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Q38814

- THI4_ARATH

UniProt

Q38814 - THI4_ARATH

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Protein

Thiamine thiazole synthase, chloroplastic

Gene

THI1

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Involved in biosynthesis of the thiamine precursor thiazole. Catalyzes the conversion of NAD and glycine to adenosine diphosphate 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole-2-carboxylic acid (ADT), an adenylated thiazole intermediate. The reaction includes an iron-dependent sulfide transfer from a conserved cysteine residue of the protein to a thiazole intermediate. The enzyme can only undergo a single turnover, which suggests it is a suicide enzyme. May have additional roles in adaptation to various stress conditions and in DNA damage tolerance.2 PublicationsUniRule annotation

Cofactori

Fe cationUniRule annotationNote: Binds 1 Fe cation per subunit.UniRule annotation

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Binding sitei94 – 941Substrate; via amide nitrogen
Binding sitei122 – 1221Substrate; via amide nitrogen
Binding sitei187 – 1871Substrate; via amide nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen
Binding sitei218 – 2181Substrate
Binding sitei233 – 2331Substrate
Binding sitei285 – 2851Substrate; via amide nitrogen

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. protein homodimerization activity Source: TAIR
  2. zinc ion binding Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  1. cellular response to DNA damage stimulus Source: TAIR
  2. oxazole or thiazole biosynthetic process Source: TAIR
  3. response to cold Source: TAIR
  4. thiamine biosynthetic process Source: TAIR
  5. thiazole biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB-HAMAP
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Thiamine biosynthesis

Keywords - Ligandi

Iron, Metal-binding, NAD

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:AT5G54770-MONOMER.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Thiamine thiazole synthase, chloroplasticUniRule annotation
Alternative name(s):
Thiazole biosynthetic enzymeUniRule annotation
Gene namesi
Name:THI1UniRule annotation
Synonyms:ARA6, THI4
Ordered Locus Names:At5g54770
ORF Names:MBG8.3
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
ProteomesiUP000006548: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G54770.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. chloroplast Source: TAIR
  2. chloroplast envelope Source: TAIR
  3. chloroplast stroma Source: TAIR
  4. cytosol Source: UniProtKB-HAMAP
  5. mitochondrion Source: TAIR
  6. stromule Source: TAIR
  7. thylakoid Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chloroplast, Mitochondrion, Plastid

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi1 – 11M → I: No chloroplastic isoform produced. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi70 – 701M → I: No mitochondrial isoform produced. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi77 – 771D → G: No effect. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi85 – 851D → G: No effect. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi121 – 1211G → V: Disrupts thiamine biosynthesis. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi124 – 1241W → L: No effect. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi172 – 1721K → M: No effect. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi184 – 1841A → V in tz-201; disrupts thiamine biosynthesis. 2 Publications
Mutagenesisi211 – 2111H → F: Disrupts thiamine biosynthesis and DNA damage tolerance activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi266 – 2661E → G: Disrupts thiamine biosynthesis. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Transit peptidei1 – 5555ChloroplastAdd
BLAST
Chaini56 – 349294Thiamine thiazole synthase, chloroplasticPRO_0000034060Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei216 – 21612,3-didehydroalanine (Cys)

Post-translational modificationi

During the catalytic reaction, a sulfide is transferred from Cys-216 to a reaction intermediate, generating a dehydroalanine residue.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ38814.
PRIDEiQ38814.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed at high levels in chloroplast-containing parenchymatic cells of leaves, inflorescence shoots and flowers, and at lower levels in the vascular system. In young plants, detected in roots and shoots including cotyledons, leaves and hypocotyls. Also observed in apical meristematic regions, siliques and embryos. Low expression in roots, limited to the vascular tissue.3 Publications

Developmental stagei

Expressed throughout develpoment.1 Publication

Inductioni

Up-regulated by osmotic and salt stresses and by abscisic acid treatment. No effect of thiamine, salicylic acid or paraquat treatments. Down-regulated by dark incubation.3 Publications

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriQ38814.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homooctamer.1 PublicationUniRule annotation

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi20811. 3 interactions.
IntActiQ38814. 1 interaction.
MINTiMINT-8071157.
STRINGi3702.AT5G54770.1-P.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
349
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Helixi63 – 8119Combined sources
Beta strandi83 – 897Combined sources
Helixi93 – 10311Combined sources
Beta strandi110 – 1189Combined sources
Turni121 – 1244Combined sources
Beta strandi133 – 1364Combined sources
Turni137 – 1393Combined sources
Helixi140 – 1467Combined sources
Beta strandi154 – 1607Combined sources
Helixi162 – 17413Combined sources
Beta strandi179 – 1835Combined sources
Beta strandi185 – 1939Combined sources
Beta strandi196 – 2049Combined sources
Helixi205 – 2084Combined sources
Turni211 – 2133Combined sources
Beta strandi220 – 22910Combined sources
Beta strandi233 – 2353Combined sources
Turni236 – 2394Combined sources
Helixi240 – 2478Combined sources
Beta strandi250 – 2523Combined sources
Beta strandi258 – 2603Combined sources
Helixi262 – 27211Combined sources
Beta strandi274 – 2774Combined sources
Beta strandi280 – 2823Combined sources
Helixi285 – 2917Combined sources
Helixi301 – 31717Combined sources
Turni323 – 3264Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1RP0X-ray1.60A/B49-328[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ38814.
SMRiQ38814. Positions 51-328.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ38814.

