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Q77375

- VPR_HV1AN

UniProt

Q77375 - VPR_HV1AN

Protein

Protein Vpr

Gene

vpr

Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate ANT70) (HIV-1)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 4 out of 5- Protein inferred from homologyi
  1. Functioni

    Involved in the transport of the viral pre-integration (PIC) complex to the nucleus during the early stages of the infection. This function is crucial for viral infection of non-dividing macrophages. May interact with karyopherin alpha/KPNA1 and KPNA2 to increase their affinity for proteins containing basic-type nuclear localization signal, including the viral matrix protein MA, thus facilitating the translocation of the viral genome into the nucleus. May also act directly at the nuclear pore complex, by binding nucleoporins phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat regions By similarity.By similarity
    May target specific host proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Acts by associating with the cellular CUL4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex through direct interaction with host VPRPB/DCAF-1. This change in the E3 ligase substrate specificity would result in cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in infected cells. Prevents infected cells from undergoing mitosis and proliferating, by inducing arrest or delay in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. This arrest creates a favorable environment for maximizing viral expression and production by rendering the HIV-1 LTR transcriptionally more active. In this context, Vpr stimulates gene expression driven by the HIV-1 LTR by interacting with human SP1, TFIIB and TFIID. Cell cycle arrest reportedly occurs within hours of infection and is not blocked by antiviral agents, suggesting that it is initiated by the Vpr carried into the virion. Additionally, Vpr induces apoptosis in a cell cycle dependent manner suggesting that these two effects are mechanistically linked. Interacts with mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex (PTPC). This interaction induces a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and mitochondrial release of apoptogenic proteins such as cytochrome C or apoptosis inducing factors. Detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient, Vpr may also induce cell death to bystander cells By similarity.By similarity

    GO - Biological processi

    1. apoptotic process Source: UniProtKB-KW
    2. cell cycle Source: UniProtKB-KW
    3. ion transport Source: UniProtKB-KW
    4. regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
    5. suppression by virus of G2/M transition of host mitotic cell cycle Source: UniProtKB-KW
    6. transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
    7. viral entry into host cell Source: UniProtKB-KW
    8. viral penetration into host nucleus Source: UniProtKB-KW

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Activator, Ion channel

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Apoptosis, Cell cycle, Host G2/M cell cycle arrest by virus, Host-virus interaction, Ion transport, Modulation of host cell cycle by virus, Transcription, Transcription regulation, Transport, Viral penetration into host nucleus, Virus entry into host cell

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Protein Vpr
    Alternative name(s):
    R ORF protein
    Viral protein R
    Gene namesi
    Name:vpr
    OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate ANT70) (HIV-1)
    Taxonomic identifieri327105 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
    Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
    ProteomesiUP000007689: Genome

    Subcellular locationi

    Virion. Host nucleus. Host extracellular space
    Note: Incorporation into virion is dependent on p6 GAG sequences. Lacks a canonical nuclear localization signal, thus import into nucleus may function independently of the human importin pathway. Detected in high quantity in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient By similarity.By similarity

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. extracellular space of host Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
    2. host cell nucleus Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
    3. intracellular Source: GOC
    4. virion Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Host nucleus, Virion

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Keywords - Diseasei

    AIDS

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 9797Protein VprPRO_0000246757Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Modified residuei79 – 791Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity
    Modified residuei95 – 951Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity
    Modified residuei97 – 971Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Phosphoprotein

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Homooligomer, may form homodimer. Interacts with p6-gag region of the Pr55 Gag precursor protein through a (Leu-X-X)4 motif near the C terminus of the P6gag protein. Interacts with host SLC25A4/ANT1, SLC25A5/ANT2, SLC25A6/ANT3, SP1, CDC25C, RAD23A/HHR23A, COPS6/HVIP, TFIIB, UNG, SF3B2/SAP145, KPNA1 and KPNA2. Interacts with host VPRBP/DCAF1, leading to hijack the CUL4A-RBX1-DDB1-DCAF1/VPRBP complex, mediate ubiquitination of host proteins such as TERT and ZGPAT and arrest the cell cycle in G2 phase. Interacts with ANKHD1 By similarity.By similarity

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliQ77375.
    SMRiQ77375. Positions 1-97.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Regioni1 – 4242HomooligomerizationBy similarityAdd
    BLAST

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the HIV-1 VPR protein family.Curated

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiIPR000012. RetroV_VpR/X.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00522. VPR. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PRINTSiPR00444. HIVVPRVPX.

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Q77375-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    « Hide

    MEQAPENQGP AKEPFNEWAL ELLEELKAEA VRHFPRPWLH ALGQYIYETY   50
    GDTWVGVMAI IRILQQLLFT HYRIGCQHSR IGINPRGRGR RNGSSRS 97
    Length:97
    Mass (Da):11,259
    Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
    Checksum:i0E118346DB4B4EA7
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    L20587 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAA99881.1.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    L20587 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAA99881.1 .

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali Q77375.
    SMRi Q77375. Positions 1-97.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Family and domain databases

    InterProi IPR000012. RetroV_VpR/X.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF00522. VPR. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    PRINTSi PR00444. HIVVPRVPX.
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "Genomic cloning and complete sequence analysis of a highly divergent African human immunodeficiency virus isolate."
      Vanden Haesevelde M., Decourt J.L., De Leys R.J., Vanderborght B., van der Groen G., van Heuverswijn H., Saman E.
      J. Virol. 68:1586-1596(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC RNA].

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiVPR_HV1AN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q77375
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 25, 2006
    Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 67 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Miscellaneous

    HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome

    Documents

    1. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3