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Protein

Proline racemase A

Gene

PA45-A

Organism
Trypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the interconversion of L- and D-proline. Secreted isoform 1 contributes to parasite immune evasion by acting as a B-cell mitogen. Probably involved in parasite differentiation and infectivity.3 Publications

Catalytic activityi

L-proline = D-proline.1 Publication

Enzyme regulationi

Inhibited by maleic acid, iodoacetamide, iodoacetate and, most particularly, pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid.1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=29 mM for L-proline1 Publication
  1. Vmax=0.053 mmol/sec/µg enzyme1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 5.5-7.0.1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Active sitei160 – 1601Proton acceptorCurated
Binding sitei326 – 3261Substrate
Active sitei330 – 3301Proton donorCurated

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Developmental protein, Isomerase

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi5.1.1.4. 6524.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Proline racemase A (EC:5.1.1.4)
Alternative name(s):
TcPA45-A
TcPRACA
rTcPA45
Gene namesi
Name:PA45-A
ORF Names:Tc00.1047053506795.80
OrganismiTrypanosoma cruzi (strain CL Brener)
Taxonomic identifieri353153 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaEuglenozoaKinetoplastidaTrypanosomatidaeTrypanosomaSchizotrypanum
Proteomesi
  • UP000002296 Componenti: Unassembled WGS sequence

Subcellular locationi

Isoform 1 :
Isoform 2 :

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Membrane, Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi160 – 1601C → S: Loss of enzyme activity, without abrogating mitogenic properties. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi330 – 3301C → S: Loss of enzyme activity, without abrogating mitogenic properties. 2 Publications

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 3131Sequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Chaini32 – 423392Proline racemase APRO_5000057225Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Glycosylationi213 – 2131N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis
Glycosylationi266 – 2661N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis
Glycosylationi282 – 2821N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis

Keywords - PTMi

Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ4DA80.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer.2 Publications

Protein-protein interaction databases

DIPiDIP-61100N.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
423
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Helixi66 – 716Combined sources
Beta strandi74 – 8310Combined sources
Beta strandi86 – 938Combined sources
Helixi103 – 11311Combined sources
Helixi115 – 1228Combined sources
Beta strandi132 – 1376Combined sources
Beta strandi145 – 15410Combined sources
Helixi161 – 17313Combined sources
Beta strandi184 – 1929Combined sources
Beta strandi195 – 2039Combined sources
Beta strandi205 – 2095Combined sources
Beta strandi211 – 2177Combined sources
Beta strandi221 – 23111Combined sources
Turni234 – 2363Combined sources
Beta strandi238 – 25417Combined sources
Helixi255 – 2584Combined sources
Beta strandi262 – 2643Combined sources
Helixi267 – 28418Combined sources
Beta strandi297 – 3059Combined sources
Beta strandi313 – 3208Combined sources
Turni321 – 3233Combined sources
Helixi331 – 34313Combined sources
Beta strandi353 – 3575Combined sources
Beta strandi362 – 37413Combined sources
Beta strandi385 – 39713Combined sources
Beta strandi399 – 40911Combined sources
Turni414 – 4174Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1W61X-ray2.10A/B32-423[»]
1W62X-ray2.50A/B32-423[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ4DA80.
SMRiQ4DA80. Positions 63-423.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ4DA80.

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni161 – 1622Substrate binding
Regioni331 – 3322Substrate binding

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the proline racemase family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IIC6. Eukaryota.
COG3938. LUCA.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR008794. Pro_racemase_fam.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF05544. Pro_racemase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q4DA80-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MRKSVCPKQK FFFSAFPFFF FFCVFPLISR TGQEKLLFDQ KYKIIKGEKK
60 70 80 90 100
EKKKNQRANR REHQQKREIM RFKKSFTCID MHTEGEAARI VTSGLPHIPG
110 120 130 140 150
SNMAEKKAYL QENMDYLRRG IMLEPRGHDD MFGAFLFDPI EEGADLGMVF
160 170 180 190 200
MDTGGYLNMC GHNSIAAVTA AVETGIVSVP AKATNVPVVL DTPAGLVRGT
210 220 230 240 250
AHLQSGTESE VSNASIINVP SFLYQQDVVV VLPKPYGEVR VDIAFGGNFF
260 270 280 290 300
AIVPAEQLGI DISVQNLSRL QEAGELLRTE INRSVKVQHP QLPHINTVDC
310 320 330 340 350
VEIYGPPTNP EANYKNVVIF GNRQADRSPC GTGTSAKMAT LYAKGQLRIG
360 370 380 390 400
ETFVYESILG SLFQGRVLGE ERIPGVKVPV TKDAEEGMLV VTAEITGKAF
410 420
IMGFNTMLFD PTDPFKNGFT LKQ
Length:423
Mass (Da):46,950
Last modified:May 29, 2007 - v2
Checksum:i2BF6DFF8F5AB662E
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q4DA80-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-69: Missing.