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni114 – 1152Substrate binding
Regioni295 – 2973Substrate binding

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi86 – 894Poly-Val

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the THI4 family.UniRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Transit peptide

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG1635.
HOGENOMiHOG000106048.
InParanoidiQ38814.
KOiK03146.
OMAiLMNATAV.
PhylomeDBiQ38814.

Family and domain databases

HAMAPiMF_03158. THI4.
InterProiIPR027495. Sti35.
IPR002922. Thi4_fam.
[Graphical view]
TIGRFAMsiTIGR00292. TIGR00292. 1 hit.

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative initiation. Align

Isoform chloroplastic (identifier: Q38814-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAAIASTLSL SSTKPQRLFD SSFHGSAISA APISIGLKPR SFSVRATTAG
60 70 80 90 100
YDLNAFTFDP IKESIVSREM TRRYMTDMIT YAETDVVVVG AGSAGLSAAY
110 120 130 140 150
EISKNPNVQV AIIEQSVSPG GGAWLGGQLF SAMIVRKPAH LFLDEIGVAY
160 170 180 190 200
DEQDTYVVVK HAALFTSTIM SKLLARPNVK LFNAVAAEDL IVKGNRVGGV
210 220 230 240 250
VTNWALVAQN HHTQSCMDPN VMEAKIVVSS CGHDGPFGAT GVKRLKSIGM
260 270 280 290 300
IDHVPGMKAL DMNTAEDAIV RLTREVVPGM IVTGMEVAEI DGAPRMGPTF
310 320 330 340
GAMMISGQKA GQLALKALGL PNAIDGTLVG NLSPELVLAA ADSAETVDA
Length:349
Mass (Da):36,664
Last modified:November 1, 1996 - v1
Checksum:iF872AB061A23CB22
GO
Isoform mitochondrial (identifier: Q38814-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-69: Missing.

Note: Mitochondrial precursor. Contains a mitochondrial presequence-like structure at its N-terminus.

Show »
Length:280
Mass (Da):29,362
Checksum:iF7CBEDD149301E40
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei1 – 6969Missing in isoform mitochondrial. CuratedVSP_044533Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U17589 mRNA. Translation: AAC97124.1.
AB005232 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB08756.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED96539.1.
AF419604 mRNA. Translation: AAL31936.1.
AF428355 mRNA. Translation: AAL16285.1.
AF428385 mRNA. Translation: AAL16153.1.
AY054216 mRNA. Translation: AAL06876.1.
AY058094 mRNA. Translation: AAL24202.1.
AY143082 mRNA. Translation: AAN12914.1.
PIRiS71191.
RefSeqiNP_200288.1. NM_124858.3. [Q38814-1]
UniGeneiAt.24888.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G54770.1; AT5G54770.1; AT5G54770. [Q38814-1]
GeneIDi835567.
KEGGiath:AT5G54770.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative initiation

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U17589 mRNA. Translation: AAC97124.1 .
AB005232 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB08756.1 .
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED96539.1 .
AF419604 mRNA. Translation: AAL31936.1 .
AF428355 mRNA. Translation: AAL16285.1 .
AF428385 mRNA. Translation: AAL16153.1 .
AY054216 mRNA. Translation: AAL06876.1 .
AY058094 mRNA. Translation: AAL24202.1 .
AY143082 mRNA. Translation: AAN12914.1 .
PIRi S71191.
RefSeqi NP_200288.1. NM_124858.3. [Q38814-1 ]
UniGenei At.24888.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
Entry Method Resolution (Å) Chain Positions PDBsum
1RP0 X-ray 1.60 A/B 49-328 [» ]
ProteinModelPortali Q38814.
SMRi Q38814. Positions 51-328.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi 20811. 3 interactions.
IntActi Q38814. 1 interaction.
MINTi MINT-8071157.
STRINGi 3702.AT5G54770.1-P.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbi Q38814.
PRIDEi Q38814.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsi AT5G54770.1 ; AT5G54770.1 ; AT5G54770 . [Q38814-1 ]
GeneIDi 835567.
KEGGi ath:AT5G54770.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRi AT5G54770.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGi COG1635.
HOGENOMi HOG000106048.
InParanoidi Q38814.
KOi K03146.
OMAi LMNATAV.
PhylomeDBi Q38814.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyci MetaCyc:AT5G54770-MONOMER.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTracei Q38814.

Gene expression databases

Genevestigatori Q38814.

