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Protein

Protein RRP5 homolog

Gene

Pdcd11

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Essential for the generation of mature 18S rRNA, specifically necessary for cleavages at sites A0, 1 and 2 of the 47S precursor. Directly interacts with U3 snoRNA (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

rRNA processing

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-MMU-6791226. Major pathway of rRNA processing in the nucleolus.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein RRP5 homolog
Alternative name(s):
Apoptosis-linked gene 4 protein
Programmed cell death protein 11
Gene namesi
Name:Pdcd11
Synonyms:Alg4, Kiaa0185
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
Proteomesi
  • UP000000589 Componenti: Chromosome 19

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:1341788. Pdcd11.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytosol Source: MGI
  • nucleolus Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  • nucleus Source: MGI
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Initiator methionineiRemovedBy similarity
Chaini2 – 18621861Protein RRP5 homologPRO_0000364200Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei2 – 21N-acetylalanineBy similarity
Modified residuei1468 – 14681PhosphoserineCombined sources
Modified residuei1490 – 14901PhosphoserineCombined sources

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ6NS46.
MaxQBiQ6NS46.
PaxDbiQ6NS46.
PRIDEiQ6NS46.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ6NS46.
PhosphoSiteiQ6NS46.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Ubiquitous.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ6NS46.
GenevisibleiQ6NS46. MM.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with NF-kappa-B p50/NFKB1 and NF-kappa-B p65/RELA.By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi202073. 1 interaction.
IntActiQ6NS46. 1 interaction.
MINTiMINT-4130990.
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000072008.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ6NS46.
SMRiQ6NS46. Positions 173-278.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini83 – 17189S1 motif 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini187 – 25872S1 motif 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini281 – 34666S1 motif 3PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini365 – 43672S1 motif 4PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini453 – 52270S1 motif 5PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini542 – 61170S1 motif 6PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini636 – 70772S1 motif 7PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini729 – 79870S1 motif 8PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini846 – 91166S1 motif 9PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini1047 – 112074S1 motif 10PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini1160 – 123374S1 motif 11PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini1241 – 130969S1 motif 12PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Domaini1335 – 140773S1 motif 13PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Repeati1590 – 162233HAT 1Add
BLAST
Repeati1696 – 172833HAT 2Add
BLAST
Repeati1766 – 179833HAT 3Add
BLAST
Repeati1800 – 183536HAT 4Add
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 4 HAT repeats.Curated
