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Protein

Hexokinase-1

Gene

HXK1

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Fructose and glucose phosphorylating enzyme. May be involved in the phosphorylation of glucose during the export from mitochondrion to cytosol. Acts as sugar sensor which may regulate sugar-dependent gene repression or activation. Mediates the effects of sugar on plant growth and development independently of its catalytic activity or the sugar metabolism. May regulate the execution of program cell death in plant cells.3 Publications

Catalytic activityi

ATP + D-hexose = ADP + D-hexose 6-phosphate.

Kineticsi

Measured in yeast lacking glucose and hexose kinase activity.

  1. KM=44 µM for glucose1 Publication
  2. KM=17 mM for fructose1 Publication

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Nucleotide bindingi101 – 106ATPSequence analysis6

    GO - Molecular functioni

    • ATP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
    • fructokinase activity Source: TAIR
    • glucokinase activity Source: TAIR
    • glucose binding Source: InterPro
    • hexokinase activity Source: TAIR
    • mannokinase activity Source: GO_Central
    • zinc ion binding Source: TAIR

    GO - Biological processi

    • glucose mediated signaling pathway Source: TAIR
    • glycolytic process Source: GO_Central
    • hexose catabolic process Source: TAIR
    • programmed cell death Source: TAIR
    • stomatal closure Source: TAIR
    • sugar mediated signaling pathway Source: TAIR
    • transpiration Source: TAIR
    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Kinase, Transferase

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Glycolysis

    Keywords - Ligandi

    ATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciARA:AT4G29130-MONOMER.
    MetaCyc:AT4G29130-MONOMER.
    BRENDAi2.7.1.1. 399.
    ReactomeiR-ATH-170822. Regulation of Glucokinase by Glucokinase Regulatory Protein.
    R-ATH-6798695. Neutrophil degranulation.
    R-ATH-70153. Glucose transport.
    R-ATH-70171. Glycolysis.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Hexokinase-1 (EC:2.7.1.1)
    Alternative name(s):
    Protein GLUCOSE INSENSITIVE 2
    Gene namesi
    Name:HXK1
    Synonyms:GIN2
    Ordered Locus Names:At4g29130
    ORF Names:F19B15.160
    OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
    Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
    Proteomesi
    • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 4

    Organism-specific databases

    TAIRiAT4G29130.

    Subcellular locationi

    Topology

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Transmembranei4 – 24HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21

    GO - Cellular componenti

    • cytosol Source: GO_Central
    • integral component of membrane Source: UniProtKB-KW
    • membrane Source: TAIR
    • mitochondrial outer membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
    • mitochondrion Source: TAIR
    • nucleus Source: TAIR
    • plastid Source: TAIR
    • vacuolar membrane Source: TAIR
    • vacuole Source: TAIR
    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Membrane, Mitochondrion, Mitochondrion outer membrane, Nucleus

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Disruption phenotypei

    Plants display a glucose-insensitive phenotype which allows them to grow on high glucose concentration medium (>6% glucose).1 Publication

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Mutagenesisi104G → A: Abolishes glucose phosphorylation activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi177S → D: Abolishes glucose phosphorylation activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi416G → A in gin2-2; insensitive to glucose. 1 Publication1

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    ChainiPRO_00001976121 – 496Hexokinase-1Add BLAST496

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiQ42525.
    PRIDEiQ42525.

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiQ42525.
    SwissPalmiQ42525.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Highly expressed in flowers and siliques, at intermediate levels in roots and stems, and at lower levels in rosette and cauline leaves.1 Publication

    Gene expression databases

    ExpressionAtlasiQ42525. baseline and differential.
    GenevisibleiQ42525. AT.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Interacts with RPT5B in nucleus.1 Publication

    Binary interactionsi

    WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
    ACT2Q962922EBI-1644489,EBI-1644538
    VDAC1Q9SRH52EBI-1644489,EBI-1644501

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi14321. 12 interactors.
    IntActiQ42525. 3 interactors.
    MINTiMINT-8066140.
    STRINGi3702.AT4G29130.1.

