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Q79669

- VPU_HV1MV

UniProt

Q79669 - VPU_HV1MV

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Protein

Protein Vpu

Gene

vpu

Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate MVP5180) (HIV-1)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 3 out of 5- Protein inferred from homologyi

Functioni

Enhances virion budding, by targeting human CD4 and Tetherin/BST2 to proteasome degradation. Degradation of CD4 prevents any unwanted premature interactions between viral Env and its receptor human CD4 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Degradation of antiretroviral protein Tetherin/BST2 is important for virion budding, as BST2 tethers new viral particles to the host cell membrane. Mechanistically, Vpu bridges either CD4 or BST2 to BTRC, a substrate recognition subunit of the Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein E3 ubiquitin ligase, induces their ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. The alteration of the E3 ligase specificity by Vpu seems to interfere with the degradation of host IKBKB, leading to NF-kappa-B down-regulation and subsequent apoptosis. Ion channel activity has also been suggested, however, formation of cation-selective channel has been reconstituted ex-vivo in lipid bilayers. It is thus unsure that this activity plays a role in vivo (By similarity).By similarity

Enzyme regulationi

Ion channel activity is inhibited by hexamethylene amiloride in vitro.By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. cation channel activity Source: InterPro

GO - Biological processi

  1. apoptotic process Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. receptor catabolic process Source: InterPro
  3. suppression by virus of host tetherin activity Source: UniProtKB-KW
  4. suppression by virus of host type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB-KW
  5. viral release from host cell Source: InterPro
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Ion channel

Keywords - Biological processi

Apoptosis, Host-virus interaction, Inhibition of host innate immune response by virus, Inhibition of host interferon signaling pathway by virus, Inhibition of host tetherin by virus, Ion transport, Transport, Viral immunoevasion

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein Vpu
Alternative name(s):
U ORF protein
Viral protein U
Gene namesi
Name:vpu
OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate MVP5180) (HIV-1)
Taxonomic identifieri388816 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
ProteomesiUP000007698: Genome

Subcellular locationi

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Topological domaini1 – 44ExtracellularSequence Analysis
Transmembranei5 – 2521HelicalSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini26 – 8560CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. host cell membrane Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. integral component of membrane Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host membrane, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Keywords - Diseasei

AIDS

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 8585Protein VpuPRO_0000244327Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei57 – 571Phosphoserine; by host CK2By similarity
Modified residuei61 – 611Phosphoserine; by host CK2By similarity

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated by host CK2. This phosphorylation is necessary for interaction with human BTRC and degradation of CD4 (By similarity).By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

May form pentamers or hexamers. Forms ternary complexes, by interacting with human CD4 and BTRC, and with human BST2 and BTRC (By similarity).By similarity

Family & Domainsi

Domaini

The N-terminal and transmembrane domains are required for proper virion budding, whereas the cytoplasmic domain is required for CD4 degradation. The cytoplasmic domain is composed of 2 amphipathic alpha helix (By similarity).By similarity

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the HIV-1 VPU protein family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR008187. Vpu.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00558. Vpu. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q79669-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MHQENLLALI ALSALCLINV LIWLFNLRIY LVQRKQDRRE QEILERLRRI
60 70 80
KEIRDDSDYE SNEEEQQEVM ELIHSHGFAN PMFEL
Length:85
Mass (Da):10,309
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:iD9BD63BB4BC9F417
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L20571 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAA44863.1.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L20571 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAA44863.1 .

3D structure databases

ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Family and domain databases

InterProi IPR008187. Vpu.
[Graphical view ]
Pfami PF00558. Vpu. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

  1. "A new subtype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (MVP-5180) from Cameroon."
    Gurtler L.G., Hauser P.H., Eberle J., von Brunn A., Knapp S., Zekeng L., Tsague J.M., Kaptue L.
    J. Virol. 68:1581-1585(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC RNA].

Entry informationi

Entry nameiVPU_HV1MV
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q79669
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 27, 2006
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: October 29, 2014
This is version 58 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3