Contains 13 S1 motif domains.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1070. Eukaryota.
COG0539. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000012228.
HOVERGENiHBG108419.
InParanoidiQ6NS46.
KOiK14792.
OMAiLCHRSEM.
OrthoDBiEOG7Q2N55.
PhylomeDBiQ6NS46.
TreeFamiTF105697.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.25.40.10. 1 hit.
2.40.50.140. 10 hits.
InterProiIPR003107. HAT.
IPR012340. NA-bd_OB-fold.
IPR022967. S1_dom.
IPR003029. S1_domain.
IPR008847. Suf.
IPR013026. TPR-contain_dom.
IPR011990. TPR-like_helical_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00575. S1. 4 hits.
PF05843. Suf. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00386. HAT. 7 hits.
SM00316. S1. 13 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48452. SSF48452. 2 hits.
SSF50249. SSF50249. 11 hits.
PROSITEiPS50126. S1. 12 hits.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q6NS46-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MANLEESFPR GGTRKLHKSE KSSQQVVEQD NLFDVSTEEG PIKRKKSQKG
60 70 80 90 100
PAKTKKLKIE KRKSIKSIKE KFEILSLESL CEGMRILGCV KEVSELELVV
110 120 130 140 150
SLPNGLQGFV QVTEVCDAYT QKLNEQVAQE EPLEDLLRLP ELFSPGMLVR
160 170 180 190 200
CVVSSLDVTE SGKKSVKLSV NPKRVNKVLS ADALRPGMLL TGTVSSLEDH
210 220 230 240 250
GYLVDIGVGG TRAFLSLKKA QEYIRQKNKG AKFKVGQYLT CVVEEVKSNG
260 270 280 290 300
GVVSLSVEHS EVSSAFATEE QSWNLNNLLP GLLVKAQVQK VTQFGLQLNF
310 320 330 340 350
LTFFKGLVDF MHLEPKKMGS YSSNQTVKAC ILCVHPRTRV VRLSLRPIFL
360 370 380 390 400
HPGRPLTRIS YQQLGAVLDD VPVQGFFKNA GAIFRLKDGV LAYARVSHLS
410 420 430 440 450
DSKKAFNAEA FKPGSTHKCR IIDYSQMDEL ALLSLRKSII AAPFLRYHDI
460 470 480 490 500
KIGTVVKGTV LAIKPFGILV KVGEQIKGLV PSMHLADIMM KNPEKKYSPG
510 520 530 540 550
DEVKCRVLLC DPEAKKLIMT LKKTLVTSKL SLITCYEGAK PGLQTHGVII
560 570 580 590 600
RVKDYGCIVK FYNDVQGLVP KHELSTQHIP DPETVFYTGQ VVKVAVLSCE
610 620 630 640 650
PSKERMLLSF RLLSDSRPKD PGVESSQKKT GAVRIGQLVD VKVLEKTKTG
660 670 680 690 700
LEVAILPHNT PAFLPTPHLS DHAANGPLLH HWLQTGDTLH RVLCLSQSER
710 720 730 740 750
HILLCRKPAL VSTVEGGQDP KSLSEIQPGM LLIGFVKCIK EYGVFVQFPS
760 770 780 790 800
GLSGLSPKTI MSDKFVTTPS EHFVEGQTVV AKVTNVDESK QRMLLSLRLS
810 820 830 840 850
DCSLGDSAST SFLLLCQCLE ELQGIRSLMS NQDSVLIQTL ADMTPGMVLD
860 870 880 890 900
AVVHEVLEDG SVVFSSDPVP DLVLRASRYH RAGQEVEPGQ KKKVVVLHVD
910 920 930 940 950
MLKLEVHVSL HQDLVNRKTR KLRKSSRHQG IVQHLEESFA VASLVETGHL
960 970 980 990 1000
VAFSLISHLN DTFHFDSEKL RVGQGVCLTL KTTEPGVTGL ILAVEGPASK
1010 1020 1030 1040 1050
RTRMPVQRDS ETVDDKGEEK EEEEEEEEKE EENLTVKSKK RHSLAIGDKV
1060 1070 1080 1090 1100
TGTIKAVKAT HVVVTLADGF VGCIHASRIL DDVPVGTSPT TTLKAGKKVT
1110 1120 1130 1140 1150
ARVIGGRDVK TSKFLPISHP RFVLTILELS VRPSELKGSY SALNTHSESP
1160 1170 1180 1190 1200
VEKIRQYQAG QTVTCFFKKY NVMKKWLEVD IGPDIRGRIP LLLTSLSFKV
1210 1220 1230 1240 1250
LKHPDKKFQV GQAIEATVVD PDVPRAFLCL SLIGPYRLEE GEVAMGRVMK
1260 1270 1280 1290 1300
VVPNRGLTVS FPFGKIGKVS MFHLSDSYSE APLEDFCPQK IVRCYILSTA
1310 1320 1330 1340 1350
HRVLALSLRS SRTNRETKNR IEDPEINSIE DVKEGQLLRG YVKCVLPSSV
1360 1370 1380 1390 1400
IIGLGPSVLG LAKYSHVSEC VPPEKELYNG CLPEGKLVTA KVLRVNPMKN
1410 1420 1430 1440 1450
LIELSLLPSD TGRPDVFSPA PEPKQEERSG GAEEGQKRKE KNQKRREEKE
1460 1470 1480 1490 1500
EPQKSQRGGR GKRERQESES EQELVNKRPK KSGAAEEDDS GVEVYYREGE
1510 1520 1530 1540 1550
DEVGEPKLPP RGKQTKSTEV PRLHLSSGFL WDVGLDSLTP ALPLREESSD
1560 1570 1580 1590 1600
