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Q38814 (THI4_ARATH) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified June 11, 2014. Version 110. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (3) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Alt products·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Thiamine thiazole synthase, chloroplastic
Alternative name(s):
Thiazole biosynthetic enzyme
Gene names
Name:THI1
Synonyms:ARA6, THI4
Ordered Locus Names:At5g54770
ORF Names:MBG8.3
OrganismArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis

Protein attributes

Sequence length349 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Involved in biosynthesis of the thiamine precursor thiazole. Catalyzes the conversion of NAD and glycine to adenosine diphosphate 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole-2-carboxylic acid (ADT), an adenylated thiazole intermediate. The reaction includes an iron-dependent sulfide transfer from a conserved cysteine residue of the protein to a thiazole intermediate. The enzyme can only undergo a single turnover, which suggests it is a suicide enzyme. May have additional roles in adaptation to various stress conditions and in DNA damage tolerance. Ref.1 Ref.9

Cofactor

Binds 1 iron ion per subunit By similarity. HAMAP-Rule MF_03158

Subunit structure

Homooctamer. Ref.18

Subcellular location

Plastidchloroplast. Mitochondrion Ref.6 Ref.7 Ref.8 Ref.11 Ref.12 Ref.13 Ref.14 Ref.15.

Tissue specificity

Expressed at high levels in chloroplast-containing parenchymatic cells of leaves, inflorescence shoots and flowers, and at lower levels in the vascular system. In young plants, detected in roots and shoots including cotyledons, leaves and hypocotyls. Also observed in apical meristematic regions, siliques and embryos. Low expression in roots, limited to the vascular tissue. Ref.5 Ref.9 Ref.10

Developmental stage

Expressed throughout develpoment. Ref.10

Induction

Up-regulated by osmotic and salt stresses and by abscisic acid treatment. No effect of thiamine, salicylic acid or paraquat treatments. Down-regulated by dark incubation. Ref.9 Ref.10 Ref.17

Post-translational modification

During the catalytic reaction, a sulfide is transferred from Cys-216 to a reaction intermediate, generating a dehydroalanine residue. HAMAP-Rule MF_03158

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the THI4 family.

Alternative products

This entry describes 2 isoforms produced by alternative initiation. [Align] [Select]
Isoform chloroplastic (identifier: Q38814-1)

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.
Isoform mitochondrial (identifier: Q38814-2)

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-69: Missing.
Note: Mitochondrial precursor. Contains a mitochondrial presequence-like structure at its N-terminus.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Transit peptide1 – 5555Chloroplast HAMAP-Rule MF_03158
Chain56 – 349294Thiamine thiazole synthase, chloroplastic HAMAP-Rule MF_03158
PRO_0000034060

Regions

Region114 – 1152Substrate binding HAMAP-Rule MF_03158
Region295 – 2973Substrate binding HAMAP-Rule MF_03158
Compositional bias86 – 894Poly-Val HAMAP-Rule MF_03158

Sites

Binding site941Substrate; via amide nitrogen
Binding site1221Substrate; via amide nitrogen
Binding site1871Substrate; via amide nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen
Binding site2181Substrate
Binding site2331Substrate
Binding site2851Substrate; via amide nitrogen

Amino acid modifications

Modified residue21612,3-didehydroalanine (Cys) HAMAP-Rule MF_03158

Natural variations

Alternative sequence1 – 6969Missing in isoform mitochondrial.
VSP_044533

Experimental info

Mutagenesis11M → I: No chloroplastic isoform produced. Ref.7
Mutagenesis701M → I: No mitochondrial isoform produced. Ref.7
Mutagenesis771D → G: No effect. Ref.18
Mutagenesis851D → G: No effect. Ref.18
Mutagenesis1211G → V: Disrupts thiamine biosynthesis. Ref.18
Mutagenesis1241W → L: No effect. Ref.18
Mutagenesis1721K → M: No effect. Ref.18
Mutagenesis1841A → V in tz-201; disrupts thiamine biosynthesis. Ref.9 Ref.18
Mutagenesis2111H → F: Disrupts thiamine biosynthesis and DNA damage tolerance activity. Ref.18
Mutagenesis2661E → G: Disrupts thiamine biosynthesis. Ref.18

Secondary structure

.................................................. 349
Helix Strand Turn

Details...

