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Protein

Glutamine synthetase, chloroplastic/mitochondrial

Gene

GLN2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

The light-modulated chloroplast/mitochondrial enzyme, encoded by a nuclear gene and expressed primarily in leaves, is responsible for the reassimilation of the ammonia generated by photorespiration.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

ATP + L-glutamate + NH3 = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine.

GO - Molecular functioni

  • ATP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • glutamate-ammonia ligase activity Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  • aging Source: TAIR
  • ammonia assimilation cycle Source: TAIR
  • glutamine biosynthetic process Source: InterPro
  • response to cadmium ion Source: TAIR
  • response to cytokinin Source: TAIR
  • response to salt stress Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Ligase

Keywords - Ligandi

ATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT5G35630-MONOMER.
ARA:GQT-2612-MONOMER.
ARA:GQT-2613-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT5G35630-MONOMER.
BRENDAi6.3.1.2. 399.
ReactomeiREACT_276185. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination).
REACT_282855. Astrocytic Glutamate-Glutamine Uptake And Metabolism.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glutamine synthetase, chloroplastic/mitochondrial (EC:6.3.1.2)
Alternative name(s):
GS2
Glutamate--ammonia ligase
Gene namesi
Name:GLN2
Synonyms:GSLI
Ordered Locus Names:At5g35630
ORF Names:MJE4.9
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
ProteomesiUP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G35630.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • apoplast Source: TAIR
  • chloroplast Source: TAIR
  • chloroplast envelope Source: TAIR
  • chloroplast stroma Source: TAIR
  • chloroplast thylakoid membrane Source: TAIR
  • cytosolic ribosome Source: TAIR
  • membrane Source: TAIR
  • mitochondrion Source: TAIR
  • thylakoid Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chloroplast, Mitochondrion, Plastid

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Transit peptidei1 – 4545Chloroplast and mitochondrionSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Chaini46 – 430385Glutamine synthetase, chloroplastic/mitochondrialPRO_0000011174Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei106 – 1061Phosphoserine1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ43127.
PRIDEiQ43127.

2D gel databases

SWISS-2DPAGEQ43127.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in mesophyll and epidermal cells of leaves.1 Publication

Inductioni

By light, sucrose, glucose and fructose.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ43127. baseline and differential.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homooctamer.By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi18788. 6 interactions.
DIPiDIP-32735N.
IntActiQ43127. 2 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT5G35630.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ43127.
SMRiQ43127. Positions 65-413.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glutamine synthetase family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Transit peptide

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG0174.
HOGENOMiHOG000061500.
InParanoidiQ43127.
KOiK01915.
OMAiIMIETIC.
PhylomeDBiQ43127.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.590.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR008147. Gln_synt_beta.
IPR014746. Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom.
IPR008146. Gln_synth_cat_dom.
IPR027303. Gln_synth_gly_rich_site.
IPR027302. Gln_synth_N_conserv_site.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00120. Gln-synt_C. 1 hit.
PF03951. Gln-synt_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54368. SSF54368. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00180. GLNA_1. 1 hit.
PS00181. GLNA_ATP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q43127-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAQILAASPT CQMRVPKHSS VIASSSKLWS SVVLKQKKQS NNKVRGFRVL
60 70 80 90 100
ALQSDNSTVN RVETLLNLDT KPYSDRIIAE YIWIGGSGID LRSKSRTIEK
110 120 130 140 150
PVEDPSELPK WNYDGSSTGQ APGEDSEVIL YPQAIFRDPF RGGNNILVIC
160 170 180 190 200
DTWTPAGEPI PTNKRAKAAE IFSNKKVSGE VPWFGIEQEY TLLQQNVKWP
210 220 230 240 250
LGWPVGAFPG PQGPYYCGVG ADKIWGRDIS DAHYKACLYA GINISGTNGE
260 270 280 290 300
VMPGQWEFQV GPSVGIDAGD HVWCARYLLE RITEQAGVVL TLDPKPIEGD
310 320 330 340 350
WNGAGCHTNY STKSMREEGG FEVIKKAILN LSLRHKEHIS AYGEGNERRL
360 370 380 390 400
TGKHETASID QFSWGVANRG CSIRVGRDTE AKGKGYLEDR RPASNMDPYI
410 420 430
VTSLLAETTL LWEPTLEAEA LAAQKLSLNV
Length:430
Mass (Da):47,411
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i664029BC06572295
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
S69727 mRNA. Translation: AAB20558.1.
AB015045 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA88761.1.
AB013393 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB09304.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED93993.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED93994.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED93995.1.
AF428319 mRNA. Translation: AAL16249.1.
AF428461 mRNA. Translation: AAL16230.1.
AY081252 mRNA. Translation: AAL91141.1.
AY091114 mRNA. Translation: AAM14064.1.
AY122977 mRNA. Translation: AAM67510.1.
AY088222 mRNA. Translation: AAM65763.1.
PIRiS18600.
RefSeqiNP_001031969.1. NM_001036892.1.
NP_001078639.1. NM_001085170.1.
NP_198413.1. NM_122954.3.
UniGeneiAt.24218.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G35630.1; AT5G35630.1; AT5G35630.
AT5G35630.2; AT5G35630.2; AT5G35630.
AT5G35630.3; AT5G35630.3; AT5G35630.
GeneIDi833535.
KEGGiath:AT5G35630.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
S69727 mRNA. Translation: AAB20558.1.
AB015045 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA88761.1.
AB013393 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB09304.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED93993.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED93994.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED93995.1.
AF428319 mRNA. Translation: AAL16249.1.
AF428461 mRNA. Translation: AAL16230.1.
AY081252 mRNA. Translation: AAL91141.1.
AY091114 mRNA. Translation: AAM14064.1.
AY122977 mRNA. Translation: AAM67510.1.
AY088222 mRNA. Translation: AAM65763.1.
PIRiS18600.
RefSeqiNP_001031969.1. NM_001036892.1.
NP_001078639.1. NM_001085170.1.
NP_198413.1. NM_122954.3.
UniGeneiAt.24218.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ43127.
SMRiQ43127. Positions 65-413.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi18788. 6 interactions.
DIPiDIP-32735N.
IntActiQ43127. 2 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT5G35630.1.

