Q75005 (TAT_HV1ET) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Last modified April 3, 2013. Version 66. History...
Names and origin
|Protein names||Recommended name:|
Transactivating regulatory protein
|Organism||Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate ETH2220) (HIV-1) [Complete proteome]|
|Taxonomic identifier||388796 [NCBI]|
|Taxonomic lineage||Viruses › Retro-transcribing viruses › Retroviridae › Orthoretrovirinae › Lentivirus › Primate lentivirus group ›|
|Virus host||Homo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]|
|Sequence length||42 AA.|
|Protein existence||Inferred from homology|
General annotation (Comments)
Nuclear transcriptional activator of viral gene expression, that is essential for viral transcription from the LTR promoter and replication. Acts as a sequence-specific molecular adapter, directing components of the cellular transcription machinery to the viral RNA to promote processive transcription elongation by the RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) complex, thereby increasing the level of full-length transcripts. In the absence of Tat, the RNA Pol II generates short or non-processive transcripts that terminate at approximately 60 bp from the initiation site. Tat associates with the CCNT1/cyclin-T1 component of the P-TEFb complex (CDK9 and CCNT1), which promotes RNA chain elongation. This binding increases Tat's affinity for a hairpin structure at the 5'-end of all nascent viral mRNAs referred to as the transactivation responsive RNA element (TAR RNA) and allows Tat/P-TEFb complex to bind cooperatively to TAR RNA. The CDK9 component of P-TEFb and other Tat-activated kinases hyperphosphorylate the C-terminus of RNA Pol II that becomes stabilized and much more processive. Other factors such as HTATSF1/Tat-SF1, SUPT5H/SPT5, and HTATIP2 are also important for Tat's function. Besides its effect on RNA Pol II processivity, Tat induces chromatin remodeling of proviral genes by recruiting the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) CREBBP, EP300 and PCAF to the chromatin. This also contributes to the increase in proviral transcription rate, especially when the provirus integrates in transcriptionally silent region of the host genome. To ensure maximal activation of the LTR, Tat mediates nuclear translocation of NF-kappa-B. In this purpose, it activates EIF2AK2/PKR which, in turns, may phosphorylate and target to degradation the inhibitor IkappaB-alpha which normally retains NF-kappa-B in the cytoplasm of unstimulated cells. Through its interaction with TBP, Tat may be involved in transcription initiation as well. Interacts with the cellular capping enzyme RNGTT to mediate co-transcriptional capping of viral mRNAs. Tat protein exerts as well a positive feedback on the translation of its cognate mRNA. Tat can reactivate a latently infected cell by penetrating in it and transactivating its LTR promoter. In the cytoplasm, Tat is thought to act as a translational activator of HIV-1 mRNAs By similarity.
Extracellular circulating Tat can be endocytosed by surrounding uninfected cells via the binding to several surface receptors such as CD26, CXCR4, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) or LDLR. Neurons are rarely infected, but they internalize Tat via their LDLR. Endosomal low pH allows Tat to cross the endosome membrane to enter the cytosol and eventually further translocate into the nucleus, thereby inducing severe cell dysfunctions ranging from cell activation to cell death. Through its interaction with nuclear HATs, Tat is potentially able to control the acetylation-dependent cellular gene expression. Tat seems to inhibit the HAT activity of KAT5/Tip60 and TAF1, and consequently modify the expression of specific cellular genes. Modulates the expression of many cellular genes involved in cell survival, proliferation or in coding for cytokines (such as IL10) or cytokine receptors. May be involved in the derepression of host interleukin IL2 expression. Mediates the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases and dysregulation of microtubule network. Tat plays a role in T-cell and neurons apoptosis. Tat induced neurotoxicity and apoptosis probably contribute to neuroAIDS. Host extracellular matrix metalloproteinase MMP1 cleaves Tat and decreases Tat's mediated neurotoxicity. Circulating Tat also acts as a chemokine-like and/or growth factor-like molecule that binds to specific receptors on the surface of the cells, affecting many cellular pathways. In the vascular system, Tat binds to ITGAV/ITGB3 and ITGA5/ITGB1 integrins dimers at the surface of endothelial cells and competes with bFGF for heparin-binding sites, leading to an excess of soluble bFGF. Binds to KDR/VEGFR-2. All these Tat-mediated effects enhance angiogenesis in Kaposi's sarcoma lesions By similarity.
