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Q77375

- VPR_HV1AN

UniProt

Q77375 - VPR_HV1AN

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Protein

Protein Vpr

Gene

vpr

Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate ANT70) (HIV-1)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 4 out of 5- Protein inferred from homologyi

Functioni

Involved in the transport of the viral pre-integration (PIC) complex to the nucleus during the early stages of the infection. This function is crucial for viral infection of non-dividing macrophages. May interact with karyopherin alpha/KPNA1 and KPNA2 to increase their affinity for proteins containing basic-type nuclear localization signal, including the viral matrix protein MA, thus facilitating the translocation of the viral genome into the nucleus. May also act directly at the nuclear pore complex, by binding nucleoporins phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat regions (By similarity).By similarity
May target specific host proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Acts by associating with the cellular CUL4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex through direct interaction with host VPRPB/DCAF-1. This change in the E3 ligase substrate specificity would result in cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in infected cells. Prevents infected cells from undergoing mitosis and proliferating, by inducing arrest or delay in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. This arrest creates a favorable environment for maximizing viral expression and production by rendering the HIV-1 LTR transcriptionally more active. In this context, Vpr stimulates gene expression driven by the HIV-1 LTR by interacting with human SP1, TFIIB and TFIID. Cell cycle arrest reportedly occurs within hours of infection and is not blocked by antiviral agents, suggesting that it is initiated by the Vpr carried into the virion. Additionally, Vpr induces apoptosis in a cell cycle dependent manner suggesting that these two effects are mechanistically linked. Interacts with mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex (PTPC). This interaction induces a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and mitochondrial release of apoptogenic proteins such as cytochrome C or apoptosis inducing factors. Detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient, Vpr may also induce cell death to bystander cells (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Biological processi

  1. apoptotic process Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. cell cycle Source: UniProtKB-KW
  3. ion transport Source: UniProtKB-KW
  4. regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
  5. suppression by virus of G2/M transition of host mitotic cell cycle Source: UniProtKB-KW
  6. transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
  7. viral entry into host cell Source: UniProtKB-KW
  8. viral penetration into host nucleus Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Activator, Ion channel

Keywords - Biological processi

Apoptosis, Cell cycle, Host G2/M cell cycle arrest by virus, Host-virus interaction, Ion transport, Modulation of host cell cycle by virus, Transcription, Transcription regulation, Transport, Viral penetration into host nucleus, Virus entry into host cell

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein Vpr
Alternative name(s):
R ORF protein
Viral protein R
Gene namesi
Name:vpr
OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O (isolate ANT70) (HIV-1)
Taxonomic identifieri327105 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
ProteomesiUP000007689: Genome

Subcellular locationi

Virion. Host nucleus. Host extracellular space
Note: Incorporation into virion is dependent on p6 GAG sequences. Lacks a canonical nuclear localization signal, thus import into nucleus may function independently of the human importin pathway. Detected in high quantity in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. host cell nucleus Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. intracellular Source: GOC
  3. virion Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host nucleus, Virion

Pathology & Biotechi

Keywords - Diseasei

AIDS

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 9797Protein VprPRO_0000246757Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei79 – 791Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity
Modified residuei95 – 951Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity
Modified residuei97 – 971Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homooligomer, may form homodimer. Interacts with p6-gag region of the Pr55 Gag precursor protein through a (Leu-X-X)4 motif near the C terminus of the P6gag protein. Interacts with host SLC25A4/ANT1, SLC25A5/ANT2, SLC25A6/ANT3, SP1, CDC25C, RAD23A/HHR23A, COPS6/HVIP, TFIIB, UNG, SF3B2/SAP145, KPNA1 and KPNA2. Interacts with host VPRBP/DCAF1, leading to hijack the CUL4A-RBX1-DDB1-DCAF1/VPRBP complex, mediate ubiquitination of host proteins such as TERT and ZGPAT and arrest the cell cycle in G2 phase. Interacts with ANKHD1 (By similarity).By similarity

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ77375.
SMRiQ77375. Positions 1-97.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni1 – 4242HomooligomerizationBy similarityAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the HIV-1 VPR protein family.Curated

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR000012. RetroV_VpR/X.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00522. VPR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00444. HIVVPRVPX.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q77375-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MEQAPENQGP AKEPFNEWAL ELLEELKAEA VRHFPRPWLH ALGQYIYETY
60 70 80 90
GDTWVGVMAI IRILQQLLFT HYRIGCQHSR IGINPRGRGR RNGSSRS
Length:97
Mass (Da):11,259
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i0E118346DB4B4EA7
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L20587 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAA99881.1.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L20587 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAA99881.1 .

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortali Q77375.
SMRi Q77375. Positions 1-97.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Family and domain databases

InterProi IPR000012. RetroV_VpR/X.
[Graphical view ]
Pfami PF00522. VPR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
PRINTSi PR00444. HIVVPRVPX.
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

  1. "Genomic cloning and complete sequence analysis of a highly divergent African human immunodeficiency virus isolate."
    Vanden Haesevelde M., Decourt J.L., De Leys R.J., Vanderborght B., van der Groen G., van Heuverswijn H., Saman E.
    J. Virol. 68:1586-1596(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC RNA].

Entry informationi

Entry nameiVPR_HV1AN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q77375
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 25, 2006
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: October 29, 2014
This is version 68 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3