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Protein

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

Gene

GAPDH

Organism
Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan) (Pongo pygmaeus abelii)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in glycolysis that catalyzes the first step of the pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. Modulates the organization and assembly of the cytoskeleton. Facilitates the CHP1-dependent microtubule and membrane associations through its ability to stimulate the binding of CHP1 to microtubules. Also participates in nuclear events including transcription, RNA transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. Nuclear functions are probably due to the nitrosylase activity that mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins such as SIRT1, HDAC2 and PRKDC. Component of the GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma treatment assembles into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3'-UTR of diverse inflammatory mRNAs (such as ceruplasmin) and suppresses their translation (By similarity).By similarity

Catalytic activityi

D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + phosphate + NAD+ = 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate + NADH.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Pathwayi: glycolysis

This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.
Proteins known to be involved in the 5 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
  1. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)
  2. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1)
  3. no protein annotated in this organism
  4. Alpha-enolase (ENO1)
  5. Pyruvate kinase (PKM), Pyruvate kinase PKM (PKM), Pyruvate kinase (PKLR)
This subpathway is part of the pathway glycolysis, which is itself part of Carbohydrate degradation.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, the pathway glycolysis and in Carbohydrate degradation.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Binding sitei35 – 351NADBy similarity
Binding sitei80 – 801NAD; via carbonyl oxygenBy similarity
Binding sitei122 – 1221NADBy similarity
Active sitei152 – 1521NucleophilePROSITE-ProRule annotation
Sitei179 – 1791Activates thiol group during catalysisBy similarity
Binding sitei182 – 1821Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphateBy similarity
Binding sitei234 – 2341Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphateBy similarity
Binding sitei316 – 3161NADBy similarity

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Nucleotide bindingi13 – 142NADBy similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Oxidoreductase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Apoptosis, Glycolysis, Translation regulation

Keywords - Ligandi

NAD

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00109; UER00184.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC:1.2.1.12)
Short name:
GAPDH
Alternative name(s):
Peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase GAPDH (EC:2.6.99.-)
Gene namesi
Name:GAPDH
Synonyms:GAPD
OrganismiPongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan) (Pongo pygmaeus abelii)
Taxonomic identifieri9601 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaePongo
Proteomesi
  • UP000001595 Componenti: Unplaced

Subcellular locationi

  • Cytoplasmcytosol By similarity
  • Nucleus By similarity
  • Cytoplasmcytoskeleton By similarity

  • Note: Translocates to the nucleus following S-nitrosylation and interaction with SIAH1, which contains a nuclear localization signal.By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Initiator methionineiRemovedBy similarity
Chaini2 – 335334Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenasePRO_0000145492Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei5 – 51N6,N6-dimethyllysineBy similarity
Modified residuei9 – 91Deamidated asparagineBy similarity
Modified residuei42 – 421PhosphotyrosineBy similarity
Modified residuei61 – 611N6-acetyllysineBy similarity
Modified residuei64 – 641Deamidated asparagineBy similarity
Modified residuei66 – 661N6,N6-dimethyllysineBy similarity
Modified residuei70 – 701Deamidated asparagineBy similarity
Modified residuei75 – 751PhosphothreonineBy similarity
Modified residuei122 – 1221PhosphoserineBy similarity
Modified residuei148 – 1481PhosphoserineBy similarity
Modified residuei149 – 1491Deamidated asparagineBy similarity
Modified residuei151 – 1511PhosphoserineBy similarity
Modified residuei152 – 1521ADP-ribosylcysteine; by autocatalysis; in irreversibly inhibited formBy similarity
Modified residuei152 – 1521Cysteine persulfideBy similarity
Modified residuei152 – 1521S-nitrosocysteine; in reversibly inhibited formBy similarity
Modified residuei155 – 1551Deamidated asparagineBy similarity
Modified residuei177 – 1771PhosphothreonineBy similarity
Modified residuei182 – 1821PhosphothreonineBy similarity
Modified residuei184 – 1841PhosphothreonineBy similarity
Modified residuei194 – 1941N6,N6-dimethyllysine; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei194 – 1941N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei194 – 1941N6-malonyllysine; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei211 – 2111PhosphothreonineBy similarity
Modified residuei215 – 2151N6,N6-dimethyllysine; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei215 – 2151N6-malonyllysine; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei219 – 2191N6-acetyllysineBy similarity
Modified residuei225 – 2251Deamidated asparagineBy similarity
Modified residuei227 – 2271N6,N6-dimethyllysine; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei227 – 2271N6-acetyllysine; alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei229 – 2291PhosphothreonineBy similarity
Modified residuei237 – 2371PhosphothreonineBy similarity
Modified residuei241 – 2411PhosphoserineBy similarity
Modified residuei247 – 2471S-nitrosocysteineBy similarity
Modified residuei254 – 2541N6-acetyllysineBy similarity
Modified residuei260 – 2601N6,N6-dimethyllysineBy similarity
Modified residuei263 – 2631N6,N6-dimethyllysineBy similarity
Modified residuei312 – 3121PhosphoserineBy similarity
Modified residuei316 – 3161Deamidated asparagineBy similarity
Modified residuei334 – 3341N6,N6-dimethyllysineBy similarity

