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Q66810

- VGP_EBOIC

UniProt

Q66810 - VGP_EBOIC

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Protein
Envelope glycoprotein
Gene
GP
Organism
Ivory Coast ebolavirus (strain Cote d'Ivoire-94) (CIEBOV) (Cote d'Ivoire Ebola virus)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5 - Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

GP1 is responsible for binding to the receptor(s) on target cells. Interacts with CD209/DC-SIGN and CLEC4M/DC-SIGNR which act as cofactors for virus entry into the host cell. Binding to CD209 and CLEC4M, which are respectively found on dendritic cells (DCs), and on endothelial cells of liver sinusoids and lymph node sinuses, facilitate infection of macrophages and endothelial cells. These interactions not only facilitate virus cell entry, but also allow capture of viral particles by DCs and subsequent transmission to susceptible cells without DCs infection (trans infection). Binding to the macrophage specific lectin CLEC10A also seems to enhance virus infectivity. Interaction with FOLR1/folate receptor alpha may be a cofactor for virus entry in some cell types, although results are contradictory. Members of the Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinase family also seem to be cell entry factors in filovirus infection. Once attached, the virions are internalized through clathrin-dependent endocytosis and/or macropinocytosis. After internalization of the virus into the endosomes of the host cell, proteolysis of GP1 by two cysteine proteases, CTSB/cathepsin B and CTSL/cathepsin L presumably induces a conformational change of GP2, unmasking its fusion peptide and initiating membranes fusion By similarity.
GP2 acts as a class I viral fusion protein. Under the current model, the protein has at least 3 conformational states: pre-fusion native state, pre-hairpin intermediate state, and post-fusion hairpin state. During viral and target cell membrane fusion, the coiled coil regions (heptad repeats) assume a trimer-of-hairpins structure, positioning the fusion peptide in close proximity to the C-terminal region of the ectodomain. The formation of this structure appears to drive apposition and subsequent fusion of viral and target cell membranes. Responsible for penetration of the virus into the cell cytoplasm by mediating the fusion of the membrane of the endocytosed virus particle with the endosomal membrane. Low pH in endosomes induces an irreversible conformational change in GP2, releasing the fusion hydrophobic peptide By similarity.
GP1,2 mediates endothelial cell activation and decreases endothelial barrier function. Mediates activation of primary macrophages. At terminal stages of the viral infection, when its expression is high, GP1,2 down-modulates the expression of various host cell surface molecules that are essential for immune surveillance and cell adhesion. Down-modulates integrins ITGA1, ITGA2, ITGA3, ITGA4, ITGA5, ITGA6, ITGAV and ITGB1. GP1,2 alters the cellular recycling of the dimer alpha-V/beta-3 via a dynamin-dependent pathway. Decrease in the host cell surface expression of various adhesion molecules may lead to cell detachment, contributing to the disruption of blood vessel integrity and hemorrhages developed during Ebola virus infection (cytotoxicity). This cytotoxicity appears late in the infection, only after the massive release of viral particles by infected cells. Down-modulation of host MHC-I, leading to altered recognition by immune cells, may explain the immune suppression and inflammatory dysfunction linked to Ebola infection. Also down-modulates EGFR surface expression By similarity.
GP2delta is part of the complex GP1,2delta released by host ADAM17 metalloprotease. This secreted complex may play a role in the pathogenesis of the virus by efficiently blocking the neutralizing antibodies that would otherwise neutralize the virus surface glycoproteins GP1,2. Might therefore contribute to the lack of inflammatory reaction seen during infection in spite the of extensive necrosis and massive virus production. GP1,2delta does not seem to be involved in activation of primary macrophages By similarity.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sitei57 – 571Involved in receptor recognition and/or post-binding events Reviewed prediction
Sitei63 – 631Involved in receptor recognition and/or post-binding events Reviewed prediction
Sitei88 – 881Involved in receptor recognition and/or post-binding events Reviewed prediction
Sitei95 – 951Involved in receptor recognition and/or post-binding events Reviewed prediction
Sitei170 – 1701Involved in receptor recognition and/or post-binding events Reviewed prediction
Sitei501 – 5022Cleavage; by host furin By similarity
Sitei637 – 6382Cleavage; by host ADAM17 By similarity

GO - Biological processi

  1. clathrin-mediated endocytosis of virus by host cell Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. fusion of virus membrane with host endosome membrane Source: UniProtKB-KW
  3. suppression by virus of host tetherin activity Source: UniProtKB-KW
  4. suppression by virus of host type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB-KW
  5. virion attachment to host cell Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of virus by host, Fusion of virus membrane with host endosomal membrane, Fusion of virus membrane with host membrane, Host-virus interaction, Inhibition of host innate immune response by virus, Inhibition of host interferon signaling pathway by virus, Inhibition of host tetherin by virus, Viral attachment to host cell, Viral immunoevasion, Viral penetration into host cytoplasm, Virus endocytosis by host, Virus entry into host cell

