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Protein

Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 15

Gene

XTH15

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes xyloglucan endohydrolysis (XEH) and/or endotransglycosylation (XET). Cleaves and religates xyloglucan polymers, an essential constituent of the primary cell wall, and thereby participates in cell wall construction of growing tissues. Has a high XET activity, but little or no XEH activity in vitro. Acceptor preferences are XXXGol > XLLGol = XLFGol > XXLGol > XXFGol.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

Breaks a beta-(1->4) bond in the backbone of a xyloglucan and transfers the xyloglucanyl segment on to O-4 of the non-reducing terminal glucose residue of an acceptor, which can be a xyloglucan or an oligosaccharide of xyloglucan.1 Publication
Xyloglucan + H2O = xyloglucan oligosaccharides.1 Publication

Kineticsi

KM for xyloglucan as donor substrate is 2.87 mg/ml. KM is quoted in mg/ml, not µM, because XTHs are able to utilise any segment of the polysaccharide chain equally well, not just one site per molecule as with the acceptor.1 Publication

  1. KM=31 µM for XXXGol1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 6 for the XET activity.1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Active sitei102 – 1021NucleophilePROSITE-ProRule annotation
    Active sitei106 – 1061Proton donorPROSITE-ProRule annotation

    GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Glycosidase, Hydrolase, Transferase

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Cell wall biogenesis/degradation

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciARA:AT4G14130-MONOMER.

    Protein family/group databases

    CAZyiGH16. Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 151 Publication (EC:2.4.1.2071 Publication, EC:3.2.1.1511 Publication)
    Short name:
    At-XTH151 Publication
    Short name:
    XTH-151 Publication
    Gene namesi
    Name:XTH151 Publication
    Synonyms:XTR71 Publication
    Ordered Locus Names:At4g14130Imported
    ORF Names:dl3105cImported, FCAALL.173Imported
    OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
    Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
    ProteomesiUP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 4

    Organism-specific databases

    TAIRiAT4G14130.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Apoplast, Cell wall, Secreted

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Disruption phenotypei

    No visible growth defects, but increased aluminum resistance.1 Publication

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Signal peptidei1 – 2525Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Chaini26 – 289264Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 15PRO_0000011815Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Glycosylationi110 – 1101N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis

    Post-translational modificationi

    Contains at least one intrachain disulfide bond essential for its enzymatic activity.By similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiQ38911.
    PRIDEiQ38911.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Strongly expressed in roots, hypocotyls and cotyledons. Aslo detected in inflorescence stems and in the carpels and styles in flowers.1 Publication

    Inductioni

    Down-regulated by auxin (PubMed:11673616). Down-regulated by aluminum (PubMed:21285327).2 Publications

    Gene expression databases

    ExpressionAtlasiQ38911. baseline and differential.

    Interactioni

    Binary interactionsi

    WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
    At2g42580Q9SIN11EBI-2295048,EBI-2292882

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    IntActiQ38911. 1 interaction.
    STRINGi3702.AT4G14130.1.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliQ38911.
    SMRiQ38911. Positions 35-288.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Keywords - Domaini

    Signal

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG2273.
    HOGENOMiHOG000236368.
    InParanoidiQ38911.
    KOiK08235.
    OMAiAYASNFF.
    PhylomeDBiQ38911.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di2.60.120.200. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR013320. ConA-like_dom.
    IPR000757. Glyco_hydro_16.
    IPR008263. Glycoside_hydrolase_16_AS.
    IPR010713. XET_C.
    IPR016455. XTH.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00722. Glyco_hydro_16. 1 hit.
    PF06955. XET_C. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PIRSFiPIRSF005604. XET. 1 hit.
    SUPFAMiSSF49899. SSF49899. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS01034. GLYCOSYL_HYDROL_F16. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    Q38911-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MGPSSSLTTI VATVLLVTLF GSAYASNFFD EFDLTWGDHR GKIFNGGNML
    60 70 80 90 100
    SLSLDQVSGS GFKSKKEYLF GRIDMQLKLV AGNSAGTVTA YYLSSQGATH
    110 120 130 140 150
    DEIDFEFLGN ETGKPYVLHT NVFAQGKGDR EQQFYLWFDP TKNFHTYSIV
    160 170 180 190 200
    WRPQHIIFLV DNLPIRVFNN AEKLGVPFPK SQPMRIYSSL WNADDWATRG
    210 220 230 240 250
    GLVKTDWSKA PFTAYYRGFN AAACTASSGC DPKFKSSFGD GKLQVATELN
    260 270 280
    AYGRRRLRWV QKYFMIYNYC SDLKRFPRGF PPECKKSRV
    Length:289
    Mass (Da):32,687
    Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
    Checksum:i3222ECF640792EF9
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Sequence conflicti70 – 701F → V (PubMed:9461215).Curated
    Sequence conflicti70 – 701F → V (PubMed:10617198).Curated

