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Protein

Ubiquinol oxidase 1a, mitochondrial

Gene

AOX1A

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the cyanide-resistant oxidation of ubiquinol and the reduction of molecular oxygen to water, but does not translocate protons and consequently is not linked to oxidative phosphorylation. Increases respiration when the cytochrome respiratory pathway is restricted, or in response to low temperatures.3 Publications

Catalytic activityi

2 ubiquinol + O2 = 2 ubiquinone + 2 H2O.1 Publication

Cofactori

Fe cation3 PublicationsNote: Binds 2 iron ions per subunit.3 Publications

Enzyme regulationi

When the two monomeric subunits are covalently linked by a S-S bond, the enzyme is essentially inactive. When the disulfide bond is reduced, its component sulfhydryls can associate with K-keto acids through formation of a thiohemiacetal, resulting in enzyme activation. Activated by glyoxylate, irrespective to the substitution found at Cys-127. That suggests the presence of a second activation site, possibly Cys-177.2 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Metal bindingi183IronSequence analysis1
Metal bindingi222IronSequence analysis1
Metal bindingi225IronSequence analysis1
Metal bindingi274IronSequence analysis1
Metal bindingi324IronSequence analysis1
Metal bindingi327IronSequence analysis1

GO - Molecular functioni

  • alternative oxidase activity Source: TAIR
  • metal ion binding Source: UniProtKB-KW

GO - Biological processi

  • cellular respiration Source: TAIR
  • mitochondria-nucleus signaling pathway Source: TAIR
  • response to cold Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Oxidoreductase

Keywords - Biological processi

Electron transport, Respiratory chain, Transport

Keywords - Ligandi

Iron, Metal-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:AT3G22370-MONOMER.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Ubiquinol oxidase 1a, mitochondrial (EC:1.10.3.11)
Alternative name(s):
Alternative oxidase 1a
Gene namesi
Name:AOX1A
Synonyms:AOX1, HSR3
Ordered Locus Names:At3g22370
ORF Names:MCB17.11
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 3

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT3G22370.

Subcellular locationi

  • Mitochondrion inner membrane 1 Publication; Multi-pass membrane protein 1 Publication

  • Note: Mitochondrial, possibly in the inner surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Transmembranei179 – 199HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Transmembranei241 – 261HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Membrane, Mitochondrion, Mitochondrion inner membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

No visible phenotype under normal growth conditions. Decreased operating efficiency of photosystem II and an enhanced activity of cyclic electron transport around photosystem I. Altered photosynthetic carbon metabolism when grown under high CO2 concentrations.4 Publications

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi127C → A, L or Q: Loss of activity and stimulation by pyruvate. 3 Publications1
Mutagenesisi127C → E, D, R or K: Active enzyme insensitive to stimulation by pyruvate. 3 Publications1
Mutagenesisi127C → S: Loss of oxidative inactivation and stimulation by pyruvate, but can be activated by succinate. 3 Publications1
Mutagenesisi177C → A: No effect on stimulation by pyruvate. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi264F → L: Increased resistance to a substrate-analog inhibitor. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi268M → I or V: Increased resistance to a substrate-analog inhibitor. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi352G → E: Increased resistance to a substrate-analog inhibitor. 1 Publication1

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Transit peptidei1 – 62MitochondrionSequence analysisAdd BLAST62
ChainiPRO_000000173163 – 354Ubiquinol oxidase 1a, mitochondrialAdd BLAST292

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Disulfide bondi127Interchain1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ39219.

PTM databases

SwissPalmiQ39219.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in roots, stems, cotyledons, leaves and flowers. High expression in sepals.3 Publications

Developmental stagei

Expressed throughout development. Low expression during 48 hours after imbibition and then increases.2 Publications

Inductioni

Up-regulated by antimycin A, low-nitrogen and salt stresses, high light, H2O2, ethylene, paraquat, rotenone, salicylic acid, malonate,erythromycin and cold treatments.10 Publications

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiQ39219. AT.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer; disulfide-linked.1 Publication

