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Q38914 (ANT_ARATH) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified February 19, 2014. Version 98. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (2) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
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Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor ANT
Alternative name(s):
Complementing a protein kinase C mutant protein 1
Protein AINTEGUMENTA
Protein DRAGON
Protein OVULE MUTANT
Gene names
Name:ANT
Synonyms:CKC1, DRG, OVM
Ordered Locus Names:At4g37750
ORF Names:T28I19.30
OrganismArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis

Protein attributes

Sequence length555 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Transcription activator that recognizes and binds to the DNA consensus sequence 5'-CAC[AG]N[AT]TNCCNANG-3'. Required for the initiation and growth of ovules integumenta, and for the development of female gametophyte. Plays a critical role in the development of gynoecium marginal tissues (e.g. stigma, style and septa), and in the fusion of carpels and of medial ridges leading to ovule primordia. Also involved in organs initiation and development, including floral organs. Maintains the meristematic competence of cells and consequently sustains expression of cell cycle regulators during organogenesis, thus controlling the final size of each organ by controlling their cell number. Regulates INO autoinduction and expression pattern. As ANT promotes petal cell identity and mediates down-regulation of AG in flower whorl 2, it functions as a class A homeotic gene. Ref.1 Ref.2 Ref.3 Ref.8 Ref.9 Ref.10 Ref.12 Ref.15 Ref.16 Ref.17 Ref.18 Ref.19

Subcellular location

Nucleus Probable.

Tissue specificity

Mostly expressed in developing flowers. Also present in mature flowers, siliques and seedlings, but not in mature roots, leaves and stems. Expressed in ovules and in vegetative and floral primordia. Ref.1 Ref.2 Ref.20

Developmental stage

Expressed in floral primordia, in STM-negative region, then in sepal primordia. As sepal develops, progressively confined to a basal core before disappearing. Present in stamen primordia, then confined to a central region as they become stalked and develop locules. Later reduced to procambial cells as stamen mature. From petal primordia, expressed on the lateral edges of developing petals and finally confined to petal epidermis before disappearing. Present in carpel primordia, then in inner side of carpels especially in the placenta. Strong levels in ovules primordia and young ovules, then localized in integuments initiation zone before being confined to inner integument cells that will differentiate into the endothelium. Expressed in the distal half of the funiculus throughout ovule development and later extends into the chalaza. After fertilization, expression shift to the embryo. First on the apical part at the globular stage, then in cotyledons primordia, and later in cotyledons during the torpedo stage. As cotyledons grow out, expression becomes limited to a plane separating adaxial and abaxial parts. Excluded from the embryonic central region (ECR). In seedlings, found in leaf primordia then in central and lateral actively developing regions of extending leaves. Ref.2 Ref.11 Ref.13

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the AP2/ERF transcription factor family. AP2 subfamily.

Contains 2 AP2/ERF DNA-binding domains.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 555555AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor ANT
PRO_0000112524

Regions

DNA binding283 – 34967AP2/ERF 1 Ref.14
DNA binding385 – 44359AP2/ERF 2 Ref.14
Compositional bias41 – 5313Ser-rich
Compositional bias217 – 23115Gln-rich

