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Q38857 (XTH22_ARATH) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified February 19, 2014. Version 114. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (3) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 22

Short name=At-XTH22
Short name=XTH-22
EC=2.4.1.207
Alternative name(s):
Touch protein 4
Gene names
Name:XTH22
Synonyms:TCH4
Ordered Locus Names:At5g57560
ORF Names:MUA2.13
OrganismArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis

Protein attributes

Sequence length284 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Catalyzes xyloglucan endohydrolysis (XEH) and/or endotransglycosylation (XET). Cleaves and religates xyloglucan polymers, an essential constituent of the primary cell wall, and thereby participates in cell wall construction of growing tissues. Its induction in case of mechanical stress, suggests that it may contribute in the adaptive changes in morphogenesis by being recruited to alter tissues tensil strength, or flexibility, enabling adaptation to mechanically stressful environments. Ref.1

Catalytic activity

Breaks a beta-(1->4) bond in the backbone of a xyloglucan and transfers the xyloglucanyl segment on to O-4 of the non-reducing terminal glucose residue of an acceptor, which can be a xyloglucan or an oligosaccharide of xyloglucan. Ref.10

Subcellular location

Secretedcell wall Probable. Secretedextracellular spaceapoplast Probable.

Tissue specificity

Highly expressed. Predominantly expressed in green siliques. Expressed in young expanding leaves, trichomes, lateral root primordia, vascular tissue, abscission zones and elongating hypocols. Following wind stimulation, it decreases in the leaves of wind-stimulated plants, while it strongly increases in sites around cells of the pith parenchyma, between the vascular elements, and within the epidermis. Ref.1 Ref.8 Ref.11

Induction

In response to mechanical perturbations such as wind or touch. Induced by auxin and brassinolide. Ref.1 Ref.2 Ref.7 Ref.11

Post-translational modification

Contains at least one intrachain disulfide bond essential for its enzymatic activity.

N-glycosylated; essential for its enzymatic activity. Ref.9 Ref.10

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 16 family. XTH group 2 subfamily.

Biophysicochemical properties

pH dependence:

Optimum pH is 6.0-6.5.

Temperature dependence:

Optimum temperature from 12 to 18 degrees Celsius. Cold tolerant.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Signal peptide1 – 2121 Potential
Chain22 – 284263Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 22
PRO_0000011822

Sites

Active site971Nucleophile By similarity
Active site1011Proton donor By similarity

Amino acid modifications

Glycosylation1051N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential
Glycosylation2301N-linked (GlcNAc...) Potential

Experimental info

Mutagenesis971E → D: Induces mislocalization. Ref.9
Mutagenesis971E → Q: Loss of function. Ref.9

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Q38857 [UniParc].

Last modified November 1, 1996. Version 1.
Checksum: E5FCAA8C673530F7

FASTA28432,093
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MAITYLLPLF LSLIITSSVS ANFQRDVEIT WGDGRGQIKN NGELLTLSLD KSSGSGFQSK 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
NEYLFGKVSM QMKLVPGNSA GTVTTLYLKS PGTTWDEIDF EFLGNSSGEP YTLHTNVYTQ 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
GKGDKEQQFK LWFDPTANFH TYTILWNPQR IIFTVDGTPI REFKNMESLG TLFPKNKPMR 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
MYSSLWNADD WATRGGLVKT DWSKAPFTAS YRGFQQEACV WSNGKSSCPN ASKQGTTTGS 