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U43489 mRNA. Translation: AAB18368.1.
    Z97335 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB10192.1.
    AL161538 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB78455.1.
    CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE83378.1.
    AY045865 mRNA. Translation: AAK76539.1.
    BT020422 mRNA. Translation: AAW28549.1.
    AY087282 mRNA. Translation: AAM64835.1.
    PIRiF71402.
    RefSeqiNP_193149.2. NM_117490.3.
    UniGeneiAt.25124.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsiAT4G14130.1; AT4G14130.1; AT4G14130.
    GeneIDi827051.
    KEGGiath:AT4G14130.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U43489 mRNA. Translation: AAB18368.1.
    Z97335 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB10192.1.
    AL161538 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB78455.1.
    CP002687 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE83378.1.
    AY045865 mRNA. Translation: AAK76539.1.
    BT020422 mRNA. Translation: AAW28549.1.
    AY087282 mRNA. Translation: AAM64835.1.
    PIRiF71402.
    RefSeqiNP_193149.2. NM_117490.3.
    UniGeneiAt.25124.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliQ38911.
    SMRiQ38911. Positions 35-288.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    IntActiQ38911. 1 interaction.
    STRINGi3702.AT4G14130.1.

    Protein family/group databases

    CAZyiGH16. Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiQ38911.
    PRIDEiQ38911.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsiAT4G14130.1; AT4G14130.1; AT4G14130.
    GeneIDi827051.
    KEGGiath:AT4G14130.

    Organism-specific databases

    GeneFarmi2638. 265.
    TAIRiAT4G14130.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG2273.
    HOGENOMiHOG000236368.
    InParanoidiQ38911.
    KOiK08235.
    OMAiAYASNFF.
    PhylomeDBiQ38911.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciARA:AT4G14130-MONOMER.

    Miscellaneous databases

    PROiQ38911.

    Gene expression databases

    ExpressionAtlasiQ38911. baseline and differential.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di2.60.120.200. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR013320. ConA-like_dom.
    IPR000757. Glyco_hydro_16.
    IPR008263. Glycoside_hydrolase_16_AS.
    IPR010713. XET_C.
    IPR016455. XTH.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00722. Glyco_hydro_16. 1 hit.
    PF06955. XET_C. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PIRSFiPIRSF005604. XET. 1 hit.
    SUPFAMiSSF49899. SSF49899. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS01034. GLYCOSYL_HYDROL_F16. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    ProtoNetiSearch...

