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Protein

Dead end protein homolog 1

Gene

Dnd1

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

RNA-binding factor that positively regulates gene expression by prohibiting miRNA-mediated gene suppression (By similarity). Relieves miRNA repression in germline cells (By similarity). Prohibits the function of several miRNAs by blocking the accessibility of target mRNAs (By similarity). Sequence-specific RNA-binding factor that binds specifically to U-rich regions (URRs) in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of several mRNAs (By similarity). Does not bind to miRNAs (By similarity). Isoform 1 may play a role during primordial germ cell (PGC) survival. However, does not seem to be essential for PGC migration.By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • germ cell development Source: MGI
  • multicellular organism development Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • negative regulation of gene silencing by miRNA Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Developmental protein

Keywords - Ligandi

RNA-binding

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Dead end protein homolog 1
Alternative name(s):
RNA-binding motif, single-stranded-interacting protein 4
Gene namesi
Name:Dnd1
Synonyms:Rbms4, Ter
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
Proteomesi
  • UP000000589 Componenti: Chromosome 18

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:2447763. Dnd1.

Subcellular locationi

  • Nucleus
  • Cytoplasm

  • Note: Perinuclear germ granules, also called germ plasm or chromatoid body (By similarity). Colocalizes in perinuclear sites with APOBEC3.By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB
  • nucleus Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Defects in Dnd1 are the cause of the Ter mutation phenotype. Ter mice are characterized by primordial germ cell loss and susceptibility to spontaneous testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). They are sterile, but viable. Isoform 1 defects may be the cause of tumor development.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 352352Dead end protein homolog 1PRO_0000081569Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ6VY05.
PRIDEiQ6VY05.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ6VY05.
PhosphoSiteiQ6VY05.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are expressed in testis. Isoform 1 is expressed continuously in post natal (PN) testis although levels are low between PN1 to PN6. Isoform 2 is expressed from PN 20 onwards. Isoform 2 is strongly expressed in meiotic and in post-meiotic germ cells of the testis with highest expression at the elongated spermatid stage (at protein level). Expressed in testis and heart. Expressed in germ cells and genital ridges. Not detected in testicular tumors.2 Publications

Developmental stagei

Isoform 1, but not isoform 2, is expressed in embryos at 13.5 and 15.5 dpc. Isoform 1, but not isoform 2, is expressed in primordial gonads at 13.5 and 15.5 dpc. Isoform 1, but not isoform 2, is expressed in ES cell lines. Isoform 1, but not isoform 2, is expressed in embryonic germ (EG) cells (at protein level). Detected in the embryo and allantoic bud at 7.5 dpc, in the neuroectoderm at 8.5 dpc, and widespread at 9.5 dpc, including the neural tube, head mesenchyme, first branchial arch and the hindgut, through which primordial germ cells are migrating. At 11.5 dpc, also expressed in the XY and XX genital ridges. Expressed in genital ridges at 13.5 dpc. Between 12.5 to 14.5 dpc, up-regulated in the testis cords of the XY gonads and down-regulated in XX gonads. Down-regulation occurs progressively as an anterior to posterior wave.3 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ6VY05.
CleanExiMM_DND1.
GenevisibleiQ6VY05. MM.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with APOBEC3.1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi229409. 2 interactions.
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000054412.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ6VY05.
SMRiQ6VY05. Positions 54-232.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini58 – 13679RRM 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini138 – 21881RRM 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 2 RRM (RNA recognition motif) domains.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IUE0. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YAVC. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00550000074366.
HOGENOMiHOG000112240.
HOVERGENiHBG051370.
InParanoidiQ6VY05.
OMAiQSKRECE.
OrthoDBiEOG73JKW2.
PhylomeDBiQ6VY05.
TreeFamiTF314932.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.70.330. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR012677. Nucleotide-bd_a/b_plait.
IPR000504. RRM_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00076. RRM_1. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00360. RRM. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54928. SSF54928. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50102. RRM. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q6VY05-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: DND1-alpha

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MQSKRECEQW CERVNPENKA ALEAWVRETG IRLVQVNGQR KYGGPPPGWV
60 70 80 90 100
GSPPPSGSEV YIGRLPQDVY EHQLIPLFQR VGRLYEFRLM MTFSGLNRGF
110 120 130 140 150
AYARYSSRRG AQAAIATLHN HQLRPSCQLL VCRSTEKCEL TVDGLPLSLN
160 170 180 190 200
RRALLLALQP FGPCLQETLL LPSPGSAPSQ IALLKFSTHR AAAMAKKALV
210 220 230 240 250
EGQSRLCGEQ VAVEWLKPDL KQHFRQQLAG PSLRFLRPDV SQLTQTREKL
260 270 280 290 300
GSQGARAALQ LLCQRMKLGS PVFLTKCLGT GPAGWHRFWY QVVIPGHPVP
310 320 330 340 350
FSGLIWVVLA SDWQDGHEVA KDAVSAQLLE ALSEPRTSLW SPGAEAGTMV