Post-translational modificationi

ISGylated.By similarity
S-nitrosylation of Cys-152 leads to interaction with SIAH1, followed by translocation to the nucleus. S-nitrosylation of Cys-247 is induced by interferon-gamma and LDL(ox) implicating the iNOS-S100A8/9 transnitrosylase complex and seems to prevent interaction with phosphorylated RPL13A and to interfere with GAIT complex activity (By similarity).By similarity
Sulfhydration at Cys-152 increases catalytic activity.By similarity
Oxidative stress can promote the formation of high molecular weight disulfide-linked GAPDH aggregates, through a process called nucleocytoplasmic coagulation.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, ADP-ribosylation, Methylation, Phosphoprotein, S-nitrosylation, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiQ5RAB4.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homotetramer. Interacts with EIF1AD, USP25, PRKCI and WARS. Interacts with TPPP; the interaction is direct. Interacts (when S-nitrosylated) with SIAH1; leading to nuclear translocation. Interacts with RILPL1/GOSPEL, leading to prevent the interaction between GAPDH and SIAH1 and prevent nuclear translocation. Interacts with CHP1; the interaction increases the binding of CHP1 with microtubules. Associates with microtubules. Interacts with phosphorylated RPL13A (By similarity). Component of the GAIT complex. Interacts with FKBP6; leading to inhibit GAPDH catalytic activity (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9601.ENSPPYP00000004774.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ5RAB4.
SMRiQ5RAB4. Positions 3-335.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni2 – 148147Interaction with WARSBy similarityAdd
BLAST
Regioni151 – 1533Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate bindingBy similarity
Regioni211 – 2122Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate bindingBy similarity

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi245 – 2506[IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motifBy similarity

Domaini

The [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif is a proposed target motif for cysteine S-nitrosylation mediated by the iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex.By similarity

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0657. Eukaryota.
COG0057. LUCA.
HOVERGENiHBG000227.
InParanoidiQ5RAB4.
KOiK00134.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.50.720. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR020831. GlycerAld/Erythrose_P_DH.
IPR020830. GlycerAld_3-P_DH_AS.
IPR020829. GlycerAld_3-P_DH_cat.
IPR020828. GlycerAld_3-P_DH_NAD(P)-bd.
IPR006424. Glyceraldehyde-3-P_DH_1.
IPR016040. NAD(P)-bd_dom.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10836. PTHR10836. 1 hit.
PfamiPF02800. Gp_dh_C. 1 hit.
PF00044. Gp_dh_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF000149. GAP_DH. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00078. G3PDHDRGNASE.
SMARTiSM00846. Gp_dh_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF51735. SSF51735. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01534. GAPDH-I. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00071. GAPDH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q5RAB4-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MGKVKVGING FGRIGRLVTR AAFNSGKVDI VAINDPFIDL NYMVYMFQYD
60 70 80 90 100
STHGKFHGTV KAENGKLVIN GNPITIFQER DPSKIKWGDA GAEYVVESTG
110 120 130 140 150
VFTTMEKAGA HLQGGAKRVI ISAPSADAPM FVMGVNHEKY DNSLKIVSNA
160 170 180 190 200
SCTTNCLAPL AKVIHDNFGI VEGLMTTVHA ITATQKTVDG PSGKLWRDGR
210 220 230 240 250
GALQNIIPAS TGAAKAVGKV IPELNGKLTG MAFRVPTANV SVVDLTCRLE
260 270 280 290 300
KAAKYDDIKK VVKQASEGPL KGILGYTEHQ VVSSDLNSDT HSSTFDAGAG
310 320 330
IALNDHFVKL ISWYDNEFGY SNRVVDLMAH MASKE
Length:335
Mass (Da):35,993
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v3
Checksum:i966EF7D1843D3873
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
CR859104 mRNA. Translation: CAH91296.1.
RefSeqiNP_001125767.1. NM_001132295.2.

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi100172694.
KEGGipon:100172694.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
CR859104 mRNA. Translation: CAH91296.1.
RefSeqiNP_001125767.1. NM_001132295.2.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ5RAB4.
SMRiQ5RAB4. Positions 3-335.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9601.ENSPPYP00000004774.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiQ5RAB4.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi100172694.
KEGGipon:100172694.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2597.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0657. Eukaryota.
COG0057. LUCA.
HOVERGENiHBG000227.
InParanoidiQ5RAB4.
KOiK00134.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00109; UER00184.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.50.720. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR020831. GlycerAld/Erythrose_P_DH.
IPR020830. GlycerAld_3-P_DH_AS.
IPR020829. GlycerAld_3-P_DH_cat.
IPR020828. GlycerAld_3-P_DH_NAD(P)-bd.
IPR006424. Glyceraldehyde-3-P_DH_1.
IPR016040. NAD(P)-bd_dom.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10836. PTHR10836. 1 hit.
PfamiPF02800. Gp_dh_C. 1 hit.
PF00044. Gp_dh_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF000149. GAP_DH. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00078. G3PDHDRGNASE.
SMARTiSM00846. Gp_dh_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF51735. SSF51735. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01534. GAPDH-I. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00071. GAPDH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

  1. The German cDNA consortium
    Submitted (NOV-2004) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Heart.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiG3P_PONAB
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q5RAB4
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 10, 2006
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: December 9, 2015
This is version 93 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.