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Protein

Protein Vpr

Gene

vpr

Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (strain 89.6) (HIV-1)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

During virus entry, involved in the transport of the viral pre-integration (PIC) complex to the nucleus. This function is crucial for viral infection of non-dividing macrophages. May act directly at the nuclear pore complex, by binding nucleoporins phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat regions (By similarity).By similarity
May target specific host proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Acts by associating with the cellular CUL4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex through direct interaction with host VPRPB/DCAF-1. This change in the E3 ligase substrate specificity would result in cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in infected cells. Prevents infected cells from undergoing mitosis and proliferating, by inducing arrest or delay in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. This arrest creates a favorable environment for maximizing viral expression and production by rendering the HIV-1 LTR transcriptionally more active. In this context, Vpr stimulates gene expression driven by the HIV-1 LTR by interacting with human SP1, TFIIB and TFIID. Cell cycle arrest reportedly occurs within hours of infection and is not blocked by antiviral agents, suggesting that it is initiated by the Vpr carried into the virion. Additionally, Vpr induces apoptosis in a cell cycle dependent manner suggesting that these two effects are mechanistically linked. Interacts with mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex (PTPC). This interaction induces a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and mitochondrial release of apoptogenic proteins such as cytochrome C or apoptosis inducing factors. Detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient, Vpr may also induce cell death to bystander cells (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Activator, Ion channel

Keywords - Biological processi

Apoptosis, Cell cycle, Host G2/M cell cycle arrest by virus, Host-virus interaction, Ion transport, Modulation of host cell cycle by virus, Transcription, Transcription regulation, Transport, Viral penetration into host nucleus, Virus entry into host cell

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein Vpr
Alternative name(s):
R ORF protein
Viral protein R
Gene namesi
Name:vpr
OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (strain 89.6) (HIV-1)
Taxonomic identifieri401671 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
Proteomesi
  • UP000007691 Componenti: Genome

Subcellular locationi

  • Virion
  • Host nucleus
  • Host extracellular space

  • Note: Incorporation into virion is dependent on p6 GAG sequences. Lacks a canonical nuclear localization signal, thus import into nucleus may function independently of the human importin pathway. Detected in high quantity in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host nucleus, Virion

Pathology & Biotechi

Keywords - Diseasei

AIDS

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 9696Protein VprPRO_0000253570Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei79 – 791Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity
Modified residuei94 – 941Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity
Modified residuei96 – 961Phosphoserine; by hostBy similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homooligomer, may form homodimer. Interacts with p6-gag region of the Pr55 Gag precursor protein through a (Leu-X-X)4 motif near the C terminus of the P6gag protein. Interacts with host UNG. May interact with host RAD23A/HHR23A. Interacts with host VPRBP/DCAF1, leading to hijack the CUL4A-RBX1-DDB1-DCAF1/VPRBP complex, mediate ubiquitination of host proteins such as TERT and ZGPAT and arrest the cell cycle in G2 phase (By similarity).By similarity

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
96
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Turni7 – 104Combined sources
Helixi17 – 2913Combined sources
Turni30 – 323Combined sources
Helixi35 – 4713Combined sources
Beta strandi50 – 556Combined sources
Helixi56 – 8025Combined sources
Turni81 – 844Combined sources
Beta strandi85 – 895Combined sources
Turni90 – 923Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1CEUNMR-A1-51[»]
1ESXNMR-A1-96[»]
1M8LNMR-A1-96[»]
1VPCNMR-A52-96[»]
1X9VNMR-A/B52-96[»]
1YM6model-B1-96[»]
1YMJmodel-B1-96[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ73369.
SMRiQ73369. Positions 1-96.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ73369.

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni1 – 4242HomooligomerizationBy similarityAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the HIV-1 VPR protein family.Curated

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR000012. RetroV_VpR/X.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00522. VPR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00444. HIVVPRVPX.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q73369-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MEQAPEDQGP QREPYNDWTL ELLEELKNEA VRHFPRIWLH SLGQHIYETY
60 70 80 90
GDTWTGVEAL IRILQQLLFI HFRIGCRHSR IGIIQQRRTR NGASKS
Length:96
Mass (Da):11,395
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i2D380F934DDEF238
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U39362 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA81039.1.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U39362 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA81039.1.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1CEUNMR-A1-51[»]
1ESXNMR-A1-96[»]
1M8LNMR-A1-96[»]
1VPCNMR-A52-96[»]
1X9VNMR-A/B52-96[»]
1YM6model-B1-96[»]
1YMJmodel-B1-96[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ73369.
SMRiQ73369. Positions 1-96.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ73369.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR000012. RetroV_VpR/X.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00522. VPR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00444. HIVVPRVPX.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

  1. "An infectious molecular clone of an unusual macrophage-tropic and highly cytopathic strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1."
    Collman R., Balliet J.W., Gregory S.A., Friedman H., Kolson D.L., Nathanson N., Srinivasan A.
    J. Virol. 66:7517-7521(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  2. "Biochemical mechanism of HIV-I Vpr function. Specific interaction with a cellular protein."
    Zhao L.-J., Mukherjee S., Narayan O.
    J. Biol. Chem. 269:15577-15582(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH HUMAN COPS6/HVIP.
  3. "Biochemical mechanism of HIV-1 Vpr function. Oligomerization mediated by the N-terminal domain."
    Zhao L.J., Wang L., Mukherjee S., Narayan O.
    J. Biol. Chem. 269:32131-32137(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: HOMOOLIGOMERIZATION.
  4. "Cytoplasmic retention of HIV-1 regulatory protein Vpr by protein-protein interaction with a novel human cytoplasmic protein VprBP."
    Zhang S., Feng Y., Narayan O., Zhao L.-J.
    Gene 263:131-140(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH HUMAN VPRBP.
  5. "HIV1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle by recruiting DCAF1/VprBP, a receptor of the Cul4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase."
    Le Rouzic E., Belaiedouni N., Estrabaud E., Morel M., Rain J.-C., Transy C., Margottin-Goguet F.
    Cell Cycle 6:182-188(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH HUMAN VPRBP.
  6. "NMR structure of the (1-51) N-terminal domain of the HIV-1 regulatory protein Vpr."
    Wecker K., Roques B.P.
    Eur. J. Biochem. 266:359-369(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR OF 1-51.
  7. "NMR structure of the HIV-1 regulatory protein Vpr in H2O/trifluoroethanol. Comparison with the Vpr N-terminal (1-51) and C-terminal (52-96) domains."
    Wecker K., Morellet N., Bouaziz S., Roques B.P.
    Eur. J. Biochem. 269:3779-3788(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR.
  8. "NMR structure of the HIV-1 regulatory protein VPR."
    Morellet N., Bouaziz S., Petitjean P., Roques B.P.
    J. Mol. Biol. 327:215-227(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR.
  9. "NMR structure of the (52-96) C-terminal domain of the HIV-1 regulatory protein Vpr: molecular insights into its biological functions."
    Schuler W., Wecker K., de Rocquigny H., Baudat Y., Sire J., Roques B.P.
    J. Mol. Biol. 285:2105-2117(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR OF 52-96.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiVPR_HV1B9
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q73369
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: October 17, 2006
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: May 11, 2016
This is version 85 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.