SEDEQPHQAK KKKGKKEREL EKQKAEKELS RIEEALMDPG RQPESADDFD
1610 1620 1630 1640 1650
RLVLSSPNSS ILWLQYMAFH LQATEIEKAR AVAERALKTI SFREEQEKLN
1660 1670 1680 1690 1700
VWVALLNLEN MYGSQESLTK VFERAVQYNE PLKVFLHLAD IYTKSEKYKE
1710 1720 1730 1740 1750
AGELYNRMLK RFRQEKAVWI KYGAFVLGRS QAGASHRVLQ RALECLPAKE
1760 1770 1780 1790 1800
HVDVIVKFAQ LEFQLGDVER AKAIFENTLS TYPKRTDVWS VYIDMTIKHG
1810 1820 1830 1840 1850
SQTAVRDIFE RVIHLSLAPK RMKFFFKRYL DYEKQHGTEK DVQAVKAKAL
1860
EYVEAKSSAL ED
Length:1,862
Mass (Da):207,779
Last modified:March 3, 2009 - v2
Checksum:iF2045A86EE8C9626
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAD20941.1 differs from that shown.The mRNA 5'- and 3'-ends do not match to the genomic DNA.Curated
The sequence BAB23064.2 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.Curated
The sequence BAC97890.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally shortened.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti38 – 381E → A in BAE28246 (PubMed:16141072).Curated
Sequence conflicti187 – 1871G → D in BAE28246 (PubMed:16141072).Curated
Sequence conflicti531 – 5311S → P in BAC97890 (PubMed:14621295).Curated
Sequence conflicti919 – 9191T → P in BAC97890 (PubMed:14621295).Curated
Sequence conflicti1027 – 10282Missing in BAC97890 (PubMed:14621295).Curated
Sequence conflicti1337 – 13371L → H in BAE28246 (PubMed:16141072).Curated
Sequence conflicti1469 – 14713ESE → TRP in AAH38503 (PubMed:15489334).Curated
Sequence conflicti1519 – 15191E → Q in AAH38503 (PubMed:15489334).Curated
Sequence conflicti1556 – 15561P → L in BAC97890 (PubMed:14621295).Curated
Sequence conflicti1556 – 15561P → L in AAH38503 (PubMed:15489334).Curated
Sequence conflicti1851 – 18511E → D in AAH70468 (PubMed:15489334).Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AK129080 mRNA. Translation: BAC97890.1. Different initiation.
BC038503 mRNA. Translation: AAH38503.1.
BC055276 mRNA. Translation: AAH55276.3.
BC070468 mRNA. Translation: AAH70468.1.
AK003899 mRNA. Translation: BAB23064.2. Different initiation.
AK141450 mRNA. Translation: BAE24688.1.
AK147950 mRNA. Translation: BAE28246.1.
AK161803 mRNA. Translation: BAE36581.1.
AF055668 mRNA. Translation: AAD20941.1. Sequence problems.
AF055669 mRNA. Translation: AAD20942.1.
CCDSiCCDS29888.1.
RefSeqiNP_035183.2. NM_011053.2.
UniGeneiMm.41166.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000072141; ENSMUSP00000072008; ENSMUSG00000025047.
GeneIDi18572.
KEGGimmu:18572.
UCSCiuc008hup.1. mouse.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AK129080 mRNA. Translation: BAC97890.1. Different initiation.
BC038503 mRNA. Translation: AAH38503.1.
BC055276 mRNA. Translation: AAH55276.3.
BC070468 mRNA. Translation: AAH70468.1.
AK003899 mRNA. Translation: BAB23064.2. Different initiation.
AK141450 mRNA. Translation: BAE24688.1.
AK147950 mRNA. Translation: BAE28246.1.
AK161803 mRNA. Translation: BAE36581.1.
AF055668 mRNA. Translation: AAD20941.1. Sequence problems.
AF055669 mRNA. Translation: AAD20942.1.
CCDSiCCDS29888.1.
RefSeqiNP_035183.2. NM_011053.2.
UniGeneiMm.41166.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ6NS46.
SMRiQ6NS46. Positions 173-278.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi202073. 1 interaction.
IntActiQ6NS46. 1 interaction.
MINTiMINT-4130990.
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000072008.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ6NS46.
PhosphoSiteiQ6NS46.