Family and domain databases

HAMAPi MF_03158. THI4.
InterProi IPR027495. Sti35.
IPR002922. Thi4_fam.
[Graphical view ]
TIGRFAMsi TIGR00292. TIGR00292. 1 hit.
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Thi1, a thiamine biosynthetic gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, complements bacterial defects in DNA repair."
    Machado C.R., de Oliveira R.L., Boiteux S., Praekelt U.M., Meacock P.A., Menck C.F.
    Plant Mol. Biol. 31:585-593(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM CHLOROPLASTIC), FUNCTION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  2. "Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. I. Sequence features of the 1.6 Mb regions covered by twenty physically assigned P1 clones."
    Sato S., Kotani H., Nakamura Y., Kaneko T., Asamizu E., Fukami M., Miyajima N., Tabata S.
    DNA Res. 4:215-230(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  3. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM CHLOROPLASTIC).
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "Identification of agthi1, whose product is involved in biosynthesis of the thiamine precursor thiazole, in actinorhizal nodules of Alnus glutinosa."
    Ribeiro A., Praekelt U., Akkermans A.D.L., Meacock P.A., van Kammen A., Bisseling T., Pawlowski K.
    Plant J. 10:361-368(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  6. "Dual targeting properties of the N-terminal signal sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana THI1 protein to mitochondria and chloroplasts."
    Chabregas S.M., Luche D.D., Farias L.P., Ribeiro A.F., van Sluys M.A., Menck C.F., Silva-Filho M.C.
    Plant Mol. Biol. 46:639-650(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, ALTERNATIVE INITIATION.
  7. "Differential usage of two in-frame translational start codons regulates subcellular localization of Arabidopsis thaliana THI1."
    Chabregas S.M., Luche D.D., Van Sluys M.A., Menck C.F., Silva-Filho M.C.
    J. Cell Sci. 116:285-291(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: ALTERNATIVE INITIATION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, MUTAGENESIS OF MET-1 AND MET-70.
  8. "Proteomic study of the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplastic envelope membrane utilizing alternatives to traditional two-dimensional electrophoresis."
    Froehlich J.E., Wilkerson C.G., Ray W.K., McAndrew R.S., Osteryoung K.W., Gage D.A., Phinney B.S.
    J. Proteome Res. 2:413-425(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  9. "Point mutation is responsible for Arabidopsis tz-201 mutant phenotype affecting thiamin biosynthesis."
    Papini-Terzi F.S., Galhardo R.S., Farias L.P., Menck C.F., Van Sluys M.A.
    Plant Cell Physiol. 44:856-860(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF ALA-184, INDUCTION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  10. Cited for: DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION.
  11. Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  12. "The chloroplast lumen and stromal proteomes of Arabidopsis thaliana show differential sensitivity to short- and long-term exposure to low temperature."
    Goulas E., Schubert M., Kieselbach T., Kleczkowski L.A., Gardestroem P., Schroeder W., Hurry V.
    Plant J. 47:720-734(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  13. "Sorting signals, N-terminal modifications and abundance of the chloroplast proteome."
    Zybailov B., Rutschow H., Friso G., Rudella A., Emanuelsson O., Sun Q., van Wijk K.J.
    PLoS ONE 3:E1994-E1994(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  14. "AT_CHLORO, a comprehensive chloroplast proteome database with subplastidial localization and curated information on envelope proteins."
    Ferro M., Brugiere S., Salvi D., Seigneurin-Berny D., Court M., Moyet L., Ramus C., Miras S., Mellal M., Le Gall S., Kieffer-Jaquinod S., Bruley C., Garin J., Joyard J., Masselon C., Rolland N.
    Mol. Cell. Proteomics 9:1063-1084(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  15. "Megadalton complexes in the chloroplast stroma of Arabidopsis thaliana characterized by size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry, and hierarchical clustering."
    Olinares P.D., Ponnala L., van Wijk K.J.
    Mol. Cell. Proteomics 9:1594-1615(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  16. "Saccharomyces cerevisiae THI4p is a suicide thiamine thiazole synthase."
    Chatterjee A., Abeydeera N.D., Bale S., Pai P.J., Dorrestein P.C., Russell D.H., Ealick S.E., Begley T.P.
    Nature 478:542-546(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: DIDEHYDROALANINE FORMATION AT CYS-216.
  17. "The upregulation of thiamine (vitamin B1) biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under salt and osmotic stress conditions is mediated by abscisic acid at the early stages of this stress response."
    Rapala-Kozik M., Wolak N., Kujda M., Banas A.K.
    BMC Plant Biol. 12:2-2(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INDUCTION.
  18. "Structure of the thiazole biosynthetic enzyme THI1 from Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Godoi P.H., Galhardo R.S., Luche D.D., Van Sluys M.A., Menck C.F., Oliva G.
    J. Biol. Chem. 281:30957-30966(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (1.6 ANGSTROMS) OF 49-328 IN COMPLEX WITH ADT, SUBUNIT, MUTAGENESIS OF ASP-77; ASP-85; GLY-121; TRP-124; LYS-172; ALA-184; HIS-211 AND GLU-266.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTHI4_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q38814
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1997
Last sequence update: November 1, 1996
Last modified: November 26, 2014
This is version 112 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3