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1496
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Helixi34 – 48Combined sources15
    Helixi52 – 71Combined sources20
    Beta strandi75 – 78Combined sources4
    Beta strandi94 – 115Combined sources22
    Turni117 – 119Combined sources3
    Beta strandi121 – 130Combined sources10
    Turni133 – 136Combined sources4
    Helixi140 – 155Combined sources16
    Helixi160 – 162Combined sources3
    Beta strandi170 – 176Combined sources7
    Beta strandi178 – 184Combined sources7
    Beta strandi187 – 190Combined sources4
    Helixi200 – 202Combined sources3
    Helixi207 – 216Combined sources10
    Turni217 – 219Combined sources3
    Beta strandi222 – 228Combined sources7
    Helixi230 – 241Combined sources12
    Beta strandi245 – 262Combined sources18
    Helixi263 – 265Combined sources3
    Beta strandi277 – 282Combined sources6
    Helixi285 – 287Combined sources3
    Helixi297 – 304Combined sources8
    Beta strandi306 – 308Combined sources3
    Helixi315 – 318Combined sources4
    Helixi320 – 338Combined sources19
    Beta strandi342 – 344Combined sources3
    Helixi347 – 350Combined sources4
    Helixi357 – 364Combined sources8
    Helixi369 – 371Combined sources3
    Helixi372 – 382Combined sources11
    Helixi389 – 420Combined sources32
    Beta strandi434 – 440Combined sources7
    Helixi441 – 444Combined sources4
    Helixi447 – 466Combined sources20
    Beta strandi469 – 473Combined sources5
    Turni477 – 479Combined sources3
    Helixi480 – 488Combined sources9

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    4QS7X-ray2.00A30-496[»]
    4QS8X-ray1.80A30-496[»]
    4QS9X-ray2.10A30-496[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliQ42525.
    SMRiQ42525.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Domaini35 – 487HexokinasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST453

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Regioni90 – 228Hexokinase small subdomainPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST139
    Regioni171 – 197Glucose-bindingSequence analysisAdd BLAST27
    Regioni229 – 476Hexokinase large subdomainPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST248

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the hexokinase family.PROSITE-ProRule annotationCurated
    Contains 1 hexokinase domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

    Keywords - Domaini

    Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG1369. Eukaryota.
    COG5026. LUCA.
    HOGENOMiHOG000162670.
    InParanoidiQ42525.
    KOiK00844.
    OMAiHRMRCSG.
    OrthoDBiEOG093608SG.
    PhylomeDBiQ42525.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiIPR001312. Hexokinase.
    IPR019807. Hexokinase_BS.
    IPR022673. Hexokinase_C.
    IPR022672. Hexokinase_N.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00349. Hexokinase_1. 1 hit.
    PF03727. Hexokinase_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PROSITEiPS00378. HEXOKINASE_1. 1 hit.
    PS51748. HEXOKINASE_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Q42525-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MGKVAVGATV VCTAAVCAVA VLVVRRRMQS SGKWGRVLAI LKAFEEDCAT
    60 70 80 90 100
    PISKLRQVAD AMTVEMHAGL ASDGGSKLKM LISYVDNLPS GDEKGLFYAL
    110 120 130 140 150
    DLGGTNFRVM RVLLGGKQER VVKQEFEEVS IPPHLMTGGS DELFNFIAEA
    160 170 180 190 200
    LAKFVATECE DFHLPEGRQR ELGFTFSFPV KQTSLSSGSL IKWTKGFSIE
    210 220 230 240 250
    EAVGQDVVGA LNKALERVGL DMRIAALVND TVGTLAGGRY YNPDVVAAVI
    260 270 280 290 300
    LGTGTNAAYV ERATAIPKWH GLLPKSGEMV INMEWGNFRS SHLPLTEFDH
    310 320 330 340 350
    TLDFESLNPG EQILEKIISG MYLGEILRRV LLKMAEDAAF FGDTVPSKLR
    360 370 380 390 400
    IPFIIRTPHM SAMHNDTSPD LKIVGSKIKD ILEVPTTSLK MRKVVISLCN
    410 420 430 440 450
    IIATRGARLS AAGIYGILKK LGRDTTKDEE VQKSVIAMDG GLFEHYTQFS
    460 470 480 490
    ECMESSLKEL LGDEASGSVE VTHSNDGSGI GAALLAASHS LYLEDS
    Length:496
    Mass (Da):53,707
    Last modified:December 1, 2000 - v2
    Checksum:i6DC81CE114E0B52B
    GO

