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Protein

Toxin ParE

Gene

parE

Organism
Escherichia coli
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Toxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module involved in plasmid partition. Acts by inhibiting DNA gyrase, converting supercoiled plasmid DNA into a singly cleaved linear form in an ATP-dependent fashion. To do so it probably interacts with one of the gyrase subunits. Gyrase inhibition is prevented by antitoxin ParD, and is reversed in vitro by incubation with ParD. In cells that have lost the plasmid filamentation and growth inhibition occur; this is suppressed when ParD is supplied in trans. The parDE operon alone is capable of stabilizing an RK2-derived minireplicon under defined growth conditions in several different Gram-negative bacteria. It does so by the post-segregational killing (PSK) of plasmid-free cells, also referred to as a plasmid addiction system.4 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • DNA topoisomerase (ATP-hydrolyzing) inhibitor activity Source: UniProtKB
  • protein homodimerization activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  • negative regulation of DNA topoisomerase (ATP-hydrolyzing) activity Source: GOC
  • plasmid partitioning Source: UniProtKB
  • protein heterotetramerization Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Toxin

Keywords - Biological processi

Plasmid partition

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Toxin ParE
Alternative name(s):
Gyrase inhibitor ParE
Gene namesi
Name:parE
Encoded oniPlasmid IncP-alpha RP41 Publication
Plasmid IncP-alpha RK23 Publications
OrganismiEscherichia coli
Taxonomic identifieri562 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaProteobacteriaGammaproteobacteriaEnterobacterialesEnterobacteriaceaeEscherichia

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Loss of this gene blocks plasmid stabilizing ability.1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 103103Toxin ParEPRO_0000408371Add
BLAST

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Probably forms a homodimer in solution, interacts with ParD, possibly as a ParD(2)-ParE2 heterotetramer, which neutralizes the toxic activity of ParE. The heterotetramer binds DNA, but not ParE alone.1 Publication

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ79EC5.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the RelE toxin family.Curated

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR007712. RelE/ParE_toxin.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF05016. Plasmid_stabil. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q79EC5-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MTAYILTAEA EADLRGIIRY TRREWGAAQV RRYIAKLEQG IARLAAGEGP
60 70 80 90 100
FKDMSELFPA LRMARCEHHY VFCLPRAGEP ALVVAILHER MDLMTRLADR

LKG
Length:103
Mass (Da):11,716
Last modified:July 5, 2004 - v1
Checksum:iDCDC13A6056E7132
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L05507 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA92775.1.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L05507 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA92775.1.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ79EC5.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR007712. RelE/ParE_toxin.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF05016. Plasmid_stabil. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

  1. "Partitioning of broad-host-range plasmid RP4 is a complex system involving site-specific recombination."
    Gerlitz M., Hrabak O., Schwab H.
    J. Bacteriol. 172:6194-6203(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    Plasmid: IncP-alpha RP4
  2. "Definition of a minimal plasmid stabilization system from the broad-host-range plasmid RK2."
    Roberts R.C., Helinski D.R.
    J. Bacteriol. 174:8119-8132(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION IN PLASMID PARTITIONING, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
    Plasmid: IncP-alpha RK2
  3. "The parDE operon of the broad-host-range plasmid RK2 specifies growth inhibition associated with plasmid loss."
    Roberts R.C., Strom A.R., Helinski D.R.
    J. Mol. Biol. 237:35-51(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION AS A TOXIN.
  4. "Plasmid RK2 toxin protein ParE: purification and interaction with the ParD antitoxin protein."
    Johnson E.P., Strom A.R., Helinski D.R.
    J. Bacteriol. 178:1420-1429(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION AS A TOXIN, SUBUNIT, INTERACTION WITH PARD.
    Plasmid: IncP-alpha RK2
  5. "ParE toxin encoded by the broad-host-range plasmid RK2 is an inhibitor of Escherichia coli gyrase."
    Jiang Y., Pogliano J., Helinski D.R., Konieczny I.
    Mol. Microbiol. 44:971-979(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION AS A DNA GYRASE INHIBITOR.
    Plasmid: IncP-alpha RK2

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPARE_ECOLX
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q79EC5
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 3, 2011
Last sequence update: July 5, 2004
Last modified: October 29, 2014
This is version 23 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Plasmid IncP-alpha RK2 is maintained at 5-8 copies per chromosome.

Keywords - Technical termi

Plasmid

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.