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Isoform chloroplastic [UniParc].

Last modified November 1, 1996. Version 1.
Checksum: F872AB061A23CB22

FASTA34936,664
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MAAIASTLSL SSTKPQRLFD SSFHGSAISA APISIGLKPR SFSVRATTAG YDLNAFTFDP 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
IKESIVSREM TRRYMTDMIT YAETDVVVVG AGSAGLSAAY EISKNPNVQV AIIEQSVSPG 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
GGAWLGGQLF SAMIVRKPAH LFLDEIGVAY DEQDTYVVVK HAALFTSTIM SKLLARPNVK 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
LFNAVAAEDL IVKGNRVGGV VTNWALVAQN HHTQSCMDPN VMEAKIVVSS CGHDGPFGAT 

       250        260        270        280        290        300 
GVKRLKSIGM IDHVPGMKAL DMNTAEDAIV RLTREVVPGM IVTGMEVAEI DGAPRMGPTF 

       310        320        330        340 
GAMMISGQKA GQLALKALGL PNAIDGTLVG NLSPELVLAA ADSAETVDA 

« Hide

Isoform mitochondrial [UniParc].

Checksum: F7CBEDD149301E40
Show »

FASTA28029,362

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Thi1, a thiamine biosynthetic gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, complements bacterial defects in DNA repair."
Machado C.R., de Oliveira R.L., Boiteux S., Praekelt U.M., Meacock P.A., Menck C.F.
Plant Mol. Biol. 31:585-593(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM CHLOROPLASTIC), FUNCTION.
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[2]"Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. I. Sequence features of the 1.6 Mb regions covered by twenty physically assigned P1 clones."
Sato S., Kotani H., Nakamura Y., Kaneko T., Asamizu E., Fukami M., Miyajima N., Tabata S.
DNA Res. 4:215-230(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[3]The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[4]"Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G. expand/collapse author list , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM CHLOROPLASTIC).
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[5]"Identification of agthi1, whose product is involved in biosynthesis of the thiamine precursor thiazole, in actinorhizal nodules of Alnus glutinosa."
Ribeiro A., Praekelt U., Akkermans A.D.L., Meacock P.A., van Kammen A., Bisseling T., Pawlowski K.
Plant J. 10:361-368(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[6]"Dual targeting properties of the N-terminal signal sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana THI1 protein to mitochondria and chloroplasts."
Chabregas S.M., Luche D.D., Farias L.P., Ribeiro A.F., van Sluys M.A., Menck C.F., Silva-Filho M.C.
Plant Mol. Biol. 46:639-650(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, ALTERNATIVE INITIATION.
[7]"Differential usage of two in-frame translational start codons regulates subcellular localization of Arabidopsis thaliana THI1."
Chabregas S.M., Luche D.D., Van Sluys M.A., Menck C.F., Silva-Filho M.C.
J. Cell Sci. 116:285-291(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: ALTERNATIVE INITIATION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, MUTAGENESIS OF MET-1 AND MET-70.
[8]"Proteomic study of the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplastic envelope membrane utilizing alternatives to traditional two-dimensional electrophoresis."
Froehlich J.E., Wilkerson C.G., Ray W.K., McAndrew R.S., Osteryoung K.W., Gage D.A., Phinney B.S.
J. Proteome Res. 2:413-425(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
[9]"Point mutation is responsible for Arabidopsis tz-201 mutant phenotype affecting thiamin biosynthesis."
Papini-Terzi F.S., Galhardo R.S., Farias L.P., Menck C.F., Van Sluys M.A.
Plant Cell Physiol. 44:856-860(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF ALA-184, INDUCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[10]"Functional characterization of the thi1 promoter region from Arabidopsis thaliana."
Ribeiro D.T., Farias L.P., de Almeida J.D., Kashiwabara P.M., Ribeiro A.F., Silva-Filho M.C., Menck C.F., Van Sluys M.A.
J. Exp. Bot. 56:1797-1804(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION.
[11]"The oligomeric stromal proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts."
Peltier J.-B., Cai Y., Sun Q., Zabrouskov V., Giacomelli L., Rudella A., Ytterberg A.J., Rutschow H., van Wijk K.J.
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 5:114-133(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
