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Protein

3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 2

Gene

KCS2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Mediates the synthesis of VLCFAs from 22 to 26 carbons in length (e.g. C22, C24, C26) (PubMed:15277688). Involved in the elongation of C20 fatty acid suberin precursors (PubMed:18786002). Functionally redundant with KCS20 in the two-carbon elongation of C22 fatty acids that is required for cuticular wax and root suberin biosynthesis (PubMed:19619160).3 Publications

Caution

It is uncertain whether Met-1 or Met-11 is the initiator.Curated

Catalytic activityi

A very-long-chain acyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA = CoA + a very-long-chain 3-oxoacyl-CoA + CO2.Curated

Enzyme regulationi

Inhibited by K3 herbicides such as allidochlor, anilofos, cafenstrole and flufenacet (PubMed:15277688). Strongly inhibited by metazachlor (PubMed:22284369).2 Publications

Pathwayi: fatty acid biosynthesis

This protein is involved in the pathway fatty acid biosynthesis, which is part of Lipid metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway fatty acid biosynthesis and in Lipid metabolism.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Active sitei241By similarity1
Active sitei320By similarity1
Active sitei407By similarity1
Active sitei411By similarity1
Active sitei444By similarity1

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • fatty acid biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB-UniPathway
  • response to osmotic stress Source: TAIR
  • response to wounding Source: TAIR
  • suberin biosynthetic process Source: TAIR

Keywordsi

Molecular functionAcyltransferase, Transferase

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT1G04220-MONOMER
UniPathwayiUPA00094

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 21 Publication (EC:2.3.1.199Curated)
Short name:
KCS-21 Publication
Alternative name(s):
Docosanoic acid synthase1 Publication
Very long-chain fatty acid condensing enzyme 21 Publication
Short name:
VLCFA condensing enzyme 21 Publication
Gene namesi
Name:KCS21 Publication
Synonyms:DAISY1 Publication, KCS171 Publication
Ordered Locus Names:At1g04220Imported
ORF Names:F20D22.1Imported
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT1G04220
TAIRilocus:2020215 AT1G04220

Subcellular locationi

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Transmembranei36 – 56HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Transmembranei78 – 98HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

No visible phenotype in flowers or siliques, but reduced root growth. Suberin with a significant decrease in VLCFA derivatives longer than C20 (PubMed:18786002). No visible phenotype, but reduced root growth. Kcs2 and kcs20 double mutants have a glossy green appearance due to a significant reduction of the amount of epicuticular wax crystals on the stems and siliques, a significant reduction of C22 and C24 VLCFA derivatives in aliphatic suberin and a roots growth retardation and abnormal lamellation of the suberin layer in the endodermis (PubMed:19619160).2 Publications

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2242736

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00002491091 – 5283-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 2Add BLAST528

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ5XEP9
PRIDEiQ5XEP9

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in siliques, flowers and stems (PubMed:18465198). In young seedlings, expressed in the central cylinder of primary roots, in emerging lateral roots and in their root cap, but not in aboveground tissues such as hypocotyls, cotyledons and leaves. Expressed in sepals in mature flowers and in the chalaza and micropyle region of developing seeds shortly prior to or just after the detachment from the funiculus (PubMed:18786002). Expressed in roots, flowers, cauline leaves and siliques (PubMed:19619160).3 Publications

Inductioni

Repressed by herbicides such as flufenacet and benfuresate (PubMed:12916765). Up-regulated by wounding, drought and salt (PubMed:18786002). Strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid and drought, and to a lower level, by salt and osmotic stress (PubMed:19619160). Up-regulated by the MYB94 transcription factor (PubMed:25305760).4 Publications

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ5XEP9 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ5XEP9 AT

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi24813, 2 interactors

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ5XEP9
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini97 – 388FAESequence analysisAdd BLAST292

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the chalcone/stilbene synthases family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IHMW Eukaryota
ENOG410Y5VH LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000238893
InParanoidiQ5XEP9
KOiK15397
OMAiENHIQSA
OrthoDBiEOG093606UZ
PhylomeDBiQ5XEP9

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.47.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR012392 3-ktacl-CoA_syn
IPR013747 ACP_syn_III_C
IPR013601 FAE1_typ3_polyketide_synth
IPR016039 Thiolase-like
PANTHERiPTHR31561 PTHR31561, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF08541 ACP_syn_III_C, 1 hit
PF08392 FAE1_CUT1_RppA, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF036417 3-ktacl-CoA_syn, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF53901 SSF53901, 3 hits

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q5XEP9-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MNENHIQSDH MNNTIHVTNK KLPNFLLSVR LKYVKLGYHY LISNAVYILI
60 70 80 90 100
LPVGLLAATS SSFSLTDLTL LYNHLLKFHF LSSTLFAALL IFLTTLYFTT
110 120 130 140 150
RPRRIFLLDF ACYKPDSSLI CTRETFMDRS QRVGIFTEDN LAFQQKILER
160 170 180 190 200
SGLGQKTYFP EALLRVPPNP CMSEARKEAE TVMFGAIDAV LEKTGVNPKD
210 220 230 240 250
IGILVVNCSL FNPTPSLSAM IVNKYKLRGN VLSYNLGGMG CSAGLISIDL
260 270 280 290 300
AKQLLQVQPN SYALVVSTEN ITLNWYLGND RSMLLSNCIF RMGGAAVLLS
310 320 330 340 350
NRSSDRCRSK YQLIHTVRTH KGSDDNAFNC VYQREDNDDN KQIGVSLSKN
360 370 380 390 400
LMAIAGEALK TNITTLGPLV LPMSEQLLFF ATLVARKVFN VKKIKPYIPD
410 420 430 440 450
FKLAFEHFCI HAGGRAVLDE IEKNLDLSEW HMEPSRMTLN RFGNTSSSSL
460 470 480 490 500
WYELAYSEAK GRIKRGDRTW QIAFGSGFKC NSAVWRALRT IDPSKEKKKK
510 520
TNPWIDEIHE FPVPVPRTSP VTSSSESR
Length:528
Mass (Da):59,528
Last modified:September 5, 2006 - v2
Checksum:iFC47749CBBB26B3E
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence BAD95022 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Translation N-terminally extended.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti453E → G in AAL67132 (PubMed:14593172).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AC002411 Genomic DNA Translation: AAC16740.1
CP002684 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE27671.1
AY074518 mRNA Translation: AAL67132.1
BT015917 mRNA Translation: AAU95453.1
AK222101 mRNA Translation: BAD95022.1 Different initiation.
PIRiT00951
RefSeqiNP_171918.1, NM_100303.4
UniGeneiAt.20865
At.48152

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G04220.1; AT1G04220.1; AT1G04220
GeneIDi839578
GrameneiAT1G04220.1; AT1G04220.1; AT1G04220
KEGGiath:AT1G04220

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiKCS2_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q5XEP9
Secondary accession number(s): O64485, Q56WE1, Q8VXW2
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: September 5, 2006
Last sequence update: September 5, 2006
Last modified: April 25, 2018
This is version 105 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome
UniProt is an ELIXIR core data resource
Main funding by: National Institutes of Health