Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Protein

Zinc finger protein CONSTANS

Gene

CO

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Putative transcription factor that acts in the long day flowering pathway and may mediate between the circadian clock and the control of flowering. Plays a role in the regulation of flowering time by acting on 'SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1', 'TERMINAL FLOWER 1' and 'FLOWERING LOCUS T'. Also regulates P5CS2 and ACS10 (involved in proline and ethylene biosynthesis, respectively).2 Publications

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Zinc fingeri15 – 5743B box-type 1; atypicalPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Zinc fingeri58 – 10851B box-type 2; atypicalPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

GO - Molecular functioni

  • DNA binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding Source: TAIR
  • zinc ion binding Source: InterPro

GO - Biological processi

  • cell differentiation Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • far-red light signaling pathway Source: TAIR
  • flower development Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • regulation of flower development Source: TAIR
  • response to far red light Source: TAIR
  • transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Developmental protein

Keywords - Biological processi

Differentiation, Flowering, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Keywords - Ligandi

DNA-binding, Metal-binding, Zinc

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Zinc finger protein CONSTANS1 Publication
Gene namesi
Name:CO1 Publication
Ordered Locus Names:At5g15840Imported
ORF Names:F14F8_220Imported
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G15840.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • nucleus Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi59 – 591R → H in co-2; late-flowering under long day condition.
Mutagenesisi96 – 983Missing in co-1; late-flowering under long day condition.
Mutagenesisi214 – 2152VP → AA in COmVP1-3; no effect on binding to SPA1; when associated with 265-A-A-266 and 370-A-A-371. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi265 – 2662VP → AA in COmVP1-3; no effect on binding to SPA1; when associated with 214-A-A-215 and 370-A-A-371. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi370 – 3712VP → AA in COmVP1-3; no effect on binding to SPA1; when associated with 214-A-A-215 and 265-A-A-266. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 373373Zinc finger protein CONSTANSPRO_0000113277Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ39057.
PRIDEiQ39057.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in leaves, shoots and shoot apical meristem. Detected in the vascular tissue of the hypocotyl, the cotyledons and the leaves. Restricted to the protoxylem and phloem in young inflorescence stems and to the phloem only in older inflorescences. Also detected in the vascular tissue of the root.1 Publication

Inductioni

Expressed with a circadian rhythm showing a broad peak between 12 hours and dawn. Higher expression under long days.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiQ39057. AT.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with ADO3, SPA1, SPA2, SPA3 and SPA4 (PubMed:16854975, PubMed:22628657). Interacts with MRG1 and MRG2 (via MRG domain) (PubMed:25211338). Interacts (via B-box) with MIP1A (PubMed:27015278).4 Publications

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
COP1P432548EBI-1639724,EBI-301649
GAIQ9LQT84EBI-1639724,EBI-963606
NFYB1Q9SLG06EBI-1639724,EBI-2126009
NFYC1Q9SMP06EBI-1639724,EBI-2125944
RGAQ9SLH33EBI-1639724,EBI-963624
TGA4Q391623EBI-1639724,EBI-541600

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi16717. 36 interactions.
IntActiQ39057. 24 interactions.
MINTiMINT-6608985.
STRINGi3702.AT5G15840.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ39057.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini306 – 34843CCTPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi162 – 1687Poly-Asn

Domaini

The CCT domain is essential for the interaction with SPA1.

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the CONSTANS family.Curated
Contains 2 B box-type zinc fingers.PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Contains 1 CCT domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Zinc finger

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Zinc fingeri15 – 5743B box-type 1; atypicalPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST
Zinc fingeri58 – 10851B box-type 2; atypicalPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, Zinc-finger