Show »
Length:354
Mass (Da):38,432
Checksum:i88801F775E8B9DAA
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence EAN89436.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction. Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti79 – 791I → M in AAF97423 (PubMed:10932226).Curated

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei1 – 6969Missing in isoform 2. CuratedVSP_025849Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF195522 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF97423.1.
AAHK01000747 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAN89436.1. Sequence problems.
RefSeqiXP_811287.1. XM_806194.1.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblProtistsiEAN89436; EAN89436; Tc00.1047053506795.80.
GeneIDi3542225.
KEGGitcr:506795.80.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF195522 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF97423.1.
AAHK01000747 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAN89436.1. Sequence problems.
RefSeqiXP_811287.1. XM_806194.1.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1W61X-ray2.10A/B32-423[»]
1W62X-ray2.50A/B32-423[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ4DA80.
SMRiQ4DA80. Positions 63-423.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

DIPiDIP-61100N.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ4DA80.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblProtistsiEAN89436; EAN89436; Tc00.1047053506795.80.
GeneIDi3542225.
KEGGitcr:506795.80.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IIC6. Eukaryota.
COG3938. LUCA.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi5.1.1.4. 6524.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ4DA80.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR008794. Pro_racemase_fam.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF05544. Pro_racemase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, FUNCTION, ENZYME REGULATION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
    Strain: CL Brener.
  2. "Biochemical characterization of proline racemases from the human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and definition of putative protein signatures."
    Chamond N., Gregoire C., Coatnoan N., Rougeot C., Freitas-Junior L.H., da Silveira J.F., Degrave W.M., Minoprio P.
    J. Biol. Chem. 278:15484-15494(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], SUBUNIT, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, MUTAGENESIS OF CYS-330.
    Strain: CL Brener.
  3. "Trypanosoma cruzi proline racemases are involved in parasite differentiation and infectivity."
    Chamond N., Goytia M., Coatnoan N., Barale J.-C., Cosson A., Degrave W.M., Minoprio P.
    Mol. Microbiol. 58:46-60(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], ALTERNATIVE SPLICING (ISOFORMS 1 AND 2), FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
    Strain: CL Brener.
  4. "The genome sequence of Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease."
    El-Sayed N.M.A., Myler P.J., Bartholomeu D.C., Nilsson D., Aggarwal G., Tran A.-N., Ghedin E., Worthey E.A., Delcher A.L., Blandin G., Westenberger S.J., Caler E., Cerqueira G.C., Branche C., Haas B., Anupama A., Arner E., Aslund L.
    , Attipoe P., Bontempi E., Bringaud F., Burton P., Cadag E., Campbell D.A., Carrington M., Crabtree J., Darban H., da Silveira J.F., de Jong P., Edwards K., Englund P.T., Fazelina G., Feldblyum T., Ferella M., Frasch A.C., Gull K., Horn D., Hou L., Huang Y., Kindlund E., Klingbeil M., Kluge S., Koo H., Lacerda D., Levin M.J., Lorenzi H., Louie T., Machado C.R., McCulloch R., McKenna A., Mizuno Y., Mottram J.C., Nelson S., Ochaya S., Osoegawa K., Pai G., Parsons M., Pentony M., Pettersson U., Pop M., Ramirez J.L., Rinta J., Robertson L., Salzberg S.L., Sanchez D.O., Seyler A., Sharma R., Shetty J., Simpson A.J., Sisk E., Tammi M.T., Tarleton R., Teixeira S., Van Aken S., Vogt C., Ward P.N., Wickstead B., Wortman J., White O., Fraser C.M., Stuart K.D., Andersson B.
    Science 309:409-415(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: CL Brener.
  5. "Crystal structure, catalytic mechanism, and mitogenic properties of Trypanosoma cruzi proline racemase."
    Buschiazzo A., Goytia M., Schaeffer F., Degrave W., Shepard W., Gregoire C., Chamond N., Cosson A., Berneman A., Coatnoan N., Alzari P.M., Minoprio P.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103:1705-1710(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.1 ANGSTROMS) OF 32-393 IN COMPLEX WITH SUBSTRATE ANALOG, FUNCTION, SUBUNIT, MUTAGENESIS OF CYS-160 AND CYS-330.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPRCMA_TRYCC
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q4DA80
Secondary accession number(s): Q9NCP4
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 29, 2007
Last sequence update: May 29, 2007
Last modified: May 11, 2016
This is version 56 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.