2D gel databases

SWISS-2DPAGEQ43127.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ43127.
PRIDEiQ43127.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G35630.1; AT5G35630.1; AT5G35630.
AT5G35630.2; AT5G35630.2; AT5G35630.
AT5G35630.3; AT5G35630.3; AT5G35630.
GeneIDi833535.
KEGGiath:AT5G35630.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G35630.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG0174.
HOGENOMiHOG000061500.
InParanoidiQ43127.
KOiK01915.
OMAiIMIETIC.
PhylomeDBiQ43127.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT5G35630-MONOMER.
ARA:GQT-2612-MONOMER.
ARA:GQT-2613-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT5G35630-MONOMER.
BRENDAi6.3.1.2. 399.
ReactomeiREACT_276185. Amino acid synthesis and interconversion (transamination).
REACT_282855. Astrocytic Glutamate-Glutamine Uptake And Metabolism.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiQ43127.

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ43127. baseline and differential.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.590.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR008147. Gln_synt_beta.
IPR014746. Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom.
IPR008146. Gln_synth_cat_dom.
IPR027303. Gln_synth_gly_rich_site.
IPR027302. Gln_synth_N_conserv_site.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00120. Gln-synt_C. 1 hit.
PF03951. Gln-synt_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54368. SSF54368. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00180. GLNA_1. 1 hit.
PS00181. GLNA_ATP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "The glutamine synthetase gene family of Arabidopsis thaliana: light-regulation and differential expression in leaves, roots and seeds."
    Peterman T.K., Goodman H.M.
    Mol. Gen. Genet. 230:145-154(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  2. "Nucleotide sequences of genes for cytosolic and chloroplastic glutamine synthetase from Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Arimura G., Fujii M., Takahashi M., Goshima N., Morikawa H.
    Submitted (MAY-1998) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  3. "Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. VI. Sequence features of the regions of 1,367,185 bp covered by 19 physically assigned P1 and TAC clones."
    Kotani H., Nakamura Y., Sato S., Asamizu E., Kaneko T., Miyajima N., Tabata S.
    DNA Res. 5:203-216(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  6. "Full-length cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Brover V.V., Troukhan M.E., Alexandrov N.A., Lu Y.-P., Flavell R.B., Feldmann K.A.
    Submitted (MAR-2002) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
  7. "Carbon and amino acids reciprocally modulate the expression of glutamine synthetase in Arabidopsis."
    Oliveira I.C., Coruzzi G.M.
    Plant Physiol. 121:301-310(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INDUCTION.
  8. "Arabidopsis thaliana GLN2-encoded glutamine synthetase is dual targeted to leaf mitochondria and chloroplasts."
    Taira M., Valtersson U., Burkhardt B., Ludwig R.A.
    Plant Cell 16:2048-2058(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  9. "Large-scale Arabidopsis phosphoproteome profiling reveals novel chloroplast kinase substrates and phosphorylation networks."
    Reiland S., Messerli G., Baerenfaller K., Gerrits B., Endler A., Grossmann J., Gruissem W., Baginsky S.
    Plant Physiol. 150:889-903(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-106, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGLNA2_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q43127
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 1, 2000
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: June 24, 2015
This is version 124 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.