Experimental info

Mutagenesis281 – 35777Missing: Loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis2851R → G: Reduced activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis2871V → A: Loss of activation of transcription; when associated with D-303. Ref.19
Mutagenesis2871V → D: Loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis2881T → A: Reduced activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis2901H → A: Reduced activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3011W → R: Reduced DNA-binding and loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3031N → D: Loss of activation of transcription; when associated with A-287. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3141G → R: Loss of activation of transcription; when associated with C-353. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3171V → D: No effect on DNA-binding but reduced activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3181Y → C: Reduced DNA-binding and loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3191L → P: Loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3191L → Q: Reduced DNA-binding and loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3221Y → F: Loss of activation of transcription; when associated with D-386. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3331D → E: Loss of activation of transcription; when associated with T-452. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3331D → G: Reduced DNA-binding and loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3371L → P: Reduced DNA-binding and loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3531Y → C: Loss of activation of transcription; when associated with R-314. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3581E → G: Loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3711H → P: Loss of activation of transcription; when associated with A-389. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3791F → S: Loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3801S → P: Reduced DNA-binding and reduced activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3821G → D in ant-2; female-sterile, loss of ovule integuments initiation, impaired female gametophyte development, abnormal floral organs, and loss of activation of transcription. Ref.1 Ref.19
Mutagenesis383 – 45169Missing: Loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3841S → P: Loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3861Y → D: Loss of activation of transcription; when associated with F-322. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3871R → G: Reduced DNA-binding and loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3891V → A: Loss of activation of transcription; when associated with P-371. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3891V → D: Reduced activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3921H → A: Reduced activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis3931H → A: Reduced activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis4121Y → C: Reduced activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis4131L → Q: Reduced activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis4221A → T in ant-8; abnormal floral organs and ovule development. Ref.12 Ref.19
Mutagenesis4231A → T: Reduced DNA-binding and loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis4271D → G: Reduced DNA-binding and loss of activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis4311I → S: Reduced DNA-binding and reduced activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis452 – 555104Missing: No effect on activation of transcription. Ref.19
Mutagenesis4521I → T: Loss of activation of transcription; when associated with E-333. Ref.19
Sequence conflict451S → C in AAA86281. Ref.3

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Q38914 [UniParc].

Last modified November 22, 2005. Version 2.
Checksum: BD275D2F082B519B

FASTA55561,725
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MKSFCDNDDN NHSNTTNLLG FSLSSNMMKM GGRGGREAIY SSSTSSAATS SSSVPPQLVV 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
GDNTSNFGVC YGSNPNGGIY SHMSVMPLRS DGSLCLMEAL NRSSHSNHHQ DSSPKVEDFF 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
GTHHNNTSHK EAMDLSLDSL FYNTTHEPNT TTNFQEFFSF PQTRNHEEET RNYGNDPSLT 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
HGGSFNVGVY GEFQQSLSLS MSPGSQSSCI TGSHHHQQNQ NQNHQSQNHQ QISEALVETS 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
VGFETTTMAA AKKKRGQEDV VVVGQKQIVH RKSIDTFGQR TSQYRGVTRH RWTGRYEAHL 

       310        320        330        340        350        360 
WDNSFKKEGH SRKGRQVYLG GYDMEEKAAR AYDLAALKYW GPSTHTNFSA ENYQKEIEDM 

       370        380        390        400        410        420 
KNMTRQEYVA HLRRKSSGFS RGASIYRGVT RHHQHGRWQA RIGRVAGNKD LYLGTFGTQE 

       430        440        450        460        470        480 
EAAEAYDVAA IKFRGTNAVT NFDITRYDVD RIMSSNTLLS GELARRNNNS IVVRNTEDQT 

       490        500        510        520        530        540 
ALNAVVEGGS NKEVSTPERL LSFPAIFALP QVNQKMFGSN MGGNMSPWTS NPNAELKTVA 

