J37.
OMAiASENITM.
PhylomeDBiQ84J37.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT5G48100-MONOMER.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriQ84J37.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.60.40.420. 3 hits.
InterProiIPR001117. Cu-oxidase.
IPR011706. Cu-oxidase_2.
IPR011707. Cu-oxidase_3.
IPR002355. Cu_oxidase_Cu_BS.
IPR008972. Cupredoxin.
IPR017761. Laccase.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00394. Cu-oxidase. 1 hit.
PF07731. Cu-oxidase_2. 1 hit.
PF07732. Cu-oxidase_3. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF49503. SSF49503. 4 hits.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR03389. laccase. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00079. MULTICOPPER_OXIDASE1. 1 hit.
PS00080. MULTICOPPER_OXIDASE2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. IX. Sequence features of the regions of 1,011,550 bp covered by seventeen P1 and TAC clones."
    Kaneko T., Katoh T., Sato S., Nakamura Y., Asamizu E., Kotani H., Miyajima N., Tabata S.
    DNA Res. 6:183-195(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  2. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  3. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. "Mutations affecting the testa colour in Arabidopsis."
    Koornneef M.
    Arabidopsis Inf. Serv. 27:1-4(1990)
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  5. "Influence of the testa on seed dormancy, germination, and longevity in Arabidopsis."
    Debeaujon I., Leon-Kloosterziel K.M., Koornneef M.
    Plant Physiol. 122:403-413(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  6. Erratum
    Debeaujon I., Leon-Kloosterziel K.M., Koornneef M.
    Plant Physiol. 125:1139-1141(2001)
  7. "Gene structure and molecular analysis of the laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana."
    McCaig B.C., Meagher R.B., Dean J.F.D.
    Planta 221:619-636(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
  8. "TRANSPARENT TESTA10 encodes a laccase-like enzyme involved in oxidative polymerization of flavonoids in Arabidopsis seed coat."
    Pourcel L., Routaboul J.-M., Kerhoas L., Caboche M., Lepiniec L., Debeaujon I.
    Plant Cell 17:2966-2980(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, MUTAGENESIS OF ASP-152 AND GLY-509.
  9. "Mutant identification and characterization of the laccase gene family in Arabidopsis."
    Cai X., Davis E.J., Ballif J., Liang M., Bushman E., Haroldsen V., Torabinejad J., Wu Y.
    J. Exp. Bot. 57:2563-2569(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  10. "Involvement of AtLAC15 in lignin synthesis in seeds and in root elongation of Arabidopsis."
    Liang M., Davis E., Gardner D., Cai X., Wu Y.
    Planta 224:1185-1196(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  11. "The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis: Structural and genetic diversity."
    Saito K., Yonekura-Sakakibara K., Nakabayashi R., Higashi Y., Yamazaki M., Tohge T., Fernie A.R.
    Plant Physiol. Biochem. 0:0-0(2013)
    Cited for: REVIEW, NOMENCLATURE.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiLAC15_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q84J37
Secondary accession number(s): Q9FI28
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 3, 2007
Last sequence update: June 1, 2003
Last modified: January 7, 2015
This is version 91 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.