Proteomic databases

EPDiQ6NS46.
MaxQBiQ6NS46.
PaxDbiQ6NS46.
PRIDEiQ6NS46.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi18572.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000072141; ENSMUSP00000072008; ENSMUSG00000025047.
GeneIDi18572.
KEGGimmu:18572.
UCSCiuc008hup.1. mouse.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi22984.
MGIiMGI:1341788. Pdcd11.
RougeiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1070. Eukaryota.
COG0539. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000012228.
HOVERGENiHBG108419.
InParanoidiQ6NS46.
KOiK14792.
OMAiLCHRSEM.
OrthoDBiEOG7Q2N55.
PhylomeDBiQ6NS46.
TreeFamiTF105697.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-MMU-6791226. Major pathway of rRNA processing in the nucleolus.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiQ6NS46.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ6NS46.
GenevisibleiQ6NS46. MM.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.25.40.10. 1 hit.
2.40.50.140. 10 hits.
InterProiIPR003107. HAT.
IPR012340. NA-bd_OB-fold.
IPR022967. S1_dom.
IPR003029. S1_domain.
IPR008847. Suf.
IPR013026. TPR-contain_dom.
IPR011990. TPR-like_helical_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00575. S1. 4 hits.
PF05843. Suf. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00386. HAT. 7 hits.
SM00316. S1. 13 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48452. SSF48452. 2 hits.
SSF50249. SSF50249. 11 hits.
PROSITEiPS50126. S1. 12 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Prediction of the coding sequences of mouse homologues of KIAA gene: III. The complete nucleotide sequences of 500 mouse KIAA-homologous cDNAs identified by screening of terminal sequences of cDNA clones randomly sampled from size-fractionated libraries."
    Okazaki N., Kikuno R., Ohara R., Inamoto S., Koseki H., Hiraoka S., Saga Y., Nagase T., Ohara O., Koga H.
    DNA Res. 10:167-180(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Embryonic tail.
  2. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: C57BL/6J and FVB/N.
    Tissue: Embryonic brain, Eye and Mammary tumor.
  3. "The transcriptional landscape of the mammalian genome."
    Carninci P., Kasukawa T., Katayama S., Gough J., Frith M.C., Maeda N., Oyama R., Ravasi T., Lenhard B., Wells C., Kodzius R., Shimokawa K., Bajic V.B., Brenner S.E., Batalov S., Forrest A.R., Zavolan M., Davis M.J.
    , Wilming L.G., Aidinis V., Allen J.E., Ambesi-Impiombato A., Apweiler R., Aturaliya R.N., Bailey T.L., Bansal M., Baxter L., Beisel K.W., Bersano T., Bono H., Chalk A.M., Chiu K.P., Choudhary V., Christoffels A., Clutterbuck D.R., Crowe M.L., Dalla E., Dalrymple B.P., de Bono B., Della Gatta G., di Bernardo D., Down T., Engstrom P., Fagiolini M., Faulkner G., Fletcher C.F., Fukushima T., Furuno M., Futaki S., Gariboldi M., Georgii-Hemming P., Gingeras T.R., Gojobori T., Green R.E., Gustincich S., Harbers M., Hayashi Y., Hensch T.K., Hirokawa N., Hill D., Huminiecki L., Iacono M., Ikeo K., Iwama A., Ishikawa T., Jakt M., Kanapin A., Katoh M., Kawasawa Y., Kelso J., Kitamura H., Kitano H., Kollias G., Krishnan S.P., Kruger A., Kummerfeld S.K., Kurochkin I.V., Lareau L.F., Lazarevic D., Lipovich L., Liu J., Liuni S., McWilliam S., Madan Babu M., Madera M., Marchionni L., Matsuda H., Matsuzawa S., Miki H., Mignone F., Miyake S., Morris K., Mottagui-Tabar S., Mulder N., Nakano N., Nakauchi H., Ng P., Nilsson R., Nishiguchi S., Nishikawa S., Nori F., Ohara O., Okazaki Y., Orlando V., Pang K.C., Pavan W.J., Pavesi G., Pesole G., Petrovsky N., Piazza S., Reed J., Reid J.F., Ring B.Z., Ringwald M., Rost B., Ruan Y., Salzberg S.L., Sandelin A., Schneider C., Schoenbach C., Sekiguchi K., Semple C.A., Seno S., Sessa L., Sheng Y., Shibata Y., Shimada H., Shimada K., Silva D., Sinclair B., Sperling S., Stupka E., Sugiura K., Sultana R., Takenaka Y., Taki K., Tammoja K., Tan S.L., Tang S., Taylor M.S., Tegner J., Teichmann S.A., Ueda H.R., van Nimwegen E., Verardo R., Wei C.L., Yagi K., Yamanishi H., Zabarovsky E., Zhu S., Zimmer A., Hide W., Bult C., Grimmond S.M., Teasdale R.D., Liu E.T., Brusic V., Quackenbush J., Wahlestedt C., Mattick J.S., Hume D.A., Kai C., Sasaki D., Tomaru Y., Fukuda S., Kanamori-Katayama M., Suzuki M., Aoki J., Arakawa T., Iida J., Imamura K., Itoh M., Kato T., Kawaji H., Kawagashira N., Kawashima T., Kojima M., Kondo S., Konno H., Nakano K., Ninomiya N., Nishio T., Okada M., Plessy C., Shibata K., Shiraki T., Suzuki S., Tagami M., Waki K., Watahiki A., Okamura-Oho Y., Suzuki H., Kawai J., Hayashizaki Y.
    Science 309:1559-1563(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] OF 1-1438, NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] OF 1568-1862.
    Strain: C57BL/6J.
    Tissue: Embryo, Embryonic spinal cord, Embryonic testis and Melanocyte.
  4. "Regulation of Fas ligand expression and cell death by apoptosis-linked gene 4."
    Lacana' E., D'Adamio L.
    Nat. Med. 5:542-547(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 394-1163, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  5. Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-1468 AND SER-1490, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    Tissue: Brain, Lung, Pancreas and Spleen.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiRRP5_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q6NS46
Secondary accession number(s): Q3TSU4
, Q3UGG2, Q3URK0, Q6PIA8, Q6ZQH2, Q7TPE2, Q9CTD8, Q9R1Z2, Q9WTU7
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 3, 2009
Last sequence update: March 3, 2009
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 105 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.