       550 
LTLPQMPVFA AWADS 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"The AINTEGUMENTA gene of Arabidopsis required for ovule and female gametophyte development is related to the floral homeotic gene APETALA2."
Klucher K.M., Chow H., Reiser L., Fischer R.L.
Plant Cell 8:137-153(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, MUTAGENESIS OF GLY-382.
Strain: cv. Landsberg erecta.
[2]"AINTEGUMENTA, an APETALA2-like gene of Arabidopsis with pleiotropic roles in ovule development and floral organ growth."
Elliott R.C., Betzner A.S., Huttner E., Oakes M.P., Tucker W.Q.J., Gerentes D., Perez P., Smyth D.R.
Plant Cell 8:155-168(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
Strain: cv. Landsberg erecta.
Tissue: Flower.
[3]"Complementation of a yeast delta pkc1 mutant by the Arabidopsis protein ANT."
Vergani P., Morandini P., Soave C.
FEBS Lett. 400:243-246(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION.
[4]"Methods for altering mass and fertility in plants."
Fischer R.L., Mizukami Y.
Patent number US6559357, 06-MAY-2003
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: cv. Wassilewskija.
[5]"Sequence and analysis of chromosome 4 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
Mayer K.F.X., Schueller C., Wambutt R., Murphy G., Volckaert G., Pohl T., Duesterhoeft A., Stiekema W., Entian K.-D., Terryn N., Harris B., Ansorge W., Brandt P., Grivell L.A., Rieger M., Weichselgartner M., de Simone V., Obermaier B. expand/collapse author list , Mache R., Mueller M., Kreis M., Delseny M., Puigdomenech P., Watson M., Schmidtheini T., Reichert B., Portetelle D., Perez-Alonso M., Boutry M., Bancroft I., Vos P., Hoheisel J., Zimmermann W., Wedler H., Ridley P., Langham S.-A., McCullagh B., Bilham L., Robben J., van der Schueren J., Grymonprez B., Chuang Y.-J., Vandenbussche F., Braeken M., Weltjens I., Voet M., Bastiaens I., Aert R., Defoor E., Weitzenegger T., Bothe G., Ramsperger U., Hilbert H., Braun M., Holzer E., Brandt A., Peters S., van Staveren M., Dirkse W., Mooijman P., Klein Lankhorst R., Rose M., Hauf J., Koetter P., Berneiser S., Hempel S., Feldpausch M., Lamberth S., Van den Daele H., De Keyser A., Buysshaert C., Gielen J., Villarroel R., De Clercq R., van Montagu M., Rogers J., Cronin A., Quail M.A., Bray-Allen S., Clark L., Doggett J., Hall S., Kay M., Lennard N., McLay K., Mayes R., Pettett A., Rajandream M.A., Lyne M., Benes V., Rechmann S., Borkova D., Bloecker H., Scharfe M., Grimm M., Loehnert T.-H., Dose S., de Haan M., Maarse A.C., Schaefer M., Mueller-Auer S., Gabel C., Fuchs M., Fartmann B., Granderath K., Dauner D., Herzl A., Neumann S., Argiriou A., Vitale D., Liguori R., Piravandi E., Massenet O., Quigley F., Clabauld G., Muendlein A., Felber R., Schnabl S., Hiller R., Schmidt W., Lecharny A., Aubourg S., Chefdor F., Cooke R., Berger C., Monfort A., Casacuberta E., Gibbons T., Weber N., Vandenbol M., Bargues M., Terol J., Torres A., Perez-Perez A., Purnelle B., Bent E., Johnson S., Tacon D., Jesse T., Heijnen L., Schwarz S., Scholler P., Heber S., Francs P., Bielke C., Frishman D., Haase D., Lemcke K., Mewes H.-W., Stocker S., Zaccaria P., Bevan M., Wilson R.K., de la Bastide M., Habermann K., Parnell L., Dedhia N., Gnoj L., Schutz K., Huang E., Spiegel L., Sekhon M., Murray J., Sheet P., Cordes M., Abu-Threideh J., Stoneking T., Kalicki J., Graves T., Harmon G., Edwards J., Latreille P., Courtney L., Cloud J., Abbott A., Scott K., Johnson D., Minx P., Bentley D., Fulton B., Miller N., Greco T., Kemp K., Kramer J., Fulton L., Mardis E., Dante M., Pepin K., Hillier L.W., Nelson J., Spieth J., Ryan E., Andrews S., Geisel C., Layman D., Du H., Ali J., Berghoff A., Jones K., Drone K., Cotton M., Joshu C., Antonoiu B., Zidanic M., Strong C., Sun H., Lamar B., Yordan C., Ma P., Zhong J., Preston R., Vil D., Shekher M., Matero A., Shah R., Swaby I.K., O'Shaughnessy A., Rodriguez M., Hoffman J., Till S., Granat S., Shohdy N., Hasegawa A., Hameed A., Lodhi M., Johnson A., Chen E., Marra M.A., Martienssen R., McCombie W.R.
Nature 402:769-777(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[6]The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[7]"Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G. expand/collapse author list , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[8]"The ovule and the embryo sac."
Reiser L., Fischer R.L.
Plant Cell 5:1291-1301(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, REVIEW.
[9]"Dissection of sexual organ ontogenesis: a genetic analysis of ovule development in Arabidopsis thaliana."
Schneitz K., Huelskamp M., Kopczak S.D., Pruitt R.E.
Development 124:1367-1376(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[10]"Interactions among genes regulating ovule development in Arabidopsis thaliana."