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1601. Eukaryota.
COG5641. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000238833.
InParanoidiQ39057.
KOiK12135.
OMAiRVCESCE.
PhylomeDBiQ39057.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR010402. CCT_domain.
IPR000315. Znf_B-box.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF06203. CCT. 1 hit.
PF00643. zf-B_box. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00336. BBOX. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS51017. CCT. 1 hit.
PS50119. ZF_BBOX. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q39057-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MLKQESNDIG SGENNRARPC DTCRSNACTV YCHADSAYLC MSCDAQVHSA
60 70 80 90 100
NRVASRHKRV RVCESCERAP AAFLCEADDA SLCTACDSEV HSANPLARRH
110 120 130 140 150
QRVPILPISG NSFSSMTTTH HQSEKTMTDP EKRLVVDQEE GEEGDKDAKE
160 170 180 190 200
VASWLFPNSD KNNNNQNNGL LFSDEYLNLV DYNSSMDYKF TGEYSQHQQN
210 220 230 240 250
CSVPQTSYGG DRVVPLKLEE SRGHQCHNQQ NFQFNIKYGS SGTHYNDNGS
260 270 280 290 300
INHNAYISSM ETGVVPESTA CVTTASHPRT PKGTVEQQPD PASQMITVTQ
310 320 330 340 350
LSPMDREARV LRYREKRKTR KFEKTIRYAS RKAYAEIRPR VNGRFAKREI
360 370
EAEEQGFNTM LMYNTGYGIV PSF
Length:373
Mass (Da):41,986
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i56C84CF9CD45E4A6
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q39057-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     255-274: AYISSMETGVVPESTACVTT → VRLLYICYPFNLASSHNAAG
     275-373: Missing.

