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Protein

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor

Gene

mif

Organism
Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Pro-inflammatory cytokine. Involved in the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. The expression of MIF at sites of inflammation suggests a role as mediator in regulating the function of macrophages in host defense (By similarity). Has phenylpyruvate tautomerase and dopachrome tautomerase activity (in vitro), but the physiological substrate is not known. It is not clear whether the tautomerase activity has any physiological relevance, and whether it is important for cytokine activity. Required for normal neural development during embryogenesis.By similarity1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

Keto-phenylpyruvate = enol-phenylpyruvate.
L-dopachrome = 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylate.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Active sitei2 – 21Proton acceptor; via imino nitrogenBy similarity
Binding sitei33 – 331SubstrateBy similarity
Binding sitei65 – 651Substrate; via amide nitrogenBy similarity
Binding sitei98 – 981SubstrateBy similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. dopachrome isomerase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC
  2. phenylpyruvate tautomerase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC

GO - Biological processi

  1. inflammatory response Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. innate immune response Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Cytokine, Isomerase

Keywords - Biological processi

Immunity, Inflammatory response, Innate immunity

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (EC:5.3.2.1)
Short name:
MIF
Alternative name(s):
L-dopachrome isomerase
L-dopachrome tautomerase (EC:5.3.3.12)
Phenylpyruvate tautomerase
Gene namesi
Name:mif
OrganismiXenopus laevis (African clawed frog)
Taxonomic identifieri8355 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiAmphibiaBatrachiaAnuraPipoideaPipidaeXenopodinaeXenopusXenopus

Organism-specific databases

XenbaseiXB-GENE-487452. mif.

Subcellular locationi

  1. Secreted By similarity
  2. Cytoplasm By similarity

  3. Note: Does not have a cleavable signal sequence and is secreted via a specialized, non-classical pathway. Secreted by macrophages upon stimulation (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  2. extracellular space Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Initiator methioninei1 – 11RemovedBy similarity
Chaini2 – 115114Macrophage migration inhibitory factorPRO_0000344370Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiQ76BK2.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Ubiquitous. Detected throughout embryogenesis. Detected in adult spleen, liver, kidney, heart, brain, intestine, testis and lung.1 Publication

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homotrimer.1 Publication

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
115
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Beta strandi3 – 108Combined sources
Helixi12 – 143Combined sources
Helixi19 – 3113Combined sources
Helixi35 – 373Combined sources
Beta strandi39 – 435Combined sources
Beta strandi47 – 504Combined sources
Beta strandi58 – 669Combined sources
Helixi70 – 8819Combined sources
Helixi92 – 943Combined sources
Beta strandi95 – 1017Combined sources
Helixi104 – 1063Combined sources
Beta strandi107 – 1093Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1UIZX-ray2.50A/B/C/D1-115[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ76BK2.
SMRiQ76BK2. Positions 1-115.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ76BK2.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the MIF family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

HOVERGENiHBG003240.
KOiK07253.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001398. Macrophage_inhib_fac.
IPR019829. Macrophage_inhib_fac_CS.
IPR014347. Tautomerase/MIF_sf.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11954. PTHR11954. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01187. MIF. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProDomiPD004816. Macrophage_inhib_fac. 1 hit.
[Graphical view] [Entries sharing at least one domain]
SUPFAMiSSF55331. SSF55331. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS01158. MIF. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q76BK2-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MPVFTIRTNV CRDSVPDTLL SDLTKQLAKA TGKPAEYIAI HIVPDQIMSF
60 70 80 90 100
GDSTDPCAVC SLCSIGKIGG PQNKSYTKLL CDILTKQLNI PANRVYINYY
110
DLNAANVGWN GSTFA
Length:115
Mass (Da):12,500
Last modified:July 5, 2004 - v1
Checksum:iFE04E099E97B52BB
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB111063 mRNA. Translation: BAD02463.1.
BC097727 mRNA. Translation: AAH97727.1.
RefSeqiNP_001083650.1. NM_001090181.1.
UniGeneiXl.30778.

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi399041.
KEGGixla:399041.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB111063 mRNA. Translation: BAD02463.1.
BC097727 mRNA. Translation: AAH97727.1.
RefSeqiNP_001083650.1. NM_001090181.1.
UniGeneiXl.30778.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1UIZX-ray2.50A/B/C/D1-115[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ76BK2.
SMRiQ76BK2. Positions 1-115.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiQ76BK2.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi399041.
KEGGixla:399041.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi4282.
XenbaseiXB-GENE-487452. mif.

Phylogenomic databases

HOVERGENiHBG003240.
KOiK07253.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ76BK2.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001398. Macrophage_inhib_fac.
IPR019829. Macrophage_inhib_fac_CS.
IPR014347. Tautomerase/MIF_sf.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11954. PTHR11954. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01187. MIF. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProDomiPD004816. Macrophage_inhib_fac. 1 hit.
[Graphical view] [Entries sharing at least one domain]
SUPFAMiSSF55331. SSF55331. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS01158. MIF. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Xenopus laevis macrophage migration inhibitory factor is essential for axis formation and neural development."
    Suzuki M., Takamura Y., Maeno M., Tochinai S., Iyaguchi D., Tanaka I., Nishihira J., Ishibashi T.
    J. Biol. Chem. 279:21406-21414(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.5 ANGSTROMS), FUNCTION, SUBUNIT, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    Tissue: Liver.
  2. NIH - Xenopus Gene Collection (XGC) project
    Submitted (JUN-2005) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Embryo.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiMIF_XENLA
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q76BK2
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 22, 2008
Last sequence update: July 5, 2004
Last modified: January 7, 2015
This is version 60 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.