Interacts with host CCNT1. Associates with the P-TEFb complex composed at least of Tat, P-TEFb (CDK9 and CCNT1), TAR RNA, RNA Pol II. Recruits the HATs CREBBP, TAF1/TFIID, EP300, PCAF and GCN5L2. Interacts with host KAT5/Tip60; this interaction targets the latter to degradation. Interacts with host capping enzyme RNGTT; this interaction stimulates RNGTT. Binds to host KDR, and to the host integrins ITGAV/ITGB3 and ITGA5/ITGB1. Interacts with host KPNB1/importin beta-1 without previous binding to KPNA1/importin alpha-1. Interacts with EIF2AK2. Interacts with host nucleosome assembly protein NAP1L1; this interaction may be required for the transport of Tat within the nucleus, since the two proteins interact at the nuclear rim. Interacts with host C1QBP/SF2P32; this interaction involves lysine-acetylated Tat. Interacts with the host chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR3 and CXCR4. Interacts with host DPP4/CD26; this interaction may trigger an anti-proliferative effect. Interacts with host LDLR. Interacts with the host extracellular matrix metalloproteinase MMP1. Interacts with host PRMT6; this interaction mediates Tat's methylation. Interacts with, and is ubiquitinated by MDM2/Hdm2. Interacts with host PSMC3 and HTATIP2. Interacts with STAB1; this interaction may overcome SATB1-mediated repression of IL2 and IL2RA (interleukin) in T-cells by binding to the same domain than HDAC1 By similarity.
Host nucleus › host nucleolus. Host cytoplasm. Secreted. Note: Probably localizes to both nuclear and nucleolar compartments. Nuclear localization is mediated through the interaction of the nuclear localization signal with importin KPNB1. Secretion occurs through a Golgi-independent pathway. Tat is released from infected cells to the extracellular space where it remains associated to the cell membrane, or is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and sera. Extracellular Tat can be endocytosed by surrounding uninfected cells via binding to several receptors depending on the cell type By similarity.
The transactivation domain mediates the interaction with CCNT1, GCN5L2, and MDM2 By similarity.
The Arg-rich RNA-binding region binds the TAR RNA. This region also mediates the nuclear localization through direct binding to KPNB1 and is involved in Tat's transfer across cell membranes (protein transduction). The same region is required for the interaction with EP300, PCAF, EIF2AK2 and KDR By similarity.
The Cys-rich region may bind 2 zinc ions Potential. This region is involved in binding to KAT5 By similarity.
The cell attachment site mediates the interaction with ITGAV/ITGB3 and ITGA5/ITGB1 integrins, leading to vascular cell migration and invasion. This interaction also provides endothelial cells with the adhesion signal they require to grow in response to mitogens By similarity.
Acetylation by EP300, CREBBP, GCN5L2/GCN5 and PCAF regulates the transactivation activity of Tat. PCAF-mediated acetylation of Lys-28 enhances Tat's binding to CCNT1 By similarity.
Phosphorylated by EIF2AK2 on serine and threonine residues adjacent to the basic region important for TAR RNA binding and function. Phosphorylation of Tat by EIF2AK2 is dependent on the prior activation of EIF2AK2 by dsRNA By similarity.
Asymmetrical arginine methylation by host PRMT6 seems to diminish the transactivation capacity of Tat and affects the interaction with host CCNT1 By similarity.
Polyubiquitination by MDM2 does not target Tat to degradation, but activates its transactivation function and fosters interaction with CCNT1 and TAR RNA By similarity.
HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).
This truncated variant has a premature stop codon. It may have arose as a consequence of tissue culture passaging.
Belongs to the lentiviruses Tat family.
|This entry describes 2 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. [Select]|
|Isoform Long (identifier: Q75005-1) |
This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.
|Isoform Short (identifier: Q75005-2) |
The sequence of this isoform is not available.
|Note: No experimental confirmation available. Expressed in the late stage of the infection cycle, when unspliced viral RNAs are exported to the cytoplasm by the viral Rev protein.|
Sequence annotation (Features)
|Feature key||Position(s)||Length||Description||Graphical view||Feature identifier|
|Chain||1 – 42||42||Protein Tat||PRO_0000244851|
|Region||1 – 24||24||Interaction with human CREBBP By similarity|
|Region||22 – 37||16||Cysteine-rich By similarity|
|Site||11||1||Essential for Tat's translocation through the endosomal membrane By similarity|
Amino acid modifications
|Modified residue||28||1||N6-acetyllysine; by host PCAF By similarity|
|||"Full-length sequence of an ethiopian human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolate of genetic subtype C."|
Salminen M.O., Johansson B., Sonnerborg A., Ayehunie S., Gotte D., Leinikki P., Burke D.S., McCutchan F.E.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 12:1329-1339(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
|||"Decoding Tat: the biology of HIV Tat posttranslational modifications."|
Hetzer C., Dormeyer W., Schnolzer M., Ott M.
Microbes Infect. 7:1364-1369(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW, ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
|||"The multiple functions of HIV-1 Tat: proliferation versus apoptosis."|
Front. Biosci. 11:708-717(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
|||"HIV tat and neurotoxicity."|
King J.E., Eugenin E.A., Buckner C.M., Berman J.W.
Microbes Infect. 8:1347-1357(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
|U46016 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB36504.1.|
3D structure databases
|SMR||Q75005. Positions 1-42. |
Protocols and materials databases
Family and domain databases
|Gene3D||18.104.22.168. 1 hit. |
|InterPro||IPR001831. IV_Tat. |
|Pfam||PF00539. Tat. 1 hit. |
|Accession||Primary (citable) accession number: Q75005|
|Entry status||Reviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)|
|Annotation program||Viral Protein Annotation Program|
Index of protein domains and families