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Q38857

- XTH22_ARATH

UniProt

Q38857 - XTH22_ARATH

Protein

Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 22

Gene

XTH22

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 117 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 1 (01 Nov 1996)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    Catalyzes xyloglucan endohydrolysis (XEH) and/or endotransglycosylation (XET). Cleaves and religates xyloglucan polymers, an essential constituent of the primary cell wall, and thereby participates in cell wall construction of growing tissues. Its induction in case of mechanical stress, suggests that it may contribute in the adaptive changes in morphogenesis by being recruited to alter tissues tensil strength, or flexibility, enabling adaptation to mechanically stressful environments.1 Publication

    Catalytic activityi

    Breaks a beta-(1->4) bond in the backbone of a xyloglucan and transfers the xyloglucanyl segment on to O-4 of the non-reducing terminal glucose residue of an acceptor, which can be a xyloglucan or an oligosaccharide of xyloglucan.1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 6.0-6.5.

    Temperature dependencei

    Optimum temperature from 12 to 18 degrees Celsius. Cold tolerant.

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Active sitei97 – 971NucleophilePROSITE-ProRule annotation
    Active sitei101 – 1011Proton donorPROSITE-ProRule annotation

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds Source: InterPro
    2. xyloglucan:xyloglucosyl transferase activity Source: TAIR

    GO - Biological processi

    1. cellular glucan metabolic process Source: InterPro
    2. plant-type cell wall organization Source: TAIR
    3. response to auxin Source: TAIR
    4. response to brassinosteroid Source: TAIR
    5. response to cold Source: TAIR
    6. response to heat Source: TAIR
    7. response to mechanical stimulus Source: TAIR

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Glycosidase, Hydrolase, Transferase

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Cell wall biogenesis/degradation

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciARA:AT5G57560-MONOMER.

    Protein family/group databases

    CAZyiGH16. Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 22 (EC:2.4.1.207)
    Short name:
    At-XTH22
    Short name:
    XTH-22
    Alternative name(s):
    Touch protein 4
    Gene namesi
    Name:XTH22
    Synonyms:TCH4
    Ordered Locus Names:At5g57560
    ORF Names:MUA2.13
    OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
    Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
    ProteomesiUP000006548: Chromosome 5

    Organism-specific databases

    TAIRiAT5G57560.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. apoplast Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
    2. cell wall Source: TAIR
    3. Golgi apparatus Source: TAIR

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Apoplast, Cell wall, Secreted

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Mutagenesisi97 – 971E → D: Induces mislocalization. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi97 – 971E → Q: Loss of function. 1 Publication

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Signal peptidei1 – 2121Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Chaini22 – 284263Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein 22PRO_0000011822Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Glycosylationi105 – 1051N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi230 – 2301N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis

    Post-translational modificationi

    Contains at least one intrachain disulfide bond essential for its enzymatic activity.
    N-glycosylated; essential for its enzymatic activity.2 Publications

    Keywords - PTMi

    Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiQ38857.
    PRIDEiQ38857.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Highly expressed. Predominantly expressed in green siliques. Expressed in young expanding leaves, trichomes, lateral root primordia, vascular tissue, abscission zones and elongating hypocols. Following wind stimulation, it decreases in the leaves of wind-stimulated plants, while it strongly increases in sites around cells of the pith parenchyma, between the vascular elements, and within the epidermis.3 Publications

    Inductioni

    In response to mechanical perturbations such as wind or touch. Induced by auxin and brassinolide.3 Publications

    Gene expression databases

    GenevestigatoriQ38857.

    Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi21104. 3 interactions.
    STRINGi3702.AT5G57560.1-P.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliQ38857.
    SMRiQ38857. Positions 19-281.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Keywords - Domaini

    Signal

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG2273.
    HOGENOMiHOG000236368.
    InParanoidiQ38857.
    KOiK14504.
    OMAiCPNASKQ.
    PhylomeDBiQ38857.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di2.60.120.200. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR008985. ConA-like_lec_gl_sf.
    IPR013320. ConA-like_subgrp.
    IPR000757. Glyco_hydro_16.
    IPR008263. Glycoside_hydrolase_16_AS.
    IPR016455. XET.
    IPR010713. XET_C.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00722. Glyco_hydro_16. 1 hit.
    PF06955. XET_C. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PIRSFiPIRSF005604. XET. 1 hit.
    SUPFAMiSSF49899. SSF49899. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS01034. GLYCOSYL_HYDROL_F16. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    Q38857-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