    Sequence cautioni

    The sequence AAA60333 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation.Curated

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U18754 mRNA. Translation: AAA60333.1. Different initiation.
    U28214 mRNA. Translation: AAB49908.1.
    AL078470 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB43927.1.
    AL161574 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB79671.1.
    CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE85590.1.
    AY075658 mRNA. Translation: AAL77665.1.
    AY124809 mRNA. Translation: AAM70518.1.
    PIRiS71205.
    RefSeqiNP_194642.1. NM_119057.4.
    UniGeneiAt.24726.
    At.70249.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsiAT4G29130.1; AT4G29130.1; AT4G29130.
    GeneIDi829034.
    GrameneiAT4G29130.1; AT4G29130.1; AT4G29130.
    KEGGiath:AT4G29130.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U18754 mRNA. Translation: AAA60333.1. Different initiation.
    U28214 mRNA. Translation: AAB49908.1.
    AL078470 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB43927.1.
    AL161574 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB79671.1.
    CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE85590.1.
    AY075658 mRNA. Translation: AAL77665.1.
    AY124809 mRNA. Translation: AAM70518.1.
    PIRiS71205.
    RefSeqiNP_194642.1. NM_119057.4.
    UniGeneiAt.24726.
    At.70249.

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    4QS7X-ray2.00A30-496[»]
    4QS8X-ray1.80A30-496[»]
    4QS9X-ray2.10A30-496[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliQ42525.
    SMRiQ42525.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi14321. 12 interactors.
    IntActiQ42525. 3 interactors.
    MINTiMINT-8066140.
    STRINGi3702.AT4G29130.1.

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiQ42525.
    SwissPalmiQ42525.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiQ42525.
    PRIDEiQ42525.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsiAT4G29130.1; AT4G29130.1; AT4G29130.
    GeneIDi829034.
    GrameneiAT4G29130.1; AT4G29130.1; AT4G29130.
    KEGGiath:AT4G29130.

    Organism-specific databases

    TAIRiAT4G29130.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG1369. Eukaryota.
    COG5026. LUCA.
    HOGENOMiHOG000162670.
    InParanoidiQ42525.
    KOiK00844.
    OMAiHRMRCSG.
    OrthoDBiEOG093608SG.
    PhylomeDBiQ42525.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciARA:AT4G29130-MONOMER.
    MetaCyc:AT4G29130-MONOMER.
    BRENDAi2.7.1.1. 399.
    ReactomeiR-ATH-170822. Regulation of Glucokinase by Glucokinase Regulatory Protein.
    R-ATH-6798695. Neutrophil degranulation.
    R-ATH-70153. Glucose transport.
    R-ATH-70171. Glycolysis.

    Miscellaneous databases

    PROiQ42525.

    Gene expression databases

    ExpressionAtlasiQ42525. baseline and differential.
    GenevisibleiQ42525. AT.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiIPR001312. Hexokinase.
    IPR019807. Hexokinase_BS.
    IPR022673. Hexokinase_C.
    IPR022672. Hexokinase_N.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00349. Hexokinase_1. 1 hit.
    PF03727. Hexokinase_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PROSITEiPS00378. HEXOKINASE_1. 1 hit.
    PS51748. HEXOKINASE_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    ProtoNetiSearch...

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiHXK1_ARATH
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q42525
    Secondary accession number(s): Q42535
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
    Last sequence update: December 1, 2000
    Last modified: November 30, 2016
    This is version 138 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Arabidopsis thaliana
      Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
    2. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.