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Protein

Zinc finger protein CONSTANS

Gene

CO

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Transcription factor that acts in the long day flowering pathway and may mediate between the circadian clock and the control of flowering. Plays a role in the regulation of flowering time by acting on 'SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1', 'TERMINAL FLOWER 1' and 'FLOWERING LOCUS T'. Also regulates P5CS2 and ACS10 (involved in proline and ethylene biosynthesis, respectively). Regulates the expression of NAKR1 by binding to the 5'-TGTG(N2-3)ATG-3' motif (PubMed:27255839).4 Publications

Miscellaneous

The GIGANTEA-CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T (GI-CO-FT) pathway to control photoperiodic flowering under LD is conserved between Arabidopsis and rice, but the regulation of the downstream gene by the upstream regulatory gene is reversed in the two species. In Arabidopsis, GI acts as an activator of CO, which in turn activates the floral activator FT under LD conditions. In rice, GI activates HD1/CO in a similar manner to that in Arabidopsis. However, under LD conditions, HD1 suppresses HD3A/FT expression, causing the suppression of flowering.

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Zinc fingeri15 – 57B box-type 1; atypicalPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST43
Zinc fingeri58 – 108B box-type 2; atypicalPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST51

GO - Molecular functioni

  • DNA binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding Source: TAIR
  • zinc ion binding Source: InterPro

GO - Biological processi

  • cell differentiation Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • far-red light signaling pathway Source: TAIR
  • flower development Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • regulation of flower development Source: TAIR
  • response to far red light Source: TAIR
  • transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDevelopmental protein, DNA-binding
Biological processDifferentiation, Flowering, Transcription, Transcription regulation
LigandMetal-binding, Zinc

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Zinc finger protein CONSTANS1 Publication
Gene namesi
Name:CO1 Publication
Ordered Locus Names:At5g15840Imported
ORF Names:F14F8_220Imported
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT5G15840.
TAIRilocus:2143206. AT5G15840.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • nucleus Source: TAIR

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi59R → H in co-2; late-flowering under long day condition. 1
Mutagenesisi96 – 98Missing in co-1; late-flowering under long day condition. 3
Mutagenesisi214 – 215VP → AA in COmVP1-3; no effect on binding to SPA1; when associated with 265-A-A-266 and 370-A-A-371. 1 Publication2
Mutagenesisi265 – 266VP → AA in COmVP1-3; no effect on binding to SPA1; when associated with 214-A-A-215 and 370-A-A-371. 1 Publication2
Mutagenesisi370 – 371VP → AA in COmVP1-3; no effect on binding to SPA1; when associated with 214-A-A-215 and 265-A-A-266. 1 Publication2

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00001132771 – 373Zinc finger protein CONSTANSAdd BLAST373

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ39057.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in leaves, shoots and shoot apical meristem. Detected in the vascular tissue of the hypocotyl, the cotyledons and the leaves. Restricted to the protoxylem and phloem in young inflorescence stems and to the phloem only in older inflorescences. Also detected in the vascular tissue of the root.1 Publication

Inductioni

Expressed with a circadian rhythm showing a broad peak between 12 hours and dawn. Higher expression under long days.

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ39057. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiQ39057. AT.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with ADO3, SPA1, SPA2, SPA3 and SPA4 (PubMed:16854975, PubMed:22628657). Interacts with MRG1 and MRG2 (via MRG domain) (PubMed:25211338). Interacts (via B-box) with MIP1A (PubMed:27015278). Interacts with AS1 to form a functional complex regulating FT expression (PubMed:21950734). Interacts with NFYC9 (PubMed:25105952).6 Publications

Binary interactionsi

Show more details

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi16717. 38 interactors.
IntActiQ39057. 24 interactors.
MINTiMINT-6608985.
STRINGi3702.AT5G15840.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ39057.
SMRiQ39057.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini306 – 348CCTPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST43

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi162 – 168Poly-Asn7

Domaini

The CCT domain is essential for the interaction with SPA1.

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the CONSTANS family.Curated

Zinc finger

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Zinc fingeri15 – 57B box-type 1; atypicalPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST43
Zinc fingeri58 – 108B box-type 2; atypicalPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST51

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, Zinc-finger

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1601. Eukaryota.
COG5641. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000238833.
InParanoidiQ39057.
KOiK12135.
OMAiYRMQEQH.
OrthoDBiEOG09360K69.
PhylomeDBiQ39057.

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR010402. CCT_domain.
IPR000315. Znf_B-box.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF06203. CCT. 1 hit.
PF00643. zf-B_box. 1 hit.
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00336. BBOX. 2 hits.
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS51017. CCT. 1 hit.
PS50119. ZF_BBOX. 2 hits.

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q39057-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MLKQESNDIG SGENNRARPC DTCRSNACTV YCHADSAYLC MSCDAQVHSA
60 70 80 90 100
NRVASRHKRV RVCESCERAP AAFLCEADDA SLCTACDSEV HSANPLARRH
110 120 130 140 150
QRVPILPISG NSFSSMTTTH HQSEKTMTDP EKRLVVDQEE GEEGDKDAKE
160 170 180 190 200
VASWLFPNSD KNNNNQNNGL LFSDEYLNLV DYNSSMDYKF TGEYSQHQQN
210 220 230 240 250
CSVPQTSYGG DRVVPLKLEE SRGHQCHNQQ NFQFNIKYGS SGTHYNDNGS
260 270 280 290 300
INHNAYISSM ETGVVPESTA CVTTASHPRT PKGTVEQQPD PASQMITVTQ
310 320 330 340 350
LSPMDREARV LRYREKRKTR KFEKTIRYAS RKAYAEIRPR VNGRFAKREI
360 370
EAEEQGFNTM LMYNTGYGIV PSF
Length:373
Mass (Da):41,986
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:i56C84CF9CD45E4A6
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q39057-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     255-274: AYISSMETGVVPESTACVTT → VRLLYICYPFNLASSHNAAG
     275-373: Missing.

Note: Derived from EST data. No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:274
Mass (Da):30,601
Checksum:i347844887A79CA94
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_036312255 – 274AYISS…ACVTT → VRLLYICYPFNLASSHNAAG in isoform 2. CuratedAdd BLAST20
Alternative sequenceiVSP_036313275 – 373Missing in isoform 2. CuratedAdd BLAST99

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X94937 mRNA. Translation: CAA64407.1.
AL391144 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAC01783.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED92213.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED92214.1.
BT001926 mRNA. Translation: AAN71925.1.
AY086574 mRNA. Translation: AAM63636.1.
PIRiA56133.
RefSeqiNP_001031887.1. NM_001036810.2. [Q39057-2]
NP_197088.1. NM_121589.2. [Q39057-1]
UniGeneiAt.18.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G15840.1; AT5G15840.1; AT5G15840. [Q39057-1]
AT5G15840.2; AT5G15840.2; AT5G15840. [Q39057-2]
GeneIDi831441.
GrameneiAT5G15840.1; AT5G15840.1; AT5G15840.
AT5G15840.2; AT5G15840.2; AT5G15840.
KEGGiath:AT5G15840.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCONS_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q39057
Secondary accession number(s): Q2V373
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 5, 2001
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: August 30, 2017
This is version 143 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families