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Envelope glycoprotein
Alternative name(s):
GP1,2
Short name:
GP
Cleaved into the following 3 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:GP
OrganismiIvory Coast ebolavirus (strain Cote d'Ivoire-94) (CIEBOV) (Cote d'Ivoire Ebola virus)
Taxonomic identifieri128999 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiVirusesssRNA negative-strand virusesMononegaviralesFiloviridaeEbolavirus
Virus hostiEpomops franqueti (Franquet's epauleted fruit bat) [TaxID: 77231]
Homo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
Myonycteris torquata (Little collared fruit bat) [TaxID: 77243]

Subcellular locationi

Chain GP2 : Virion membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein By similarity. Virion membrane; Lipid-anchor By similarity. Host cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein By similarity. Host cell membrane; Lipid-anchor By similarity
Note: In the cell, localizes to the plasma membrane lipid rafts, which probably represent the assembly and budding site By similarity.
Chain GP1 : Virion membrane; Peripheral membrane protein By similarity. Host cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein By similarity
Note: GP1 is not anchored to the viral envelope, but associates with the extravirion surface through its binding to GP2. In the cell, both GP1 and GP2 localize to the plasma membrane lipid rafts, which probably represent the assembly and budding site. GP1 can also be shed after proteolytic processing By similarity.
Chain GP2-delta : Secreted By similarity
Note: GP2-delta bound to GP1 (GP1,2-delta) is produced by proteolytic cleavage of GP1,2 by host ADAM17 and shed by the virus By similarity.

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Topological domaini33 – 650618Extracellular Reviewed prediction
Add
BLAST
Transmembranei651 – 67121Helical; Reviewed prediction
Add
BLAST
Topological domaini672 – 6765Cytoplasmic Reviewed prediction

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. host cell plasma membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  2. integral component of membrane Source: UniProtKB-KW
  3. viral envelope Source: UniProtKB-KW
  4. virion membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host cell membrane, Host membrane, Membrane, Secreted, Viral envelope protein, Virion

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 3232 Reviewed prediction
Add
BLAST
Chaini33 – 676644Envelope glycoprotein
PRO_0000037467Add
BLAST
Chaini33 – 501469GP1 By similarity
PRO_0000037468Add
BLAST
Chaini502 – 676175GP2 By similarity
PRO_0000037469Add
BLAST
Chaini502 – 637136GP2-delta By similarity
PRO_0000245056Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Glycosylationi40 – 401N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Reviewed prediction
Disulfide bondi53 ↔ 609Interchain (between GP1 and GP2 chains) By similarity
Disulfide bondi108 ↔ 135 Reviewed prediction
Disulfide bondi121 ↔ 147 Reviewed prediction
Glycosylationi204 – 2041N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Reviewed prediction
Glycosylationi228 – 2281N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Reviewed prediction
Glycosylationi257 – 2571N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Reviewed prediction
Glycosylationi268 – 2681N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Reviewed prediction
Glycosylationi296 – 2961N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Reviewed prediction
Glycosylationi414 – 4141N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Reviewed prediction
Glycosylationi441 – 4411N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Reviewed prediction
Disulfide bondi511 ↔ 556 Reviewed prediction
Glycosylationi563 – 5631N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Reviewed prediction
Disulfide bondi601 ↔ 608 By similarity
Glycosylationi618 – 6181N-linked (GlcNAc...); by host Reviewed prediction
Lipidationi670 – 6701S-palmitoyl cysteine; by host By similarity
Lipidationi672 – 6721S-palmitoyl cysteine; by host By similarity

Post-translational modificationi

The signal peptide region modulates GP's high mannose glycosylation, thereby determining the efficiency of the interactions with DC-SIGN(R) By similarity.
N-glycosylated By similarity.
O-glycosylated in the mucin-like region By similarity.
Palmitoylation of GP2 is not required for its function By similarity.
Specific enzymatic cleavages in vivo yield mature proteins. The precursor is processed into GP1 and GP2 by host cell furin in the trans Golgi, and maybe by other host proteases, to yield the mature GP1 and GP2 proteins. The cleavage site corresponds to the furin optimal cleavage sequence [KR]-X-[KR]-R. This cleavage does not seem to be required for function. After the internalization of the virus into cell endosomes, GP1 C-terminus is removed by the endosomal proteases cathepsin B, cathepsin L, or both, leaving a 19-kDa N-terminal fragment which is further digested by cathepsin B. Proteolytic processing of GP1,2 by host ADAM17 can remove the transmembrane anchor of GP2 and leads to shedding of complexes consisting in GP1 and truncated GP2 (GP1,2delta) By similarity.