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    MAITYLLPLF LSLIITSSVS ANFQRDVEIT WGDGRGQIKN NGELLTLSLD    50
    KSSGSGFQSK NEYLFGKVSM QMKLVPGNSA GTVTTLYLKS PGTTWDEIDF 100
    EFLGNSSGEP YTLHTNVYTQ GKGDKEQQFK LWFDPTANFH TYTILWNPQR 150
    IIFTVDGTPI REFKNMESLG TLFPKNKPMR MYSSLWNADD WATRGGLVKT 200
    DWSKAPFTAS YRGFQQEACV WSNGKSSCPN ASKQGTTTGS WLSQELDSTA 250
    QQRMRWVQRN YMIYNYCTDA KRFPQGLPKE CLAA 284
    Length:284
    Mass (Da):32,093
    Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
    Checksum:iE5FCAA8C673530F7
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    U27609 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA92363.1.
    AF051338 mRNA. Translation: AAC05572.1.
    AB011482 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB08791.1.
    CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED96915.1.
    AF367262 mRNA. Translation: AAK56251.1.
    AF446881 mRNA. Translation: AAL38614.1.
    AY052712 mRNA. Translation: AAK96616.1.
    AY055102 mRNA. Translation: AAL05902.1.
    AF083792 mRNA. Translation: AAN60350.1.
    PIRiT52097.
    RefSeqiNP_200564.1. NM_125137.3.
    UniGeneiAt.24429.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsiAT5G57560.1; AT5G57560.1; AT5G57560.
    GeneIDi835860.
    KEGGiath:AT5G57560.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    U27609 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA92363.1 .
    AF051338 mRNA. Translation: AAC05572.1 .
    AB011482 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB08791.1 .
    CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED96915.1 .
    AF367262 mRNA. Translation: AAK56251.1 .
    AF446881 mRNA. Translation: AAL38614.1 .
    AY052712 mRNA. Translation: AAK96616.1 .
    AY055102 mRNA. Translation: AAL05902.1 .
    AF083792 mRNA. Translation: AAN60350.1 .
    PIRi T52097.
    RefSeqi NP_200564.1. NM_125137.3.
    UniGenei At.24429.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali Q38857.
    SMRi Q38857. Positions 19-281.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 21104. 3 interactions.
    STRINGi 3702.AT5G57560.1-P.

    Protein family/group databases

    CAZyi GH16. Glycoside Hydrolase Family 16.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbi Q38857.
    PRIDEi Q38857.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsi AT5G57560.1 ; AT5G57560.1 ; AT5G57560 .
    GeneIDi 835860.
    KEGGi ath:AT5G57560.

    Organism-specific databases

    GeneFarmi 2641. 265.
    TAIRi AT5G57560.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi COG2273.
    HOGENOMi HOG000236368.
    InParanoidi Q38857.
    KOi K14504.
    OMAi CPNASKQ.
    PhylomeDBi Q38857.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyci ARA:AT5G57560-MONOMER.

    Gene expression databases

    Genevestigatori Q38857.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di 2.60.120.200. 1 hit.
    InterProi IPR008985. ConA-like_lec_gl_sf.
    IPR013320. ConA-like_subgrp.
    IPR000757. Glyco_hydro_16.
    IPR008263. Glycoside_hydrolase_16_AS.
    IPR016455. XET.
    IPR010713. XET_C.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF00722. Glyco_hydro_16. 1 hit.
    PF06955. XET_C. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    PIRSFi PIRSF005604. XET. 1 hit.
    SUPFAMi SSF49899. SSF49899. 1 hit.
    PROSITEi PS01034. GLYCOSYL_HYDROL_F16. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "Arabidopsis TCH4, regulated by hormones and the environment, encodes a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase."
      Xu W., Purugganan M.M., Polisensky D.H., Antosiewicz D.M., Fry S.C., Braam J.
      Plant Cell 7:1555-1567(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA], FUNCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION.
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    2. "The Arabidopsis XET-related gene family: environmental and hormonal regulation of expression."
      Xu W., Campbell P., Vargheese A.K., Braam J.
      Plant J. 9:879-889(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], INDUCTION.
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    3. "Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. V. Sequence features of the regions of 1,381,565 bp covered by twenty one physically assigned P1 and TAC clones."
      Kaneko T., Kotani H., Nakamura Y., Sato S., Asamizu E., Miyajima N., Tabata S.
      DNA Res. 5:131-145(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    4. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
      Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    5. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
      Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
      , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
      Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    6. "Signal peptide selection derived cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and guard cells."
      Stracke R., Palme K.
      Submitted (AUG-1998) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] OF 1-121.
    7. "The Arabidopsis TCH4 xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Substrate specificity, pH optimum, and cold tolerance."
      Purugganan M.M., Braam J., Fry S.C.
      Plant Physiol. 115:181-190(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: ENZYME REGULATION.
    8. "Cellular localization of Arabidopsis xyloglucan endotransglycosylase-related proteins during development and after wind stimulation."
      Antosiewicz D.M., Purugganan M.M., Polisensky D.H., Braam J.
      Plant Physiol. 115:1319-1328(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    9. "Co- and/or post-translational modifications are critical for TCH4 XET activity."
      Campbell P., Braam J.
      Plant J. 15:553-561(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: GLYCOSYLATION, DISULFIDE BOND, MUTAGENESIS OF GLU-97.
    10. "In vitro activities of four xyloglucan endotransglycosylases from Arabidopsis."
      Campbell P., Braam J.
      Plant J. 18:371-382(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: ENZYME ACTIVITY, GLYCOSYLATION.
    11. "A comprehensive expression analysis of all members of a gene family encoding cell-wall enzymes allowed us to predict cis-regulatory regions involved in cell-wall construction in specific organs of Arabidopsis."
      Yokoyama R., Nishitani K.
      Plant Cell Physiol. 42:1025-1033(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION.
    12. "The XTH family of enzymes involved in xyloglucan endotransglucosylation and endohydrolysis: current perspectives and a new unifying nomenclature."
      Rose J.K.C., Braam J., Fry S.C., Nishitani K.
      Plant Cell Physiol. 43:1421-1435(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NOMENCLATURE.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiXTH22_ARATH
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q38857
    Secondary accession number(s): Q8H783
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 28, 2003
    Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 117 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Arabidopsis thaliana
      Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
    2. Glycosyl hydrolases
      Classification of glycosyl hydrolase families and list of entries
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3