KQ
Length:352
Mass (Da):39,076
Last modified:July 5, 2004 - v1
Checksum:i5503E51D413B7161
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q6VY05-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: DND1-beta

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-45: MQSKRECEQW...VNGQRKYGGP → MVSLPSPPLPPPPSFILELKNILVDHSNQQNPF

Note: May be due to intron retention.
Show »
Length:340
Mass (Da):37,498
Checksum:iEA7EAC6FAB96BE9F
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei1 – 4545MQSKR…KYGGP → MVSLPSPPLPPPPSFILELK NILVDHSNQQNPF in isoform 2. 1 PublicationVSP_012943Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY321066 mRNA. Translation: AAQ63636.1.
BC034897 mRNA. Translation: AAH34897.1.
CCDSiCCDS29163.2. [Q6VY05-1]
RefSeqiNP_775559.2. NM_173383.2. [Q6VY05-1]
UniGeneiMm.234464.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000061522; ENSMUSP00000054412; ENSMUSG00000044595. [Q6VY05-1]
GeneIDi213236.
KEGGimmu:213236.
UCSCiuc008eom.1. mouse. [Q6VY05-2]
uc008eon.1. mouse. [Q6VY05-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY321066 mRNA. Translation: AAQ63636.1.
BC034897 mRNA. Translation: AAH34897.1.
CCDSiCCDS29163.2. [Q6VY05-1]
RefSeqiNP_775559.2. NM_173383.2. [Q6VY05-1]
UniGeneiMm.234464.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ6VY05.
SMRiQ6VY05. Positions 54-232.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi229409. 2 interactions.
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000054412.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ6VY05.
PhosphoSiteiQ6VY05.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ6VY05.
PRIDEiQ6VY05.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000061522; ENSMUSP00000054412; ENSMUSG00000044595. [Q6VY05-1]
GeneIDi213236.
KEGGimmu:213236.
UCSCiuc008eom.1. mouse. [Q6VY05-2]
uc008eon.1. mouse. [Q6VY05-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi373863.
MGIiMGI:2447763. Dnd1.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IUE0. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YAVC. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00550000074366.
HOGENOMiHOG000112240.
HOVERGENiHBG051370.
InParanoidiQ6VY05.
OMAiQSKRECE.
OrthoDBiEOG73JKW2.
PhylomeDBiQ6VY05.
TreeFamiTF314932.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi373893.
PROiQ6VY05.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ6VY05.
CleanExiMM_DND1.
GenevisibleiQ6VY05. MM.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.70.330. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR012677. Nucleotide-bd_a/b_plait.
IPR000504. RRM_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00076. RRM_1. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00360. RRM. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54928. SSF54928. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50102. RRM. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Dead end, a novel vertebrate germ plasm component, is required for zebrafish primordial germ cell migration and survival."
    Weidinger G., Stebler J., Slanchev K., Dumstrei K., Wise C., Lovell-Badge R., Thisse C., Thisse B., Raz E.
    Curr. Biol. 13:1429-1434(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
    Strain: C57BL/6J.
    Tissue: Testis.
  2. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
    Strain: C57BL/6J.
    Tissue: Thymus.
  3. "The Ter mutation in the dead end gene causes germ cell loss and testicular germ cell tumours."
    Youngren K.K., Coveney D., Peng X., Bhattacharya C., Schmidt L.S., Nickerson M.L., Lamb B.T., Deng J.M., Behringer R.R., Capel B., Rubin E.M., Nadeau J.H., Matin A.
    Nature 435:360-364(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE, DISEASE.
  4. "The mouse dead-end gene isoform alpha is necessary for germ cell and embryonic viability."
    Bhattacharya C., Aggarwal S., Zhu R., Kumar M., Zhao M., Meistrich M.L., Matin A.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 355:194-199(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: ALTERNATIVE SPLICING (ISOFORMS 1 AND 2), SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
  5. "Mouse apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 (APOBEC3) is expressed in germ cells and interacts with dead-end (DND1)."
    Bhattacharya C., Aggarwal S., Kumar M., Ali A., Matin A.
    PLoS ONE 3:E2315-E2315(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH APOBEC3, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiDND1_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q6VY05
Secondary accession number(s): Q8CFK7
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 1, 2005
Last sequence update: July 5, 2004
Last modified: May 11, 2016
This is version 95 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.