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Lipoprotein, Palmitate

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homotrimer; each monomer consists of a GP1 and a GP2 subunit linked by disulfide bonds. The resulting peplomers (GP1,2) protrude from the virus surface as spikes. GP1 and GP2delta are part of GP1,2delta soluble complexes released by ectodomain shedding. GP1,2 interacts with host integrin ITGAV/alpha-V and CLEC10A. Also binds human CD209 and CLEC4M (collectively referred to as DC-SIGN(R)), as well as human FOLR1 By similarity.1 Publication

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ66810.
SMRiQ66810. Positions 32-308, 506-632.

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni54 – 201148Receptor-binding By similarity
Add
BLAST
Regioni305 – 485181Mucin-like region By similarity
Add
BLAST
Regioni524 – 53916Fusion peptide By similarity
Add
BLAST

Coiled coil

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Coiled coili554 – 59542 Reviewed prediction
Add
BLAST
Coiled coili615 – 63420 Reviewed prediction
Add
BLAST

Domaini

The mucin-like region seems to be involved in the cytotoxic function. This region is also involved in binding to human CLEC10A By similarity.
The coiled coil regions play a role in oligomerization and fusion activity By similarity.

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Coiled coil, Signal, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR014625. GPC_FiloV.
IPR002561. GPC_filovir-type_extra_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01611. Filo_glycop. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF036874. GPC_FiloV. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q66810-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

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MGASGILQLP RERFRKTSFF VWVIILFHKV FSIPLGVVHN NTLQVSDIDK    50
FVCRDKLSST SQLKSVGLNL EGNGVATDVP TATKRWGFRA GVPPKVVNYE 100
AGEWAENCYN LAIKKVDGSE CLPEAPEGVR DFPRCRYVHK VSGTGPCPGG 150
LAFHKEGAFF LYDRLASTII YRGTTFAEGV IAFLILPKAR KDFFQSPPLH 200
EPANMTTDPS SYYHTTTINY VVDNFGTNTT EFLFQVDHLT YVQLEARFTP 250
QFLVLLNETI YSDNRRSNTT GKLIWKINPT VDTSMGEWAF WENKKNFTKT 300
LSSEELSFVP VPETQNQVLD TTATVSPPIS AHNHAGEDHK ELVSEDSTPV 350
VQMQNIKGKD TMPTTVTGVP TTTPSPFPIN ARNTDHTKSF IGLEGPQEDH 400
STTQPAKTTS QPTNSTESTT LNPTSEPSSR GTGPSSPTVP NTTESHAELG 450
KTTPTTLPEQ HTAASAIPRA VHPDELSGPG FLTNTIRGVT NLLTGSRRKR 500
RDVTPNTQPK CNPNLHYWTA LDEGAAIGLA WIPYFGPAAE GIYTEGIMEN 550
QNGLICGLRQ LANETTQALQ LFLRATTELR TFSILNRKAI DFLLQRWGGT 600
CHILGPDCCI EPQDWTKNIT DKIDQIIHDF VDNNLPNQND GSNWWTGWKQ 650
WVPAGIGITG VIIAIIALLC ICKFML 676
Length:676
Mass (Da):74,722
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i9C753510BFADB48D
GO

RNA editingi

Partially edited. RNA editing at this position consists of an insertion of one adenine nucleotide. The sequence displayed here is the full-length transmembrane glycoprotein, derived from the edited RNA. The unedited RNA gives rise to the small secreted glycoprotein (AC Q66811).1 Publication

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
U28006 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAB37093.1.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

RNA editing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
U28006 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAB37093.1 .

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortali Q66810.
SMRi Q66810. Positions 32-308, 506-632.
ModBasei Search...

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Family and domain databases

InterProi IPR014625. GPC_FiloV.
IPR002561. GPC_filovir-type_extra_dom.
[Graphical view ]
Pfami PF01611. Filo_glycop. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
PIRSFi PIRSF036874. GPC_FiloV. 1 hit.
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

  1. "The virion glycoproteins of Ebola viruses are encoded in two reading frames and are expressed through transcriptional editing."
    Sanchez A., Trappier S.G., Mahy B.W.J., Peters C.J., Nichol S.T.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93:3602-3607(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC RNA], RNA EDITING.
  2. "Human macrophage C-type lectin specific for galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine promotes filovirus entry."
    Takada A., Fujioka K., Tsuiji M., Morikawa A., Higashi N., Ebihara H., Kobasa D., Feldmann H., Irimura T., Kawaoka Y.
    J. Virol. 78:2943-2947(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH HUMAN CLEC10A.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiVGP_EBOIC
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q66810
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 30, 2000
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: February 19, 2014
This is version 87 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Filoviruses entry requires functional lipid rafts at the host cell surface By similarity.
Essential for infectivity, as it is the sole viral protein expressed at the virion surface.

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi