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Protein

Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 22

Gene

XTH22

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes xyloglucan endohydrolysis (XEH) and/or endotransglycosylation (XET). Cleaves and religates xyloglucan polymers, an essential constituent of the primary cell wall, and thereby participates in cell wall construction of growing tissues. Its induction in case of mechanical stress, suggests that it may contribute in the adaptive changes in morphogenesis by being recruited to alter tissues tensil strength, or flexibility, enabling adaptation to mechanically stressful environments.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

Breaks a beta-(1->4) bond in the backbone of a xyloglucan and transfers the xyloglucanyl segment on to O-4 of the non-reducing terminal glucose residue of an acceptor, which can be a xyloglucan or an oligosaccharide of xyloglucan.1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 6.0-6.5.

Temperature dependencei

Optimum temperature from 12 to 18 degrees Celsius. Cold tolerant.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Active sitei97 – 971NucleophilePROSITE-ProRule annotation
Active sitei101 – 1011Proton donorPROSITE-ProRule annotation

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds Source: InterPro
  2. xyloglucan:xyloglucosyl transferase activity Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  1. cellular glucan metabolic process Source: InterPro
  2. plant-type cell wall organization Source: TAIR
  3. response to auxin Source: TAIR
  4. response to brassinosteroid Source: TAIR
  5. response to cold Source: TAIR
  6. response to heat Source: TAIR
  7. response to mechanical stimulus Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Glycosidase, Hydrolase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Cell wall biogenesis/degradation

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT5G57560-MONOMER.

Protein family/group databases

CAZyiGH16. Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 22 (EC:2.4.1.207)
Short name:
At-XTH22
Short name:
XTH-22
Alternative name(s):
Touch protein 4
Gene namesi
Name:XTH22
Synonyms:TCH4
Ordered Locus Names:At5g57560
ORF Names:MUA2.13
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
ProteomesiUP000006548: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G57560.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. apoplast Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  2. cell wall Source: TAIR
  3. Golgi apparatus Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Apoplast, Cell wall, Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi97 – 971E → D: Induces mislocalization. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi97 – 971E → Q: Loss of function. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2121Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Chaini22 – 284263Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 22PRO_0000011822Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Glycosylationi105 – 1051N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Glycosylationi230 – 2301N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis

Post-translational modificationi

Contains at least one intrachain disulfide bond essential for its enzymatic activity.
N-glycosylated; essential for its enzymatic activity.2 Publications

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ38857.
PRIDEiQ38857.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Highly expressed. Predominantly expressed in green siliques. Expressed in young expanding leaves, trichomes, lateral root primordia, vascular tissue, abscission zones and elongating hypocols. Following wind stimulation, it decreases in the leaves of wind-stimulated plants, while it strongly increases in sites around cells of the pith parenchyma, between the vascular elements, and within the epidermis.3 Publications

Inductioni

In response to mechanical perturbations such as wind or touch. Induced by auxin and brassinolide.3 Publications

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriQ38857.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi21104. 3 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT5G57560.1-P.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ38857.
SMRiQ38857. Positions 19-281.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG2273.
HOGENOMiHOG000236368.
InParanoidiQ38857.
KOiK14504.
OMAiCPNASKQ.
PhylomeDBiQ38857.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.60.120.200. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR013320. ConA-like_dom.
IPR000757. Glyco_hydro_16.
IPR008263. Glycoside_hydrolase_16_AS.
IPR016455. XET.
IPR010713. XET_C.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00722. Glyco_hydro_16. 1 hit.
PF06955. XET_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF005604. XET. 1 hit.
SUPFAMiSSF49899. SSF49899. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS01034. GLYCOSYL_HYDROL_F16. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q38857-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAITYLLPLF LSLIITSSVS ANFQRDVEIT WGDGRGQIKN NGELLTLSLD
60 70 80 90 100
KSSGSGFQSK NEYLFGKVSM QMKLVPGNSA GTVTTLYLKS PGTTWDEIDF
110 120 130 140 150
EFLGNSSGEP YTLHTNVYTQ GKGDKEQQFK LWFDPTANFH TYTILWNPQR
160 170 180 190 200
IIFTVDGTPI REFKNMESLG TLFPKNKPMR MYSSLWNADD WATRGGLVKT
210 220 230 240 250
DWSKAPFTAS YRGFQQEACV WSNGKSSCPN ASKQGTTTGS WLSQELDSTA
260 270 280
QQRMRWVQRN YMIYNYCTDA KRFPQGLPKE CLAA
Length:284
Mass (Da):32,093
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:iE5FCAA8C673530F7
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U27609 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA92363.1.
AF051338 mRNA. Translation: AAC05572.1.
AB011482 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB08791.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED96915.1.
AF367262 mRNA. Translation: AAK56251.1.
AF446881 mRNA. Translation: AAL38614.1.
AY052712 mRNA. Translation: AAK96616.1.
AY055102 mRNA. Translation: AAL05902.1.
AF083792 mRNA. Translation: AAN60350.1.
PIRiT52097.
RefSeqiNP_200564.1. NM_125137.3.
UniGeneiAt.24429.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G57560.1; AT5G57560.1; AT5G57560.
GeneIDi835860.
KEGGiath:AT5G57560.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U27609 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA92363.1.
AF051338 mRNA. Translation: AAC05572.1.
AB011482 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB08791.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED96915.1.
AF367262 mRNA. Translation: AAK56251.1.
AF446881 mRNA. Translation: AAL38614.1.
AY052712 mRNA. Translation: AAK96616.1.
AY055102 mRNA. Translation: AAL05902.1.
AF083792 mRNA. Translation: AAN60350.1.
PIRiT52097.
RefSeqiNP_200564.1. NM_125137.3.
UniGeneiAt.24429.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ38857.
SMRiQ38857. Positions 19-281.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi21104. 3 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT5G57560.1-P.

Protein family/group databases

CAZyiGH16. Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ38857.
PRIDEiQ38857.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G57560.1; AT5G57560.1; AT5G57560.
GeneIDi835860.
KEGGiath:AT5G57560.

Organism-specific databases

GeneFarmi2641. 265.
TAIRiAT5G57560.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG2273.
HOGENOMiHOG000236368.
InParanoidiQ38857.
KOiK14504.
OMAiCPNASKQ.
PhylomeDBiQ38857.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT5G57560-MONOMER.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriQ38857.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.60.120.200. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR013320. ConA-like_dom.
IPR000757. Glyco_hydro_16.
IPR008263. Glycoside_hydrolase_16_AS.
IPR016455. XET.
IPR010713. XET_C.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00722. Glyco_hydro_16. 1 hit.
PF06955. XET_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF005604. XET. 1 hit.
SUPFAMiSSF49899. SSF49899. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS01034. GLYCOSYL_HYDROL_F16. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Arabidopsis TCH4, regulated by hormones and the environment, encodes a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase."
    Xu W., Purugganan M.M., Polisensky D.H., Antosiewicz D.M., Fry S.C., Braam J.
    Plant Cell 7:1555-1567(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  2. "The Arabidopsis XET-related gene family: environmental and hormonal regulation of expression."
    Xu W., Campbell P., Vargheese A.K., Braam J.
    Plant J. 9:879-889(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], INDUCTION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  3. "Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. V. Sequence features of the regions of 1,381,565 bp covered by twenty one physically assigned P1 and TAC clones."
    Kaneko T., Kotani H., Nakamura Y., Sato S., Asamizu E., Miyajima N., Tabata S.
    DNA Res. 5:131-145(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  6. "Signal peptide selection derived cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and guard cells."
    Stracke R., Palme K.
    Submitted (AUG-1998) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] OF 1-121.
  7. "The Arabidopsis TCH4 xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Substrate specificity, pH optimum, and cold tolerance."
    Purugganan M.M., Braam J., Fry S.C.
    Plant Physiol. 115:181-190(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: ENZYME REGULATION.
  8. "Cellular localization of Arabidopsis xyloglucan endotransglycosylase-related proteins during development and after wind stimulation."
    Antosiewicz D.M., Purugganan M.M., Polisensky D.H., Braam J.
    Plant Physiol. 115:1319-1328(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  9. "Co- and/or post-translational modifications are critical for TCH4 XET activity."
    Campbell P., Braam J.
    Plant J. 15:553-561(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: GLYCOSYLATION, DISULFIDE BOND, MUTAGENESIS OF GLU-97.
  10. "In vitro activities of four xyloglucan endotransglycosylases from Arabidopsis."
    Campbell P., Braam J.
    Plant J. 18:371-382(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: ENZYME ACTIVITY, GLYCOSYLATION.
  11. "A comprehensive expression analysis of all members of a gene family encoding cell-wall enzymes allowed us to predict cis-regulatory regions involved in cell-wall construction in specific organs of Arabidopsis."
    Yokoyama R., Nishitani K.
    Plant Cell Physiol. 42:1025-1033(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION.
  12. "The XTH family of enzymes involved in xyloglucan endotransglucosylation and endohydrolysis: current perspectives and a new unifying nomenclature."
    Rose J.K.C., Braam J., Fry S.C., Nishitani K.
    Plant Cell Physiol. 43:1421-1435(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NOMENCLATURE.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiXTH22_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q38857
Secondary accession number(s): Q8H783
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 28, 2003
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: January 7, 2015
This is version 119 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. Glycosyl hydrolases
    Classification of glycosyl hydrolase families and list of entries
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.