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Q77375 - VPR_HV1AN

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Protein Vpr



Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate ANT70) (HIV-1)
Reviewed - Annotation score: 4 out of 5- Protein inferred from homologyi


Involved in the transport of the viral pre-integration (PIC) complex to the nucleus during the early stages of the infection. This function is crucial for viral infection of non-dividing macrophages. May interact with karyopherin alpha/KPNA1 and KPNA2 to increase their affinity for proteins containing basic-type nuclear localization signal, including the viral matrix protein MA, thus facilitating the translocation of the viral genome into the nucleus. May also act directly at the nuclear pore complex, by binding nucleoporins phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat regions (By similarity).By similarity
May target specific host proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Acts by associating with the cellular CUL4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex through direct interaction with host VPRPB/DCAF-1. This change in the E3 ligase substrate specificity would result in cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in infected cells. Prevents infected cells from undergoing mitosis and proliferating, by inducing arrest or delay in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. This arrest creates a favorable environment for maximizing viral expression and production by rendering the HIV-1 LTR transcriptionally more active. In this context, Vpr stimulates gene expression driven by the HIV-1 LTR by interacting with human SP1, TFIIB and TFIID. Cell cycle arrest reportedly occurs within hours of infection and is not blocked by antiviral agents, suggesting that it is initiated by the Vpr carried into the virion. Additionally, Vpr induces apoptosis in a cell cycle dependent manner suggesting that these two effects are mechanistically linked. Interacts with mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex (PTPC). This interaction induces a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and mitochondrial release of apoptogenic proteins such as cytochrome C or apoptosis inducing factors. Detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient, Vpr may also induce cell death to bystander cells (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Biological processi

  1. apoptotic process Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. cell cycle Source: UniProtKB-KW
  3. ion transport Source: UniProtKB-KW
  4. regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
  5. suppression by virus of G2/M transition of host mitotic cell cycle Source: UniProtKB-KW
  6. transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
  7. viral entry into host cell Source: UniProtKB-KW
  8. viral penetration into host nucleus Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Activator, Ion channel

Keywords - Biological processi

Apoptosis, Cell cycle, Host G2/M cell cycle arrest by virus, Host-virus interaction, Ion transport, Modulation of host cell cycle by virus, Transcription, Transcription regulation, Transport, Viral penetration into host nucleus, Virus entry into host cell

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein Vpr
Alternative name(s):
R ORF protein
Viral protein R
Gene namesi
OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate ANT70) (HIV-1)
Taxonomic identifieri327105 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
ProteomesiUP000007689: Genome

Subcellular locationi

Virion. Host nucleus. Host extracellular space
Note: Incorporation into virion is dependent on p6 GAG sequences. Lacks a canonical nuclear localization signal, thus import into nucleus may function independently of the human importin pathway. Detected in high quantity in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. extracellular space of host Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  2. host cell nucleus Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  3. virion Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host nucleus, Virion

Pathology & Biotechi

Keywords - Diseasei


PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 9797Protein VprPRO_0000246757Add

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei79 – 791Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity
Modified residuei95 – 951Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity
Modified residuei97 – 971Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity

Keywords - PTMi



Subunit structurei

Homooligomer, may form homodimer. Interacts with p6-gag region of the Pr55 Gag precursor protein through a (Leu-X-X)4 motif near the C terminus of the P6gag protein. Interacts with host SLC25A4/ANT1, SLC25A5/ANT2, SLC25A6/ANT3, SP1, CDC25C, RAD23A/HHR23A, COPS6/HVIP, TFIIB, UNG, SF3B2/SAP145, KPNA1 and KPNA2. Interacts with host VPRBP/DCAF1, leading to hijack the CUL4A-RBX1-DDB1-DCAF1/VPRBP complex, mediate ubiquitination of host proteins such as TERT and ZGPAT and arrest the cell cycle in G2 phase. Interacts with ANKHD1 (By similarity).By similarity


3D structure databases

SMRiQ77375. Positions 1-97.

Family & Domainsi


Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni1 – 4242HomooligomerizationBy similarityAdd

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the HIV-1 VPR protein family.Curated

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR000012. RetroV_VpR/X.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00522. VPR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]


Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q77375-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

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Mass (Da):11,259
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
Links Updated
L20587 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAA99881.1.


Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
Links Updated
L20587 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAA99881.1 .

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortali Q77375.
SMRi Q77375. Positions 1-97.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Family and domain databases

InterProi IPR000012. RetroV_VpR/X.
[Graphical view ]
Pfami PF00522. VPR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
ProtoNeti Search...


  1. "Genomic cloning and complete sequence analysis of a highly divergent African human immunodeficiency virus isolate."
    Vanden Haesevelde M., Decourt J.L., De Leys R.J., Vanderborght B., van der Groen G., van Heuverswijn H., Saman E.
    J. Virol. 68:1586-1596(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]

Entry informationi

Entry nameiVPR_HV1AN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q77375
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 25, 2006
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: January 7, 2015
This is version 69 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program



HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome


  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.