Note: Derived from EST data. No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:274
Mass (Da):30,601
Checksum:i347844887A79CA94
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei255 – 27420AYISS…ACVTT → VRLLYICYPFNLASSHNAAG in isoform 2. CuratedVSP_036312Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei275 – 37399Missing in isoform 2. CuratedVSP_036313Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X94937 mRNA. Translation: CAA64407.1.
AL391144 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAC01783.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED92213.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED92214.1.
BT001926 mRNA. Translation: AAN71925.1.
AY086574 mRNA. Translation: AAM63636.1.
PIRiA56133.
RefSeqiNP_001031887.1. NM_001036810.1. [Q39057-2]
NP_197088.1. NM_121589.1. [Q39057-1]
UniGeneiAt.18.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G15840.1; AT5G15840.1; AT5G15840. [Q39057-1]
GeneIDi831441.
KEGGiath:AT5G15840.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X94937 mRNA. Translation: CAA64407.1.
AL391144 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAC01783.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED92213.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED92214.1.
BT001926 mRNA. Translation: AAN71925.1.
AY086574 mRNA. Translation: AAM63636.1.
PIRiA56133.
RefSeqiNP_001031887.1. NM_001036810.1. [Q39057-2]
NP_197088.1. NM_121589.1. [Q39057-1]
UniGeneiAt.18.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ39057.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi16717. 36 interactions.
IntActiQ39057. 24 interactions.
MINTiMINT-6608985.
STRINGi3702.AT5G15840.1.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ39057.
PRIDEiQ39057.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G15840.1; AT5G15840.1; AT5G15840. [Q39057-1]
GeneIDi831441.
KEGGiath:AT5G15840.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G15840.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1601. Eukaryota.
COG5641. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000238833.
InParanoidiQ39057.
KOiK12135.
OMAiRVCESCE.
PhylomeDBiQ39057.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiQ39057.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiQ39057. AT.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR010402. CCT_domain.
IPR000315. Znf_B-box.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF06203. CCT. 1 hit.
PF00643. zf-B_box. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00336. BBOX. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS51017. CCT. 1 hit.
PS50119. ZF_BBOX. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "The CONSTANS gene of Arabidopsis promotes flowering and encodes a protein showing similarities to zinc finger transcription factors."
    Putterill J.J., Robson F., Lee K., Simon R., Coupland G.
    Cell 80:847-857(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), MUTANTS CO-1 AND CO-2.
    Strain: cv. Landsberg erecta.
  2. "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 5 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Tabata S., Kaneko T., Nakamura Y., Kotani H., Kato T., Asamizu E., Miyajima N., Sasamoto S., Kimura T., Hosouchi T., Kawashima K., Kohara M., Matsumoto M., Matsuno A., Muraki A., Nakayama S., Nakazaki N., Naruo K.
    , Okumura S., Shinpo S., Takeuchi C., Wada T., Watanabe A., Yamada M., Yasuda M., Sato S., de la Bastide M., Huang E., Spiegel L., Gnoj L., O'Shaughnessy A., Preston R., Habermann K., Murray J., Johnson D., Rohlfing T., Nelson J., Stoneking T., Pepin K., Spieth J., Sekhon M., Armstrong J., Becker M., Belter E., Cordum H., Cordes M., Courtney L., Courtney W., Dante M., Du H., Edwards J., Fryman J., Haakensen B., Lamar E., Latreille P., Leonard S., Meyer R., Mulvaney E., Ozersky P., Riley A., Strowmatt C., Wagner-McPherson C., Wollam A., Yoakum M., Bell M., Dedhia N., Parnell L., Shah R., Rodriguez M., Hoon See L., Vil D., Baker J., Kirchoff K., Toth K., King L., Bahret A., Miller B., Marra M.A., Martienssen R., McCombie W.R., Wilson R.K., Murphy G., Bancroft I., Volckaert G., Wambutt R., Duesterhoeft A., Stiekema W., Pohl T., Entian K.-D., Terryn N., Hartley N., Bent E., Johnson S., Langham S.-A., McCullagh B., Robben J., Grymonprez B., Zimmermann W., Ramsperger U., Wedler H., Balke K., Wedler E., Peters S., van Staveren M., Dirkse W., Mooijman P., Klein Lankhorst R., Weitzenegger T., Bothe G., Rose M., Hauf J., Berneiser S., Hempel S., Feldpausch M., Lamberth S., Villarroel R., Gielen J., Ardiles W., Bents O., Lemcke K., Kolesov G., Mayer K.F.X., Rudd S., Schoof H., Schueller C., Zaccaria P., Mewes H.-W., Bevan M., Fransz P.F.
    Nature 408:823-826(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  3. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "Full-length cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Brover V.V., Troukhan M.E., Alexandrov N.A., Lu Y.-P., Flavell R.B., Feldmann K.A.
    Submitted (MAR-2002) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
  6. "Distinct roles of CONSTANS target genes in reproductive development of Arabidopsis."
    Samach A., Onouchi H., Gold S.E., Ditta G.S., Schwarz-Sommer Z., Yanofsky M.F., Coupland G.
    Science 288:1613-1616(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  7. "CONSTANS mediates between the circadian clock and the control of flowering in Arabidopsis."
    Suarez-Lopez P., Wheatley K., Robson F., Onouchi H., Valverde F., Coupland G.
    Nature 410:1116-1120(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  8. "The evolution of CONSTANS-like gene families in barley, rice, and Arabidopsis."
    Griffiths S., Dunford R.P., Coupland G., Laurie D.A.
    Plant Physiol. 131:1855-1867(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: GENE FAMILY, NOMENCLATURE.
  9. "CONSTANS acts in the phloem to regulate a systemic signal that induces photoperiodic flowering of Arabidopsis."
    An H., Roussot C., Suarez-Lopez P., Corbesier L., Vincent C., Pineiro M., Hepworth S., Mouradov A., Justin S., Turnbull C., Coupland G.
    Development 131:3615-3626(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  10. "Arabidopsis SPA proteins regulate photoperiodic flowering and interact with the floral inducer CONSTANS to regulate its stability."
    Laubinger S., Marchal V., Le Gourrierec J., Wenkel S., Adrian J., Jang S., Kulajta C., Braun H., Coupland G., Hoecker U.
    Development 133:3213-3222(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH SPA1; SPA2; SPA3 AND SPA4, MUTAGENESIS OF 214-VAL-PRO-215; 265-VAL-PRO-266 AND 370-VAL-PRO-371.
  11. "FKF1 conveys timing information for CONSTANS stabilization in photoperiodic flowering."
    Song Y.H., Smith R.W., To B.J., Millar A.J., Imaizumi T.
    Science 336:1045-1049(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH ADO3.
  12. "Regulation of arabidopsis flowering by the histone mark readers MRG1/2 via interaction with CONSTANS to modulate FT expression."
    Bu Z., Yu Y., Li Z., Liu Y., Jiang W., Huang Y., Dong A.W.
    PLoS Genet. 10:E1004617-E1004617(2014) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH MRG1 AND MRG2.
  13. "Microprotein-mediated recruitment of CONSTANS into a TOPLESS trimeric complex represses flowering in Arabidopsis."
    Graeff M., Straub D., Eguen T., Dolde U., Rodrigues V., Brandt R., Wenkel S.
    PLoS Genet. 12:E1005959-E1005959(2016) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH MIP1A, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCONS_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q39057
Secondary accession number(s): Q2V373
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 5, 2001
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 132 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

The GIGANTEA-CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T (GI-CO-FT) pathway to control photoperiodic flowering under LD is conserved between Arabidopsis and rice, but the regulation of the downstream gene by the upstream regulatory gene is reversed in the two species. In Arabidopsis, GI acts as an activator of CO, which in turn activates the floral activator FT under LD conditions. In rice, GI activates HD1/CO in a similar manner to that in Arabidopsis. However, under LD conditions, HD1 suppresses HD3A/FT expression, causing the suppression of flowering.

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.