Baker S.C., Robinson-Beers K., Villanueva J.M., Gaiser J.C., Gasser C.S.
Genetics 145:1109-1124(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[11]"The development of apical embryonic pattern in Arabidopsis."
Long J.A., Barton M.K.
Development 125:3027-3035(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
[12]"Ectopic expression of AINTEGUMENTA in Arabidopsis plants results in increased growth of floral organs."
Krizek B.A.
Dev. Genet. 25:224-236(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF ALA-422.
[13]"Initiation of axillary and floral meristems in Arabidopsis."
Long J., Barton M.K.
Dev. Biol. 218:341-353(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
[14]"DNA binding properties of the Arabidopsis floral development protein AINTEGUMENTA."
Nole-Wilson S., Krizek B.A.
Nucleic Acids Res. 28:4076-4082(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: DNA-BINDING.
[15]"AINTEGUMENTA promotes petal identity and acts as a negative regulator of AGAMOUS."
Krizek B.A., Prost V., Macias A.
Plant Cell 12:1357-1366(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[16]"Regulation of gynoecium marginal tissue formation by LEUNIG and AINTEGUMENTA."
Liu Z., Franks R.G., Klink V.P.
Plant Cell 12:1879-1891(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[17]"Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis."
Mizukami Y., Fischer R.L.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97:942-947(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[18]"NOZZLE links proximal-distal and adaxial-abaxial pattern formation during ovule development in Arabidopsis thaliana."
Balasubramanian S., Schneitz K.
Development 129:4291-4300(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[19]"AINTEGUMENTA utilizes a mode of DNA recognition distinct from that used by proteins containing a single AP2 domain."
Krizek B.A.
Nucleic Acids Res. 31:1859-1868(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF ARG-285; VAL-287; THR-288; HIS-290; TRP-301; ASN-303; GLY-314; VAL-317; TYR-318; LEU-319; TYR-322; ASP-333; LEU-337; TYR-353; GLU-358; HIS-371; PHE-379; SER-380; GLY-382; SER-384; TYR-386; ARG-387; VAL-389; HIS-392; HIS-393; TYR-412; LEU-413; ALA-422; ALA-423; ASP-427; ILE-431; ILE-452; 281-THR--ILE-357; 383-ALA--ARG-451 AND 452-ILE--SER-555.
[20]"AINTEGUMENTA-like (AIL) genes are expressed in young tissues and may specify meristematic or division-competent states."
Nole-Wilson S., Tranby T.L., Krizek B.A.
Plant Mol. Biol. 57:613-628(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[21]"Genome-wide analysis of the ERF gene family in Arabidopsis and rice."
Nakano T., Suzuki K., Fujimura T., Shinshi H.
Plant Physiol. 140:411-432(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: GENE FAMILY, NOMENCLATURE.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
U40256 mRNA. Translation: AAA91040.1.
U41339 mRNA. Translation: AAB17364.1.
U44028 mRNA. Translation: AAA86281.1.
AR316367 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AL035709 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB38923.1.
AL161592 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB80440.1.
CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE86834.1.
AY080706 mRNA. Translation: AAL85024.1.
AY117207 mRNA. Translation: AAM51282.1.
PIRS71365.
RefSeqNP_195489.1. NM_119937.2.
UniGeneAt.1556.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalQ38914.
SMRQ38914. Positions 283-351, 385-445.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Proteomic databases

PaxDbQ38914.
PRIDEQ38914.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsAT4G37750.1; AT4G37750.1; AT4G37750.
GeneID829931.
KEGGath:AT4G37750.

Organism-specific databases

GeneFarm5116.
TAIRAT4G37750.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG313785.
HOGENOMHOG000239258.
InParanoidQ38914.
KOK09285.
OMANTTHEPN.
PhylomeDBQ38914.
ProtClustDBCLSN2916050.

Gene expression databases

ArrayExpressQ38914.
GenevestigatorQ38914.

Family and domain databases

Gene3D3.30.730.10. 2 hits.
InterProIPR001471. AP2/ERF_dom.
IPR016177. DNA-bd_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF00847. AP2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSPR00367. ETHRSPELEMNT.
SMARTSM00380. AP2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMSSF54171. SSF54171. 2 hits.
PROSITEPS51032. AP2_ERF. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Entry information

Entry nameANT_ARATH
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q38914
Secondary accession number(s): Q42462
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 22, 2005
Last sequence update: November 22, 2005
Last modified: February 19, 2014
This is version 98 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

Arabidopsis thaliana

Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names