[12]"The chloroplast lumen and stromal proteomes of Arabidopsis thaliana show differential sensitivity to short- and long-term exposure to low temperature."
Goulas E., Schubert M., Kieselbach T., Kleczkowski L.A., Gardestroem P., Schroeder W., Hurry V.
Plant J. 47:720-734(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
[13]"Sorting signals, N-terminal modifications and abundance of the chloroplast proteome."
Zybailov B., Rutschow H., Friso G., Rudella A., Emanuelsson O., Sun Q., van Wijk K.J.
PLoS ONE 3:E1994-E1994(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
[14]"AT_CHLORO, a comprehensive chloroplast proteome database with subplastidial localization and curated information on envelope proteins."
Ferro M., Brugiere S., Salvi D., Seigneurin-Berny D., Court M., Moyet L., Ramus C., Miras S., Mellal M., Le Gall S., Kieffer-Jaquinod S., Bruley C., Garin J., Joyard J., Masselon C., Rolland N.
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 9:1063-1084(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
[15]"Megadalton complexes in the chloroplast stroma of Arabidopsis thaliana characterized by size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry, and hierarchical clustering."
Olinares P.D., Ponnala L., van Wijk K.J.
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 9:1594-1615(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
Strain: cv. Columbia.
[16]"Saccharomyces cerevisiae THI4p is a suicide thiamine thiazole synthase."
Chatterjee A., Abeydeera N.D., Bale S., Pai P.J., Dorrestein P.C., Russell D.H., Ealick S.E., Begley T.P.
Nature 478:542-546(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: DIDEHYDROALANINE FORMATION AT CYS-216.
[17]"The upregulation of thiamine (vitamin B1) biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under salt and osmotic stress conditions is mediated by abscisic acid at the early stages of this stress response."
Rapala-Kozik M., Wolak N., Kujda M., Banas A.K.
BMC Plant Biol. 12:2-2(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INDUCTION.
[18]"Structure of the thiazole biosynthetic enzyme THI1 from Arabidopsis thaliana."
Godoi P.H., Galhardo R.S., Luche D.D., Van Sluys M.A., Menck C.F., Oliva G.
J. Biol. Chem. 281:30957-30966(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (1.6 ANGSTROMS) OF 49-328 IN COMPLEX WITH ADT, SUBUNIT, MUTAGENESIS OF ASP-77; ASP-85; GLY-121; TRP-124; LYS-172; ALA-184; HIS-211 AND GLU-266.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
U17589 mRNA. Translation: AAC97124.1.
AB005232 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB08756.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED96539.1.
AF419604 mRNA. Translation: AAL31936.1.
AF428355 mRNA. Translation: AAL16285.1.
AF428385 mRNA. Translation: AAL16153.1.
AY054216 mRNA. Translation: AAL06876.1.
AY058094 mRNA. Translation: AAL24202.1.
AY143082 mRNA. Translation: AAN12914.1.
PIRS71191.
RefSeqNP_200288.1. NM_124858.3. [Q38814-1]
UniGeneAt.24888.

3D structure databases

PDBe
RCSB-PDB
PDBj
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1RP0X-ray1.60A/B49-328[»]
ProteinModelPortalQ38814.
SMRQ38814. Positions 51-328.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid20811. 3 interactions.
IntActQ38814. 1 interaction.
MINTMINT-8071157.
STRING3702.AT5G54770.1-P.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbQ38814.
PRIDEQ38814.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsAT5G54770.1; AT5G54770.1; AT5G54770. [Q38814-1]
GeneID835567.
KEGGath:AT5G54770.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRAT5G54770.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGCOG1635.
HOGENOMHOG000106048.
InParanoidQ38814.
KOK03146.
OMALMNATAV.
PhylomeDBQ38814.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCycMetaCyc:AT5G54770-MONOMER.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatorQ38814.

Family and domain databases

HAMAPMF_03158. THI4.
InterProIPR027495. Sti35.
IPR002922. Thi4_fam.
[Graphical view]
TIGRFAMsTIGR00292. TIGR00292. 1 hit.
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

EvolutionaryTraceQ38814.

Entry information

Entry nameTHI4_ARATH
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q38814
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: June 11, 2014
This is version 110 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

PDB cross-references

Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references

Arabidopsis thaliana

Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names