    Publicationsi

    « Hide 'large scale' publications
    1. "The Arabidopsis XET-related gene family: environmental and hormonal regulation of expression."
      Xu W., Campbell P., Vargheese A.K., Braam J.
      Plant J. 9:879-889(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    2. "Analysis of 1.9 Mb of contiguous sequence from chromosome 4 of Arabidopsis thaliana."
      Bevan M., Bancroft I., Bent E., Love K., Goodman H.M., Dean C., Bergkamp R., Dirkse W., van Staveren M., Stiekema W., Drost L., Ridley P., Hudson S.-A., Patel K., Murphy G., Piffanelli P., Wedler H., Wedler E.
      , Wambutt R., Weitzenegger T., Pohl T., Terryn N., Gielen J., Villarroel R., De Clercq R., van Montagu M., Lecharny A., Aubourg S., Gy I., Kreis M., Lao N., Kavanagh T., Hempel S., Kotter P., Entian K.-D., Rieger M., Schaefer M., Funk B., Mueller-Auer S., Silvey M., James R., Monfort A., Pons A., Puigdomenech P., Douka A., Voukelatou E., Milioni D., Hatzopoulos P., Piravandi E., Obermaier B., Hilbert H., Duesterhoeft A., Moores T., Jones J.D.G., Eneva T., Palme K., Benes V., Rechmann S., Ansorge W., Cooke R., Berger C., Delseny M., Voet M., Volckaert G., Mewes H.-W., Klosterman S., Schueller C., Chalwatzis N.
      Nature 391:485-488(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    3. "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 4 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
      Mayer K.F.X., Schueller C., Wambutt R., Murphy G., Volckaert G., Pohl T., Duesterhoeft A., Stiekema W., Entian K.-D., Terryn N., Harris B., Ansorge W., Brandt P., Grivell L.A., Rieger M., Weichselgartner M., de Simone V., Obermaier B.
      , Mache R., Mueller M., Kreis M., Delseny M., Puigdomenech P., Watson M., Schmidtheini T., Reichert B., Portetelle D., Perez-Alonso M., Boutry M., Bancroft I., Vos P., Hoheisel J., Zimmermann W., Wedler H., Ridley P., Langham S.-A., McCullagh B., Bilham L., Robben J., van der Schueren J., Grymonprez B., Chuang Y.-J., Vandenbussche F., Braeken M., Weltjens I., Voet M., Bastiaens I., Aert R., Defoor E., Weitzenegger T., Bothe G., Ramsperger U., Hilbert H., Braun M., Holzer E., Brandt A., Peters S., van Staveren M., Dirkse W., Mooijman P., Klein Lankhorst R., Rose M., Hauf J., Koetter P., Berneiser S., Hempel S., Feldpausch M., Lamberth S., Van den Daele H., De Keyser A., Buysshaert C., Gielen J., Villarroel R., De Clercq R., van Montagu M., Rogers J., Cronin A., Quail M.A., Bray-Allen S., Clark L., Doggett J., Hall S., Kay M., Lennard N., McLay K., Mayes R., Pettett A., Rajandream M.A., Lyne M., Benes V., Rechmann S., Borkova D., Bloecker H., Scharfe M., Grimm M., Loehnert T.-H., Dose S., de Haan M., Maarse A.C., Schaefer M., Mueller-Auer S., Gabel C., Fuchs M., Fartmann B., Granderath K., Dauner D., Herzl A., Neumann S., Argiriou A., Vitale D., Liguori R., Piravandi E., Massenet O., Quigley F., Clabauld G., Muendlein A., Felber R., Schnabl S., Hiller R., Schmidt W., Lecharny A., Aubourg S., Chefdor F., Cooke R., Berger C., Monfort A., Casacuberta E., Gibbons T., Weber N., Vandenbol M., Bargues M., Terol J., Torres A., Perez-Perez A., Purnelle B., Bent E., Johnson S., Tacon D., Jesse T., Heijnen L., Schwarz S., Scholler P., Heber S., Francs P., Bielke C., Frishman D., Haase D., Lemcke K., Mewes H.-W., Stocker S., Zaccaria P., Bevan M., Wilson R.K., de la Bastide M., Habermann K., Parnell L., Dedhia N., Gnoj L., Schutz K., Huang E., Spiegel L., Sekhon M., Murray J., Sheet P., Cordes M., Abu-Threideh J., Stoneking T., Kalicki J., Graves T., Harmon G., Edwards J., Latreille P., Courtney L., Cloud J., Abbott A., Scott K., Johnson D., Minx P., Bentley D., Fulton B., Miller N., Greco T., Kemp K., Kramer J., Fulton L., Mardis E., Dante M., Pepin K., Hillier L.W., Nelson J., Spieth J., Ryan E., Andrews S., Geisel C., Layman D., Du H., Ali J., Berghoff A., Jones K., Drone K., Cotton M., Joshu C., Antonoiu B., Zidanic M., Strong C., Sun H., Lamar B., Yordan C., Ma P., Zhong J., Preston R., Vil D., Shekher M., Matero A., Shah R., Swaby I.K., O'Shaughnessy A., Rodriguez M., Hoffman J., Till S., Granat S., Shohdy N., Hasegawa A., Hameed A., Lodhi M., Johnson A., Chen E., Marra M.A., Martienssen R., McCombie W.R.
      Nature 402:769-777(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    4. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
      Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    5. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
      Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
      , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
      Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    6. "Arabidopsis ORF clones."
      Shinn P., Chen H., Cheuk R., Kim C.J., Ecker J.R.
      Submitted (DEC-2004) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    7. "Full-length cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana."
      Brover V.V., Troukhan M.E., Alexandrov N.A., Lu Y.-P., Flavell R.B., Feldmann K.A.
      Submitted (MAR-2002) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    8. "A comprehensive expression analysis of all members of a gene family encoding cell-wall enzymes allowed us to predict cis-regulatory regions involved in cell-wall construction in specific organs of Arabidopsis."
      Yokoyama R., Nishitani K.
      Plant Cell Physiol. 42:1025-1033(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INDUCTION.
    9. "The XTH family of enzymes involved in xyloglucan endotransglucosylation and endohydrolysis: current perspectives and a new unifying nomenclature."
      Rose J.K.C., Braam J., Fry S.C., Nishitani K.
      Plant Cell Physiol. 43:1421-1435(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NOMENCLATURE.
    10. "Developmental expression patterns of Arabidopsis XTH genes reported by transgenes and Genevestigator."
      Becnel J., Natarajan M., Kipp A., Braam J.
      Plant Mol. Biol. 61:451-467(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    11. "Cell wall hemicellulose contributes significantly to aluminum adsorption and root growth in Arabidopsis."
      Yang J.L., Zhu X.F., Peng Y.X., Zheng C., Li G.X., Liu Y., Shi Y.Z., Zheng S.J.
      Plant Physiol. 155:1885-1892(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: INDUCTION BY ALUMINUM.
    12. "Coordination between apoplastic and symplastic detoxification confers plant aluminum resistance."
      Zhu X.F., Lei G.J., Wang Z.W., Shi Y.Z., Braam J., Li G.X., Zheng S.J.
      Plant Physiol. 162:1947-1955(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
    13. "Distinct catalytic capacities of two aluminium-repressed Arabidopsis thaliana xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases, XTH15 and XTH31, heterologously produced in Pichia."
      Shi Y.Z., Zhu X.F., Miller J.G., Gregson T., Zheng S.J., Fry S.C.
      Phytochemistry 112:160-169(2015) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiXTH15_ARATH
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q38911
    Secondary accession number(s): O23272, Q5M726
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 28, 2003
    Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
    Last modified: July 22, 2015
    This is version 121 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Arabidopsis thaliana
      Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
    2. Glycosyl hydrolases
      Classification of glycosyl hydrolase families and list of entries
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.