       250        260        270        280 
WLSQELDSTA QQRMRWVQRN YMIYNYCTDA KRFPQGLPKE CLAA 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Arabidopsis TCH4, regulated by hormones and the environment, encodes a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase."
Xu W., Purugganan M.M., Polisensky D.H., Antosiewicz D.M., Fry S.C., Braam J.
Plant Cell 7:1555-1567(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION.
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[2]"The Arabidopsis XET-related gene family: environmental and hormonal regulation of expression."
Xu W., Campbell P., Vargheese A.K., Braam J.
Plant J. 9:879-889(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], INDUCTION.
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[3]"Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. V. Sequence features of the regions of 1,381,565 bp covered by twenty one physically assigned P1 and TAC clones."
Kaneko T., Kotani H., Nakamura Y., Sato S., Asamizu E., Miyajima N., Tabata S.
DNA Res. 5:131-145(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[4]The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[5]"Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G. expand/collapse author list , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[6]"Signal peptide selection derived cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and guard cells."
Stracke R., Palme K.
Submitted (AUG-1998) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] OF 1-121.
[7]"The Arabidopsis TCH4 xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Substrate specificity, pH optimum, and cold tolerance."
Purugganan M.M., Braam J., Fry S.C.
Plant Physiol. 115:181-190(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: ENZYME REGULATION.
[8]"Cellular localization of Arabidopsis xyloglucan endotransglycosylase-related proteins during development and after wind stimulation."
Antosiewicz D.M., Purugganan M.M., Polisensky D.H., Braam J.
Plant Physiol. 115:1319-1328(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[9]"Co- and/or post-translational modifications are critical for TCH4 XET activity."
Campbell P., Braam J.
Plant J. 15:553-561(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: GLYCOSYLATION, DISULFIDE BOND, MUTAGENESIS OF GLU-97.
[10]"In vitro activities of four xyloglucan endotransglycosylases from Arabidopsis."
Campbell P., Braam J.
Plant J. 18:371-382(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: ENZYME ACTIVITY, GLYCOSYLATION.
[11]"A comprehensive expression analysis of all members of a gene family encoding cell-wall enzymes allowed us to predict cis-regulatory regions involved in cell-wall construction in specific organs of Arabidopsis."
Yokoyama R., Nishitani K.
Plant Cell Physiol. 42:1025-1033(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION.
[12]"The XTH family of enzymes involved in xyloglucan endotransglucosylation and endohydrolysis: current perspectives and a new unifying nomenclature."
Rose J.K.C., Braam J., Fry S.C., Nishitani K.
Plant Cell Physiol. 43:1421-1435(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NOMENCLATURE.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
U27609 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA92363.1.
AF051338 mRNA. Translation: AAC05572.1.
AB011482 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB08791.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED96915.1.
AF367262 mRNA. Translation: AAK56251.1.
AF446881 mRNA. Translation: AAL38614.1.
AY052712 mRNA. Translation: AAK96616.1.
AY055102 mRNA. Translation: AAL05902.1.
AF083792 mRNA. Translation: AAN60350.1.
PIRT52097.
RefSeqNP_200564.1. NM_125137.3.
UniGeneAt.24429.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalQ38857.
SMRQ38857. Positions 19-281.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid21104. 1 interaction.
STRING3702.AT5G57560.1-P.

Protein family/group databases

CAZyGH16. Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbQ38857.
PRIDEQ38857.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsAT5G57560.1; AT5G57560.1; AT5G57560.
GeneID835860.
KEGGath:AT5G57560.

Organism-specific databases

GeneFarm2641. 265.
TAIRAT5G57560.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGCOG2273.
HOGENOMHOG000236368.
InParanoidQ38857.
KOK14504.
OMACPNASKQ.
PhylomeDBQ38857.
ProtClustDBCLSN2685867.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCycARA:AT5G57560-MONOMER.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatorQ38857.

Family and domain databases

Gene3D2.60.120.200. 1 hit.
InterProIPR008985. ConA-like_lec_gl_sf.
IPR013320. ConA-like_subgrp.
IPR000757. Glyco_hydro_16.
IPR008263. Glycoside_hydrolase_16_AS.
IPR016455. XET.
IPR010713. XET_C.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF00722. Glyco_hydro_16. 1 hit.
PF06955. XET_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFPIRSF005604. XET. 1 hit.
SUPFAMSSF49899. SSF49899. 1 hit.
PROSITEPS01034. GLYCOSYL_HYDROL_F16. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Entry information

Entry nameXTH22_ARATH
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q38857
Secondary accession number(s): Q8H783
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 28, 2003
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: February 19, 2014
This is version 114 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

Glycosyl hydrolases

Classification of glycosyl hydrolase families and list of entries

Arabidopsis thaliana

Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names