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Protein

Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial

Gene

Glrx2

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that facilitates the maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis upon induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Involved in response to hydrogen peroxide and regulation of apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. Acts as a very efficient catalyst of monothiol reactions because of its high affinity for protein glutathione-mixed disulfides. Can receive electrons not only from glutathione (GSH), but also from thioredoxin reductase supporting both monothiol and dithiol reactions. Efficiently catalyzes both glutathionylation and deglutathionylation of mitochondrial complex I, which in turn regulates the superoxide production by the complex. Overexpression decreases the susceptibility to apoptosis and prevents loss of cardiolipin and cytochrome c release (By similarity).By similarity

Enzyme regulationi

The 2Fe-2S present in the homodimer leads to inactivation of the enzyme. The 2Fe-2S may serve as a redox sensor: the presence of one-electron oxidants or reductants leading to the loss of the 2Fe-2S cluster, subsequent monomerization and activation of the enzyme (By similarity).By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Metal bindingi61Iron-sulfur (2Fe-2S); shared with dimeric partner; in inactive formBy similarity1
Binding sitei67GlutathioneBy similarity1
Binding sitei102GlutathioneBy similarity1
Binding sitei114Glutathione; via amide nitrogen and carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi146Iron-sulfur (2Fe-2S); shared with dimeric partner; in inactive formBy similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • aging Source: RGD
  • cell redox homeostasis Source: InterPro
  • cellular response to superoxide Source: RGD
  • response to hydrogen peroxide Source: Ensembl
  • response to organic substance Source: Ensembl

Keywordsi

Biological processElectron transport, Transport
Ligand2Fe-2S, Iron, Iron-sulfur, Metal-binding

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial
Gene namesi
Name:Glrx2
Synonyms:Grx2
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 Componenti: Chromosome 13

Organism-specific databases

RGDi1307950 Glrx2

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Mitochondrion, Nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Transit peptidei1 – 19MitochondrionSequence analysisAdd BLAST19
ChainiPRO_000001163120 – 157Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrialAdd BLAST138

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Disulfide bondi70 ↔ 73Redox-active; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei70S-glutathionyl cysteine; alternateBy similarity1

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glutathionylation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ6AXW1
PRIDEiQ6AXW1

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSRNOG00000003385
GenevisibleiQ6AXW1 RN

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer; active form. Homodimer; inactive form. The homodimer is probably linked by 1 2Fe-2S cluster (By similarity).By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000056811

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ6AXW1
SMRiQ6AXW1
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini50 – 150GlutaredoxinPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST101

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glutaredoxin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Redox-active center, Transit peptide

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1752 Eukaryota
COG0695 LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00900000141123
HOGENOMiHOG000095204
HOVERGENiHBG096801
InParanoidiQ6AXW1
KOiK03676
OMAiDMLEYGS
OrthoDBiEOG091G0WLY

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR002109 Glutaredoxin
IPR011899 Glutaredoxin_euk/vir
IPR014025 Glutaredoxin_subgr
IPR036249 Thioredoxin-like_sf
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00462 Glutaredoxin, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00160 GLUTAREDOXIN
SUPFAMiSSF52833 SSF52833, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR02180 GRX_euk, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51354 GLUTAREDOXIN_2, 1 hit

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q6AXW1-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MSWYRAASVG RRLVASGRIL AGRRGAAGAA GSGMGNSTSS FWGKSATTPV
60 70 80 90 100
NQIQETISNN CVVIFSKSSC SYCSMAKKIF HDMNVNYKVV ELDMVEYGSQ
110 120 130 140 150
FQEALYKMTG ERTVPRIFVN GIFIGGAADT HRLHKEGKLL PLVHQCYLNK

SKRKDVE
Length:157
Mass (Da):17,275
Last modified:August 30, 2005 - v2
Checksum:i0CA4BEB5C9D7A572
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q6AXW1-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-33: Missing.

Show »
Length:124
Mass (Da):14,003
Checksum:i626A932FFAD38F4B
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0152231 – 33Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST33

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AABR03084863 mRNA No translation available.
BC079292 mRNA Translation: AAH79292.1
RefSeqiNP_001013052.1, NM_001013034.1 [Q6AXW1-2]
XP_006250017.1, XM_006249955.2 [Q6AXW1-1]
XP_006250019.1, XM_006249957.3 [Q6AXW1-2]
XP_008767748.1, XM_008769526.2 [Q6AXW1-2]
UniGeneiRn.17175

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000060062; ENSRNOP00000056811; ENSRNOG00000003385 [Q6AXW1-1]
GeneIDi114022
KEGGirno:114022
UCSCiRGD:1307950 rat [Q6AXW1-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGLRX2_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q6AXW1
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 30, 2005
Last sequence update: August 30, 2005
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 112 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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Main funding by: National Institutes of Health