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi7138. 1 interactor.
IntActiQ39219. 1 interactor.
STRINGi3702.AT3G22370.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ39219.
SMRiQ39219.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the alternative oxidase family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Transit peptide, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IIJ8. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YFEH. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000178442.
InParanoidiQ39219.
KOiK17893.
OMAiFASDIHC.
OrthoDBiEOG09360H6Q.
PhylomeDBiQ39219.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR002680. AOX.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01786. AOX. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF005229. AOX. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q39219-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MMITRGGAKA AKSLLVAAGP RLFSTVRTVS SHEALSASHI LKPGVTSAWI
60 70 80 90 100
WTRAPTIGGM RFASTITLGE KTPMKEEDAN QKKTENESTG GDAAGGNNKG
110 120 130 140 150
DKGIASYWGV EPNKITKEDG SEWKWNCFRP WETYKADITI DLKKHHVPTT
160 170 180 190 200
FLDRIAYWTV KSLRWPTDLF FQRRYGCRAM MLETVAAVPG MVGGMLLHCK
210 220 230 240 250
SLRRFEQSGG WIKALLEEAE NERMHLMTFM EVAKPKWYER ALVITVQGVF
260 270 280 290 300
FNAYFLGYLI SPKFAHRMVG YLEEEAIHSY TEFLKELDKG NIENVPAPAI
310 320 330 340 350
AIDYWRLPAD ATLRDVVMVV RADEAHHRDV NHFASDIHYQ GRELKEAPAP

IGYH
Length:354
Mass (Da):39,980
Last modified:December 15, 1998 - v2
Checksum:i6DA19881E8BC9382
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence CAA10364 differs from that shown. Reason: Frameshift at position 6.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti37A → R in CAA10364 (PubMed:10518009).Curated1
Sequence conflicti50 – 51IW → MD in AAA32870 (PubMed:1438286).Curated2

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
D89875 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA22625.1.
AJ131392 mRNA. Translation: CAA10364.1. Frameshift.
AB022215 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB01775.1.
CP002686 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE76627.1.
AF370166 mRNA. Translation: AAK43981.1.
AY059128 mRNA. Translation: AAL15234.1.
M96417 mRNA. Translation: AAA32870.1.
U85244 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB49302.1.
PIRiA46364.
T51615.
RefSeqiNP_188876.1. NM_113135.4.
UniGeneiAt.23475.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT3G22370.1; AT3G22370.1; AT3G22370.
GeneIDi821806.
GrameneiAT3G22370.1; AT3G22370.1; AT3G22370.
KEGGiath:AT3G22370.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
D89875 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA22625.1.
AJ131392 mRNA. Translation: CAA10364.1. Frameshift.
AB022215 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB01775.1.
CP002686 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE76627.1.
AF370166 mRNA. Translation: AAK43981.1.
AY059128 mRNA. Translation: AAL15234.1.
M96417 mRNA. Translation: AAA32870.1.
U85244 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB49302.1.
PIRiA46364.
T51615.
RefSeqiNP_188876.1. NM_113135.4.
UniGeneiAt.23475.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ39219.
SMRiQ39219.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi7138. 1 interactor.
IntActiQ39219. 1 interactor.
STRINGi3702.AT3G22370.1.

PTM databases

SwissPalmiQ39219.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ39219.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT3G22370.1; AT3G22370.1; AT3G22370.
GeneIDi821806.
GrameneiAT3G22370.1; AT3G22370.1; AT3G22370.
KEGGiath:AT3G22370.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT3G22370.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IIJ8. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YFEH. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000178442.
InParanoidiQ39219.
KOiK17893.
OMAiFASDIHC.
OrthoDBiEOG09360H6Q.
PhylomeDBiQ39219.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:AT3G22370-MONOMER.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiQ39219.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiQ39219. AT.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR002680. AOX.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01786. AOX. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF005229. AOX. 1 hit.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAOX1A_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q39219
Secondary accession number(s): O23914, P93734, Q9ZRT8
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 15, 1998
Last sequence update: December 15, 1998
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 133 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Cys-127 is involved in the sulfhydryl/disulfide regulation system, but is not required for subunit dimerization. Presence of a positive charge at this residue 127 confers activity while an uncharged substitution creates an inactive enzyme (PubMed:9804851, PubMed:12034477).2 Publications

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.